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Encyclopedia > Polatsk

Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: Połock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. It is the center of Polatsk district in Vitsebsk voblast. The population is approximately 79,000 residents. Polatsk Coat of Arms. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia and Belarus, to drain into the Gulf of Riga, an arm of the Baltic Sea at Riga, Latvia. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Belarus ...

Contents


History

The Old East Slavic name, Polotesk, is derived from the Polota river, that flows into Dvina nearby. The Vikings rendered that name as Palteskja, or Paltejsborg. // Terminology Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between 10th and 14th century in Old Ruthenia and its successor states. ... Polota ([Po-lo-tä], Belarusian: Палата́ (Palata)) is a tributary of Dvina. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia and Belarus, to drain into the Gulf of Riga, an arm of the Baltic Sea at Riga, Latvia. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ...


Polatsk is one of the most ancient cities of the Eastern Slavs. It was mentioned for the first time by the Primary Chronicle in 862, together with Murom and Beloozero. The Norse sagas describe the city as the most heavily fortified in all of Rus. The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from around 850 to 1110. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Murom downtown sprawls along the bank of the Oka Murom (Муром) is a historic city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls majestically along the left bank of Oka River, about 300 km east of Moscow. ... Belozersk cathedral in 1909. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: sögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of early Ruthenian (Eastern...


Between the 10th and 12th centuries, the principality of Polatsk emerged as the dominant center of power in what is now Belarusian territory, with a lesser role played by the principality of Turaw to the south. It repeatedly asserted its sovereignty in relation to other centers of Kievan Rus, becoming a political capital, the episcopal see and the controller of vassal territories among Balts in the west. Its most powerful ruler was prince Vseslav Bryachislavich (reigned from 1044 to 1101). ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Turaw (Belarusian Ту́раў, Russian Ту́ров, Polish Turów, also transliterated as Turov) is a town in Zhytkavichy district of Homel voblast of Belarus. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ... Usiaslau Bryachislavich (also Vseslav also Usiaslau the sorcerer, ca. ...

View of Polotsk in 1912
View of Polotsk in 1912

Polatsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1307, and it is said to have been the main center of trade in the state. The Magdeburg law was adopted in 1498. Captured by the Russian army of Ivan the Terrible in 1563, it was returned to Poland just 15 years later. That period of warfare started the gradual decline of the city. After the first partition of Poland Polatsk degraded to the status of a small provincial town of the Russian Empire. View of Polotsk from the other bank of the Polota river. ... View of Polotsk from the other bank of the Polota river. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... // Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Events Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Quelimane and Moçambique in southeastern Africa. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Cultural heritage

The city's Cathedral of Saint Sophia (1044-1066) was a symbol of the independent-mindedness of Polatsk, rivaling churches of the same name in Novgorod and Kyiv and referring to the original Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (and thus to claims of imperial prestige, authority and sovereignty). The present baroque building, however, dates from the mid-18th century. Some genuine 12th-century architecture survives in the convent of Saint Euphrosyne, which also features a large neo-Byzantine cathedral, designed by Konstantin Thon. Events King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan, Myanmar Births Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as The Cid (d. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Greek Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Annunciation church in St. ...


Cultural achievements of the medieval period include the work of the nun Euphrosyne of Polatsk (1120-1173), who built monasteries, transcribed books, promoted literacy and sponsored art (including local artisan Lazarus Bohsha's famous "Cross of Euphrosyne," a national symbol and treasure lost during World War II), and the prolific, original Church Slavonic sermons and writings of Bishop Cyril of Turaw (1130-1182). Euphrosyne (sometimes spelled Efrasinnia) of Polatsk (or Polacak, Polotsk) (Belarusian: Эўфрасі́ньня По́лацкая) was the granddaughter of a prince of Polacak, Usiaslau. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas a Becket, buried at Canterbury August 9th - Construction starts on the Leaning tower of Pisa Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cyril of Turaŭ (1130 - 1182) (Belarusian: Кіры́ла Ту́раўскі, Kiryla Turaŭski) was an Orthodox Christian bishop and saint in the Orthodox Church. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark Serbia allies itself with Hungary to gain independence First Sejm, or Polish Parliment, convenes at Łęczyca Jews expelled from Paris by Philip Augustus Maronites reestablish their affiliation with Catholicism Venetians massacred during a riot in Constantinople Raynald of Chatillon instigates another war between...


Belarusan first printer Francysk Skaryna was born in Polatsk around 1490. He is famous for the first printing of the Bible in an East Slavic language (in the Old Ruthenian) in 1517, several decades after the first ever printed book by Johann Gutenberg and just several years after the first Czech Bible (1506). Francysk Skaryna (or Skoryna; the first name also spelled as Francis, Franciszak, Frantsiszak, Francisk, Frantzisk; Belarusian: Франці́шак Скары́на) was a Belarusian famous for being the printer of the first book in an Eastern Slavic language. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... The name Old Ruthenian language has been applied to the Old East Slavic language which was the language of Old Ruthenia, spoken from the 9th to 14th centuries. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // Events Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. ...


In September 2003, as "Days of Belarusian Literacy" were celebrated for the 10th time in Polacak, city authorities opened a monument to honor the unique Cyrillic Belarusian letter Ў, which is not used in any other Slavic language. The original idea for the monument came from the Belarusian calligraphy professor Paval Siemchanka who has been studying Cyrillic scripts for many years. Short U (Ў, ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the short semi-vowel /u^/ in the Belarusian language. ...


Princes of Polotsk

See List of Belarusian rulers History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Duchy of Polacak. ...


Various

A crater on Mars is named Polotsk. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...


See also

This article or section should be merged with Krivichs Kryvian (Krivian, Kriwi) - of or pertaining to the Kryvichy (be: Крывічы), a confederation of prehistoric tribes whose area of settlement included what is now north-eastern Belarus and western Russia. ... Vladimir and Rogneda (1770). ... Usiaslau Bryachislavich (also Vseslav also Usiaslau the sorcerer, ca. ...

External links

  • Polacak
  • Photos on Radzima.org
  • Polotsk.net

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (1053 words)
It was established around the ancient town of Polatsk by the tribal union of Krivichs, and existed from the 9th to the 13th centuries.
Polatsk's Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Polatsk (built by Vseslav between 1044 and 1066) was a symbol of the independent-mindedness of Polatsk, rivaling churches of the same name in Novgorod and Kiev and referring to the original Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (and thus to claims of imperial prestige, authority and sovereignty).
The Principality of Polatsk escaped the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237-1239.
Polatsk - Definition, explanation (486 words)
It is the center of Polatsk district in Vitsebsk voblast.
Polatsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1307, and it is said to have been the main center of trade in the state.
The city's Cathedral of Saint Sophia (1044-1066) was a symbol of the independent-mindedness of Polatsk, rivaling churches of the same name in Novgorod and Kyiv and referring to the original Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (and thus to claims of imperial prestige, authority and sovereignty).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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