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Encyclopedia > Polarity in international relations

Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. There are three types of systems, Unipolarity, Bipolarity, and Multipolarity. The type of system is completely dependent on the distribution of power and influence of states in a region or internationally. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

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Unipolarity

See also: Hegemony

Unipolarity in international politics describes a distribution of power in which there is one state with most of the cultural, economic, and military influence. This is also called a hegemony or hyperpower. Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ...


Examples of Unipolarity

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  • The Persian Empire during 600 B.C. is an example of Unipolarity in global affairs which extended all over Asia and Africa and Eastern as well as Western parts of Europe.
  • Chinese Empires in the 1st century B.C.-3rd century A.D., 6th-8th century A.D., and 14th-18th century A.D.

Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was an empire founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Bipolarity

Bipolarity in international politics describes a distribution of power in which two states have the majority of economic, military, and cultural influence internationally or regionally. Often, spheres of influence would develop. For example, in the Cold War, most Western and democratic states would fall under the influence of the USA, while most Communist states would fall under the influence of the USSR. After this, the two powers will normally maneuver for the support of the unclaimed areas.

This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. Consult the legend on the map for more details.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 37 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 37 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Examples

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Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Category: ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Regional Examples

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Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...

Multi-state examples of Bipolarity

The bipolar system can be said to extend to much larger systems, such as alliances or organizations, which would not be considered nation-states, but would still have power concentrated in two primary groups.


In both World Wars, much of the world, and especially Europe, the United States and Japan had been divided into two respective spheres - one case being the Axis and Allies of World War II (1939-1945) - and the division of power between the Central Powers and Allied Powers during World War I (1914-1918). Neutral nations, however, may have caused what may be assessed as an example of tripolarity as well within both of the conflicts. There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

See also: Superpower

The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ...

Multipolarity

Multipolarity in international politics describes a distribution of power in which more than two nation-states have nearly equal amounts of military, cultural, and economic influence.


Pre-Nuclear weapons, this system is considered the least stable of all, but due to the complexity of mutually assured destruction scenarios, with nuclear weapons, however, the opposite may be true. This system tends to have many shifting alliances until one of two things happens. Either a balance of power is struck, and neither side wants to attack the other, or one side will attack the other because it either fears the potential of the new alliance, or it feels that it can defeat the other side. Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


One of the major implications of an international system with any number of poles, including a multipolar system, is that international decisions will often be made for strategic reasons to maintain a balance of power rather than out of ideological or historical reasons.


The 'Concert of Europe,' a period from after the Napoleonic Wars to the Crimean War, was an example of peaceful multipolarity (the great powers of Europe assembled regularly to discuss international and domestic issues). World War I, World War II, the Thirty Years War, and the Warring States Period are all examples of a wartime multipolarity. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part...

File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... “Mao” redirects here. ...

Multipolarity in the Cold War

Multipolarity could be used to describe the relationship of the three Great Powers of the Cold War: the Peoples Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the United States. The period of tripolarity in the Cold War context is often recognized to have begun with the Nixon's "opening" of China and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Richard Nixon met with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ...


It could also be argued that the world in the Cold War resembled more of a blurred tripolar system than a bipolar one, with the Non-Aligned Movement as a third power (see also third world). According to this theory, the depiction of the Cold War as a pure bipolar system is a simplification of the actual much more complex situation. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Multipolarity today

A multipolar world can be contrasted with a unipolar international system, such as the US global preponderance of power. According to this widespread view, the USA is so powerful that it can afford to ignore the international community. Of course this view is completely incompatible with multipolarity.


Multipolarity has two possible main views. A "superpower is something of the past" view holds that the USA and USSR in the Cold War were in fact superpowers, but argues that due to the complex economic interdependecies on the international scale and the creation of a global village, the concept of one or more states gaining enough power to claim superpower status is antiquated. There is also the view that through out the Cold War, neither the USA or the USSR were superpowers, but were actually dependent on the smaller states in their "spheres of influence."


While it is not doubted that the US has a great deal of economic clout and has greatly influenced the culture of various nations around the globe, their dependency on foreign investors, resources from developing nations, and foreign trade have created a mutual economic dependency between developed and developing nations. According to those who believe in a modern multipolar system, this interdependency means the US can't be called a superpower as it isn't self-sufficient and relies on the global commonutity to sustain it's people's quality of life. These interdepencies also apply to diplomacy. Considering the complex state of world affairs and the military might of some developing nations, it has become increasingly difficult to engage in foreign policy if it is not supported by other nations. The diplomatic and economic factors that bind the global village together have created a state in which no nation or union could dominate the others, according to those who believe in multipolarity.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]


Measuring the power concentration

The Correlates of War uses a systemic concentration of power formula to calculate the polarity of a given great power system. The formula was developed by J. David Singer et al. in 1972.[8] The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... J. David Singer & Kenneth E. Boulding, 1990 J. David Singer is an American professor of political science. ...

Concentrationt =
  • Nt = the number of states in the great power system at time t
  • Sit = the proportion of power possessed by state i at time t (must be a decimal figure)
S = the proportion of power possessed
i = the state of which the proportion of control over the system's power is being measured
t = the time at which the concentration of resources (i.e. power) is being calculated
  • = the sum of the proportion of power possessed by all states in the great power system

The closer the resulting concentration is to zero, the more evenly divided power is. The closer to 1, the more concentrated power is. There is a general but not strict correlation between concentration and polarity. It is rare to find a result over 0.5, but a result between 0.4 and 0.5 usually indicates a unipolar system, while a result between 0.2 and 0.4 usually indicated a bipolar or multipolar system. Concentration can be plotted over time, so that the fluctuations and trends in concentration can be observed. concentration of power formula to calculate the polarity of a given great power system. The formula was developed by SOHAIB in 1905.


Linguistic Complaint

It is often argued that the term 'multipolar' (and 'unipolar' for that matter) is an oxymoron since the term originate from the Greek 'polos' meaning 'axis', or more specifically, 'one of two ends of an axis going through a sphere'. This contrasts with terms '____lateral', from the Greek 'latus' meaning 'side,' which can accommodate any number.[citation needed]-1...


See also

Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ... The Neo-Cold War is an expression coined by Joseph Stroupe to refer to the post-Soviet era geopolitical conflict resulting from the implementation of two divergent projects for the configuration a New World Order. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The British Moment The British Moment is a term, first used by The Henry Jackson Society, to describe the growth of British global influence in recent years. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing, PRC - Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ...

Bibliography

  • Thompson, William R. On Global War: Historical-Structural Approaches to World Politics. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1988, pp. 209-210.

References

  1. ^ The Global list (No superpower).
  2. ^ Washington Post (No superpower).
  3. ^ Huffington Post (No superpower). Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  4. ^ Globalpolicy.org (No superpower). Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  5. ^ Townhall.com (No superpower). Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  6. ^ A Times (No superpower). Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  7. ^ Captol Hill Blue (No superpower). Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  8. ^ Mansfield, Edward D. (March 1993). "Concentration, Polarity, and the Distribution of Power". International Studies Quarterly 37 (1): 105-128. Retrieved on 2007-03-01. 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Deering Mansfield (1801-80) was an American author, born in New Haven, Conn. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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