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Encyclopedia > Polar region
Location of the polar regions
Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple.

Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles also known as frigid zones. The North Pole and South Pole being the centers, these regions are dominated by the polar ice caps, resting respectively on the Arctic Ocean and the continent of Antarctica. Polar sea ice is currently diminishing, possibly as a result of anthropogenic global warming. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 50 KB) Summary Map indicating the worlds polar regions (i. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 50 KB) Summary Map indicating the worlds polar regions (i. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The torrid zone The temperate zones The frigid zones Each of the five main latitude regions of the earths surface is said to be a geographical zone, divided by the major circles of latitude. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected...

Contents

Definitions

The Arctic has numerous definitions, including the region north of the Arctic Circle (66-33N), or the region north of 60 degrees north latitude, or the region from the North Pole south to the timberline. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...


The Antarctic is usually defined as south of 60 degrees south latitude, or the continent of Antarctica. The 1959 Antarctic Treaty uses the former definition. Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ...


Climate

Main article: Polar climate

|Solar radiation in polar regions has a lower intensity because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area.]] Polar regions receive less intense solar radiation because the sun's energy arrives at an oblique angle, spreading over a larger area, and also travels a longer distance through the Earth's atmosphere in which it may be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


The axial tilt of the Earth has a major effect on climate of the polar regions. Since the polar regions are the farthest from the equator, they receive the least amount of sunlight and are therefore frigid. The large amount of ice and snow also reflects a large part of what little sunlight the Polar regions receive, contributing to the cold. Polar regions are characterized by the polar climate, extremely cold temperatures, heavy glaciation wherever there is sufficient precipitation to form permanent ice, and extreme variations in daylight hours, with twenty-four hours of daylight in summer (the midnight sun), and darkness at mid-winter. In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... Figure 1 This is a diagram of the seasons. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


Circumpolar Arctic Region

See also: North Pole

There are many settlements in Earth's north polar region. Countries with claims to arctic regions are: the United States (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, and Russia. Arctic circumpolar populations often share more in common which each other than with other populations within their national boundaries. As such, the northern polar region is diverse in human settlements and cultures. For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


Antarctica and the Southern Ocean

See also: Antarctica

The southern polar region has no permanent human habitation. McMurdo Station is the largest research station in Antarctica, run by the United States. Other notable stations include Palmer Station and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (United States), Esperanza Base and Marambio Base (Argentina), Scott Base (New Zealand), and Vostok Station (Russia). McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... Palmer Station Palmer Station, located on Anvers Island (), is Antarcticas only U.S. station north of the Antarctic Circle. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... The Argentine Base Esperanza (Spanish Hope Base) is located at 63°24′ S 56°59′ W, Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula. ... Base Antártica Marambio is the main Argentine base in Antarctica, and it is located at the Seymour-Marambio Island, at , some 100 km (88 mi) from Esperanza Base. ... Aerial photograph of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica. ... Ice cores drilled at Vostok, with a portion of the station behind Vostok Station (Russian: ) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station located near the South Geomagnetic Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ...


While there are no indigenous human cultures, there is a complex ecosystem, especially along Antarctica's coastal zones. Coastal upwelling provides abundant nutrients which feeds krill, a type of marine crustacea, which in turn feeds a complex of living creatures from penguins to blue whales. Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine...


Non-Earth Polar Regions

Other planets and natural satellites in the solar system have interesting quirks about their polar regions. Earth's Moon is thought to contain substantial deposits of ice in deep craters in its polar regions, which never see direct sunlight. Mars, like Earth, has polar ice caps. On Uranus, meanwhile, the extreme tilt of the planet's axis leads to the poles alternately pointing almost directly at the Sun. The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Mars has a reasonably well studied climate, starting in earnest with the Viking program in 1975 and continuing with such probes as the highly successful Mars Global Surveyor. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Sol redirects here. ...


See also

Antarctic

Antarctica is one of eight terrestrial ecozones. ... Territorial claims of Antarctica List of Antarctica expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. ... Photo of Booth Island in Antarctica [1] higher resolution copy The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic, comes from glacial meltpee from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Arctic

The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ...

Polar

A geographical pole is either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body spins. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... The torrid zone The temperate zones The frigid zones Each of the five main latitude regions of the earths surface is said to be a geographical zone, divided by the major circles of latitude. ... Polar drift is a geological phenomenon caused by variations in the flow of molten iron (magma) in Earths outer core, resulting in changes in the orientation of Earths magnetic field, and hence the position of the magnetic north pole. ... Polar exploration Polar Explorers Roald Amundsen Robert Falcon Scott Robert Peary Fridtjof Nansen Category: ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ...

External links

  • Polar regions at the Open Directory Project
  • The Polar Regions
  • International Polar Foundation
  • Arctic Environmental Atlas (UNDP)
  • Earth's Polar Regions on Windows to the Universe
  • Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution
  • WWF:The Polar Regions
  • World Environment Day 2007 "Melting Ice" image gallery at The Guardian

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Gallery


  Results from FactBites:
 
NASA - Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region (592 words)
The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.
The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap.
Second, both parts of the basal unit are depleted in ice, except for triangle-shaped regions on the side of the scarp.
Polar region - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (247 words)
Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles, north of the Arctic circle, or south of the Antarctic Circle.
They are characterised by the polar climate, extremely cold temperatures, heavy glaciation, and extreme variations in daylight hours, with 24 hour daylight in summer (the midnight sun), and permanent darkness at mid-winter.
The North Pole and South Pole being the centres, these regions are dominated by the polar ice caps, resting respectively on ocean and the continent of Antarctica.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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