A **polar orbit** is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. It therefore has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees to the equator. Except in the special case of a polar geosynchronous orbit, a satellite in a polar orbit will pass over the equator at a different longitude on each of its orbits. Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...
For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ...
For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ...
World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses IlhÃ©u das Rolas, in SÃ£o TomÃ© and PrÃncipe. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ...
Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ...
Polar orbits are often used for earth-mapping-, earth observation- and reconnaissance satellites, as well as some weather satellites. The disadvantage to this orbit is that no one spot on the Earth's surface can be sensed continuously from a satellite in a polar orbit. Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ...
A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ...
GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ...
A satellite can hover over one polar area a large part of the time, albeit at a large distance, using a polar highly elliptical orbit with its apogee above that area. This is the principle behind a Molniya orbit. Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit characterized by a relatively low-altitude perigee and an extremely high-altitude apogee. ...
This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...
Molniya orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of +/-63. ...
## See also
The following is a list of types of orbits: // Box orbit Circular orbit Ecliptic orbit Elliptic orbit Highly Elliptical Orbit Graveyard orbit Hohmann transfer orbit Hyperbolic trajectory Inclined orbit Osculating orbit Parabolic trajectory Capture orbit Escape orbit Semi-synchronous orbit Subsynchronous orbit Synchronous orbit Geocentric orbit Geosynchronous orbit Geostationary orbit...
Vandenberg Air Force Base is a base with a spaceport, located in Santa Barbara County, California. ...
## External links - Orbital Mechanics (Rocket and Space Technology)
Orbits | Types | General | Box · Circular · Non-inclined · Elliptic (Highly Elliptical) · Graveyard · Hyperbolic trajectory · Inclined · Osculating · Parabolic trajectory · Capture · Escape · Semi-synchronous · Subsynchronous · Synchronous · Parking Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...
In stellar dynamics a box orbit refers to a particular type of orbit which can be seen in triaxial systems, that is, systems which do not possess a symmetry around any of its axes. ...
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a circular orbit is an elliptic orbit with the eccentricity equal to 0. ...
A non-inclined orbit is an orbit which is contained in the plane of reference. ...
Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ...
Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit characterized by a relatively low-altitude perigee and an extremely high-altitude apogee. ...
A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ...
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a hyperbolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity greater than 1. ...
A geostationary orbit occurs when an object (satellite) is placed 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the Earths equator with the characteristic that, from a fixed observation point on the Earths surface, it appears motionless. ...
In Astronomy, and in particular in Astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space is the gravitational Keplerian orbit about a central body which best approximates the (more complex) motion of the object at a given instant in time. ...
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. ...
A capture orbit is the high-energy parabolic orbit that allows the capture other than crashing directly to the central bodys surface (or atmospheric re_entry). ...
An escape orbit (also known as C3 = 0 orbit) is the high-energy parabolic orbit around the central body. ...
Semi-Synchronous Orbit (SSO): An orbit with approximately a 12-hour period. ...
Unsurprisingly similar to synchronous orbit, this orbit is at a slightly different distance from the Earth, resulting in the satellite drifting slowly eastward. ...
A synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body. ...
A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe. ...
| Geocentric | Geosynchronous · Geostationary · Sun-synchronous · Low Earth · Medium Earth · Molniya · Near equatorial · Moon · **Polar** · Tundra Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ...
Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0Â° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ...
By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ...
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ...
Intermediate circular orbit (ICO), also called medium earth orbit (MEO), is used by satellites between the altitudes of low earth orbit (up to 1400 km) and geostationary orbit (ca. ...
Molniya orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of +/-63. ...
A near equatorial orbit is an orbit that lies close to the equatorial plane of the object orbited. ...
The orbit of the Moon around the Earth is completed in approximately 27. ...
Tundra orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63. ...
| Other | | | Parameters | | **Classical orbital elements** Inclination Longitude of the ascending node Eccentricity Areosynchronous orbits are class of synchronous orbits for artificial satellites around the planet Mars. ...
An areostationary orbit (abbreviated ASO) is a circular areoÂsynchronous orbit in the Martian equatorial plane 11,000 km above the surface, any point on which revolves about Mars in the same direction and with the same period as the Martian surface. ...
A halo orbit is an orbit around a Lagrange point between two larger bodies. ...
In orbital mechanics, a Lissajous orbit is a quasi-periodic orbital trajectory an object can follow around a colinear libration point of a two-body system without requiring any propulsion. ...
In astronomy, lunar orbit refers just to the orbit of the Moon around the Earth. ...
A heliocentric orbit is an orbit around the sun. ...
By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ...
The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ...
For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ...
The Longitude of the ascending node (â˜Š, also noted Î©) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ...
(This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ...
| Argument of periapsis Semi-major axis Mean anomaly at epoch The argument of periapsis (Ï‰) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and...
The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ...
In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ...
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ...
| **Other parameters** True anomaly Semi-minor axis Linear eccentricity Eccentric anomaly In astronomy, the true anomaly (, also written ) is the angle between the direction z-s of periapsis and the current position p of an object on its orbit, measured at the focus s of the ellipse (the point around which the object orbits). ...
In geometry, the semi-minor axis (also semiminor axis) applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ...
(This page refers to eccentricity in mathematics. ...
The eccentric anomaly is the angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit, projected onto the ellipses circumscribing circle perpendicularly to the major axis, measured at the centre of the ellipse. ...
| Mean longitude True longitude Orbital period In astrodynamics or celestial dynamics mean longitude of an orbiting body is . ...
In astrodynamics true longitude is a . ...
The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...
| | | Maneuvers | Bi-elliptic transfer · Geostationary transfer · Gravity assist · Hohmann transfer · Inclination change · Phasing · Rendezvous An orbital maneuver is a change from one orbit to another, accomplished by applying thrust. ...
In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Bi-elliptic transfer is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another and may, in certain situations require less delta-v than a Hohmann transfer. ...
A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ...
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot is the use of the motion of a planet to alter the path and speed of an interplanetary spacecraft. ...
In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that, under standard assumption, moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. ...
Orbital inclination change is a orbital maneuver aimed at changing inclination of orbiting bodys orbit. ...
In astrodynamics orbital phasing is the adjustment of the time-position of spacecraft along its orbit, usually described as adjusting the orbiting spacecrafts true anomaly. ...
A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ...
| Related topics | Apsis · Celestial coordinate system · Delta-v budget · Epoch · Ephemeris · Equatorial coordinate system · Gravity turn · Ground track · Interplanetary Transport Network · Kepler's laws of planetary motion · Lagrangian point · n-body problem · Oberth effect · Orbit equation · Orbital state vectors · Perturbation · Retrograde and direct motion · Specific orbital energy · Specific relative angular momentum A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ...
In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a coordinate system for mapping positions in the sky. ...
Delta-v budget (or velocity change budget) is a term used in astrodynamics and aerospace industry for velocity change (or delta-v) requirements for the various propulsive tasks and orbital maneuvers over phases of the space mission. ...
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ...
An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) (from the Greek word ephemeros = daily) is a device giving the positions of astronomical objects in the sky. ...
The equatorial coordinate system is probably the most widely used celestial coordinate system, whose equatorial coordinates are: declination () right ascension () -also RA-, or hour angle () -also HA- It is the most closely related to the geographic coordinate system, because they use the same fundamental plane, and the same poles. ...
ï»¿A gravity turn is a maneuver used in launching spacecraft into, and descending from, orbits around a celestial body such as a planet or a moon. ...
Ground track of the International Space Station for approximately two periods. ...
Artists concept of the Interplanetary Transport Network. ...
Johannes Keplers primary contributions to astronomy/astrophysics were his three laws of planetary motion. ...
A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ...
This article is about the problem in classical mechanics. ...
The Oberth effect is a feature of astronautics where using a rocket engine close to a gravitational body gives a higher final speed than the same burn executed further from the body. ...
In astrodynamics an orbit equation defines the path of orbiting body around central body relative to , without specifying position as a function of time. ...
In astrodynamics or celestial dynamics orbital state vectors (sometimes State Vectors) are vectors of position () and velocity () that together with their time (epoch) () uniquely determine the state of an orbiting body. ...
Perturbation is a term used in astronomy to describe alterations to an objects orbit caused by gravitational interactions with other bodies. ...
Direct motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called prograde motion. ...
In astrodynamics the specific orbital energy (or vis-viva energy) of an orbiting body traveling through space under standard assumptions is the sum of its potential energy () and kinetic energy () per unit mass. ...
In astrodynamics specific relative angular momentum () of orbiting body () relative to central body () is the relative angular momentum of per unit mass. ...
| List of orbits | |