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Encyclopedia > Polar ice cap
Polar Ice Cap on Mars, seen by the Hubble Telescope

A polar ice cap is a high-latitude region of a planet or moon that is covered in ice. There are no requirements with respect to size or composition for a body of ice to be termed a polar ice cap, nor any geological requirement for it to be over land; only that it must be a body of solid phase matter in the polar region. This causes the term 'polar ice cap' to be somewhat of a misnomer, as the term ice cap itself is applied with greater scrutiny as such bodies must be found over land, and possess a surface area of less than 50,000 km²: larger bodies are referred to as ice sheets. NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 533 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 675 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)lol add d g k twinz on runescape. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 533 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 675 pixel, file size: 34 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)lol add d g k twinz on runescape. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... This article is about water ice. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... An ice cap is a dome-shaped ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 square kilometers (12 million acres). ...


The composition of the ice will vary. For example Earth's polar ice caps are mainly water ice, while Mars's polar ice caps are a mixture of solid phase carbon dioxide and water ice. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Polar ice caps form because high-latitude regions receive less energy in the form of solar radiation from the sun than equatorial regions, resulting in lower surface temperatures. This article is about the geographical term. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Sol redirects here. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The historical temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans throughout history, and in particular since 1850. ...


The polar ice caps have changed dramatically over the last 20 years. According to prevalent scientific theory, this change can be attributed to global warming resulting from climate change caused largely by the burning of fossil fuels. Seasonal variations of the ice caps takes place due to varied solar energy absorption as the planet or moon revolves around the sun. Additionally, in geologic time scales, the ice caps may grow or shrink due to climate variation. See ice age, polar climate. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ...

Contents

Earth

North Pole

A satellite composite image of Antarctica

Earth's north pole is covered by floating pack ice (sea ice) over the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic ice pack. Portions of the ice that don't melt seasonally can get very thick, up to 3–4 meters thick over large areas, with ridges up to 20 meters thick. One-year ice is usually about a meter thick. The area covered by sea ice ranges between 9 and 12 million km². In addition, the Greenland ice sheet covers about 1.71 million km² and contains about 2.6 million km³ of ice. [1] Download high resolution version (1282x1100, 257 KB) this is an image of antarticta from space File links The following pages link to this file: Antarctica ... Download high resolution version (1282x1100, 257 KB) this is an image of antarticta from space File links The following pages link to this file: Antarctica ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the... Outline Map of Greenland with ice sheet depths. ...


While the International Panel on Climate Change 2001 report predicted that the North polar ice cap would last to 2100 in spite of global warming caused by climate change, the dramatic reduction in the size of the ice cap during the northern summer of 2007 has led some scientists to estimate that there will be no ice at the North Pole by 2030 with devastating effects on the environment. [2] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP. Its... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Other scientists such as Wieslaw Maslowski, a professor at the Naval Postgraduate School, estimate that there will be no summer ice by as soon as 2013. He argues that this projection is already too conservative as his dataset did not include the minima of 2005 and 2007. [3] The Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, United States is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. ...


South Pole

The land mass of the Earth's south pole, in Antarctica, is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet. It covers an area of almost 14 million km² and contains 25-30 million km³ of ice. Around 70% of the fresh water on the Earth is held in this ice sheet. In addition, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet covers 3.2 million km² and the Ross Ice Shelf covers 0.5 million km². See Climate of Antarctica. For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... A satellite composite image of Antarctica The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) blankets the continent of Antarctica west of the Transantarctic Mountains, covering the area called Lesser Antarctica. The WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies well below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... Surface temperature of Antarctica in winter and summer The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on earth, with the lowest temperature ever recorded on earth being -89. ...


Global warming has increased the volume of summer meltwater on glaciers, which has weakened ice shelves. The dramatic collapses of The Prince Gustav Channel, Larsen Inlet, Larsen A, Wordie, Muller, and the Jones Ice Shelf show the impacts of climate change on the Antarctic ice cap. [4] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The Prince Gustav Channel () was named in 1903 after Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden (later King Gustav V) by Otto Nordenskiöld of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition. ... Larsen A and Larsen B iceshelves marked in red The Larsen Ice Shelf () is a long, fringing ice shelf in the northwest part of the Weddell Sea, extending along the east coast of Antarctic Peninsula from Cape Longing to the area just southward of Hearst Island. ... The Wordie Ice Shelf (69º15´S 067º45´W) is a confluent glacier projecting as an ice shelf into the SE part of Marguerite Bay between Cape Berteaux and Mount Edgell, along the western coast of Antarctic Peninsula. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Mars

Main articles: Planum Australe and Planum Boreum
Mars's north polar region with ice cap, composite of Viking 1 orbiter images (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech)

The planet Mars also has polar ice caps, but they consist of frozen carbon dioxide as well as water. The ice caps change with the Martian seasons-the carbon dioxide ice sublimes in summer, uncovering a surface of layered rocks, and then reforms in winter. These polar ice caps are one of the main reasons that people believe that life exists on Mars. Planum Australe, taken by Mars Global Surveyor. ... Viking mosaic of Planum Boreale and surrounds. ... North Polar region of Mars; http://photojournal. ... North Polar region of Mars; http://photojournal. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASAs Viking program, and holds the record for the longest Mars surface mission. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The JPL complex in Pasadena, Ca. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Sublimation of an element or substance is a conversion between the solid and the gas phases with no intermediate liquid stage. ...


See also

Polar ice packs NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the...


References

  1. ^ NSIDC Arctic Sea Ice News Fall 2007. nsidc.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  2. ^ Arctic ice cap to melt faster than feared, scientists say. seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  3. ^ Arctic summers ice-free 'by 2013'. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  4. ^ Antarctic Ice Shelf Collapse Blamed on Warming Climate. ens-newswire.com/. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polar ice cap - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (478 words)
A polar ice cap or polar ice sheet is a high-latitude region of a planet or moon that is covered in ice.
Earth's polar ice caps are mainly water ice, while Mars's polar ice caps are a mixture of carbon dioxide ice and water ice.
Polar ice caps form because high-latitude regions receive less energy in the form of solar radiation from the sun than equatorial regions, resulting in lower surface temperatures.
ipedia.com: Ice age Article (1411 words)
An ice age is a period of long-term downturn in the temperature of Earth 's climate, resulting in an expansion of the polar ice cap...
An ice age is a period of long-term downturn in the temperature of Earth's climate, resulting in an expansion of the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers ("glaciation").
The present ice ages are the most studied and best understood, particularly the last 400,000 years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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