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Encyclopedia > Polar bear
Polar Bear

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ursus
Species: U. maritimus
Binomial name
Ursus maritimus
Phipps, 1774

Polar bear range
Synonyms

Ursus eogroenlandicus
Ursus groenlandicus
Ursus jenaensis
Ursus labradorensis
Ursus marinus
Ursus polaris
Ursus spitzbergensis
Ursus ungavensis
Thalarctos maritimus Polar Bear can refer to: Polar Bear, the animal Three music groups known as Polar Bear: Polar Bear (rock), the side-project of Janes Addiction bassist Eric Avery Polar Bear (jazz), a British jazz band Snow Patrol, who were known as Polarbear until they were contacted by Eric Avery... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (934x595, 92 KB) A polar bear. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Species Ursus is a genus in the family Ursidae (bears) that includes the widely distributed brown bears and black bears (including the Polar Bear). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Constantine John Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave (May 19, 1744 - October 10, 1792) was an English explorer. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a bear native to the Arctic. Polar bears and Kodiak bears are the world's largest land carnivores, with most adult males weighing 300-600 kg (660-1320 lb); adult females are about half the size of males. Its fur is hollow and translucent, but usually appears as white or cream colored, thus providing the animal with effective camouflage. Its skin is actually black in color. Its thick blubber and fur insulate it against the cold. The bear has a short tail and small ears that help reduce heat loss, as well as a relatively small head and long, tapered body to streamline it for swimming. For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos middendorffi (Ord, 1815) Kodiak bear distribution map The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) is a unique subspecies of the brown bear. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ...


A semi-aquatic marine mammal, the polar bear has adapted for life on a combination of land, sea, and ice,[2] and is the apex predator within its range.[3] It feeds mainly on seals, young walruses, and whales, although it will eat anything it can kill. A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the animal. ...


The polar bear is a vulnerable species at high risk of extinction. Zoologists and climatologists believe that the projected decreases in the polar sea ice due to global warming will reduce their population by two thirds by mid-century.[4][1][5][6] Local long-term studies show that 7 out of 19 subpopulations are declining or already severely reduced.[7][8] In the USA, the Center for Biological Diversity petitioned to up-list the legal conservation status of polar bears to threatened species in 2005.[9] This petition is still under review. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The Center for Biological Diversity combines conservation biology with litigation, policy advocacy, and an innovative strategic vision to secure a future for animals and plants hovering on the brink of extinction, for the wilderness they need to survive, and by extension for the spiritual welfare of generations to come. ...

Contents

Physiology

Size and weight

Polar bears rank with the Kodiak bear as among the largest living land carnivores, and male polar bears may weigh twice as much as a Siberian tiger. Most adult males weigh 350–650 kg (770–1500+ lb) and measure 2.5–3.0 m (8.2–9.8 ft) in length. Adult females are roughly half the size of males and normally weigh 150–250 kg (330–550 lb), measuring 2–2.5 m (6.6–8.2 ft), but double their weight during pregnancy.[10][11] The great difference in body size makes the polar bear among the most sexually dimorphic of mammals, surpassed only by the eared seals.[12] At birth, cubs weigh only 600–700 g or about a pound and a half. The largest polar bear on record was a huge male, allegedly weighing 1002 kg (2200 lb) shot at Kotzebue Sound in northwestern Alaska in 1960.[13] Trinomial name Ursus arctos middendorffi (Ord, 1815) Kodiak bear distribution map The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) is a unique subspecies of the brown bear. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur Tiger, it is considered to be the largest of the 6 tiger subspecies. ... Kg redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in form between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Genera Arctocephalus Callorhinus Eumetopias Neophoca Otaria Phocarctos Zalophus The eared seals (or walking seals), family Otariidae, are the fur seals and the sea lions. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Fur and skin

A Polar Bear resting.

A polar bear's fur provides camouflage and insulation. Although the fur appears white, in fact the individual hairs are translucent, like the water droplets that make up a cloud; the coat may yellow with age. Stiff hairs on the pads of a bear's paws provide insulation and traction on the ice. For the information on its source, see de:Eisbär, or [1]Miya 08:06, 19 Oct 2004 (UTC) Alternative image: zh-min-nan:Image:Peh-him (Ursus maritinus). ... For the information on its source, see de:Eisbär, or [1]Miya 08:06, 19 Oct 2004 (UTC) Alternative image: zh-min-nan:Image:Peh-him (Ursus maritinus). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ...


Polar bears gradually molt their hair from May to August;[14] however, unlike other Arctic mammals, polar bears do not shed their coat for a darker shade to camouflage themselves in the summer habitat. It was once conjectured that the hollow guard hairs of a polar bear coat acted as fiber-optic tubes to conduct light to its black skin, where it could be absorbed - a theory disproved by recent studies.[15] Guard hairs are the longest, thickest hairs in a mammals coat, forming the topcoat (or outer coat). ...

An infrared image of a polarbear.

The thick undercoat does, however, insulate the bears: they overheat at temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F), and are nearly invisible under infrared photography; only their breath and muzzles can be easily seen.[10] When kept in captivity in warm, humid conditions, it is not unknown for the fur to turn a pale shade of green. This is due to algae growing inside the guard hairs — in unusually warm conditions, the hollow tubes provide an excellent home for algae. Whilst the algae is harmless to the bears, it is often a worry to the zoos housing them, and affected animals are sometimes washed in a salt solution, or mild peroxide bleach to make the fur white again. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in...


The guard hair is 5-15 cm over most of the body of polar bears.[16] However, in the forelegs, males have significantly longer, increasing in length until 14 years of age. The ornamental foreleg hair is suggested as a form of an attractive trait for females, likened to the lion mane.[12] For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ...


Allen's rule

The polar bears ears and tail are smaller than other bears, and its legs are stocky, as expected from Allen's rule for a northerly animal. Its feet are very large, however, presumably to distribute load like snowshoes when walking on snow or thin ice. Allens rule is a biological rule posited by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877. ... For the town and ski resort in West Virginia, see Snowshoe, West Virginia. ...


Disease

The bears sometimes have problems with various skin diseases with dermatitis caused sometimes by mites or other parasites. The bears are especially susceptible to Trichinella, a parasitic roundworm they contract through cannibalism.[17] Sometimes excess heavy metals have been observed, as well as ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning. Bears exposed to oil and petroleum products lose the insulative integrity of their coats, forcing metabolic rates to dramatically increase to maintain body heat in their challenging environment. Bacterial Leptospirosis, rabies and morbillivirus have been recorded. Interestingly, the bears are thought by some to be more resistant than other carnivores to viral disease.[citation needed] The pollutant effect on the bears' immune systems, however, may end up decreasing their ability to cope with the naturally present immunological threats it encounters, and in such a challenging habitat even minor weaknesses can lead to serious problems and quick death. Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Species see text Morbillivirus is a genus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. ...


Evolution

Speciation

The ursidae family is believed to have differentiated from other carnivora about 38 million years ago. The ursinae genus originated some 4 million years ago. According to both fossil and DNA evidence, the polar bear diverged from the brown bear roughly 200 thousand years ago. The oldest known polar bear fossil is less than 100 thousand years old. Fossils show that between 10 and 20 thousand years ago the polar bear's molar teeth changed significantly from those of the brown bear. For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ...


However, more recent genetic studies have shown that some clades of Brown Bear are more closely related to polar bears than to other brown bears, meaning that the polar bear is not a true species according to some species concepts.[18] In addition, polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids,[19][20] indicating that they have only recently diverged and are not yet truly distinct species. But neither species can survive long in the other's niche, and with distinctly different morphology, metabolism, social and feeding behaviors, and other phenotypic characters, the two bears are generally classified as separate species. Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... A grizzly–polar bear hybrid is a rare ursid hybrid that has occurred both in captivity and in the wild. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


A comparison of the DNA of various brown bear populations showed that the brown bears of Alaska's ABC islands shared a more recent common ancestor with polar bears than with any other brown bear population in the world.[21] Polar bears still have vestigial hibernation induction trigger in their blood, but they do not hibernate in the winter as the brown bear does. Only female polar bears enter a dormant state referred to as "denning" during pregnancy, though their body temperature does not decrease during this period as it would for a typical mammal in hibernation.[10][22] The ABC Islands is the colloquial name for the Alaskan islands of Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof in the Alexander Archipelago. ... Missing link is a term for a transitional form from the fossil record that connects an earlier species to a later one, or which connects two different species to an earlier ancestor. ... Hibernation induction trigger (hibernation inducement trigger or HIT) is a substance found in the blood of hibernating animals. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ...


Subspecies and Subpopulations

When the polar bear was originally documented, two subspecies were identified: Ursus maritimus maritimus by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, and Ursus maritimus marinus by Peter S. Pallas in 1776.[23] This distinction has since been invalidated. The IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group (PBSG), the pre-eminent international scientific body for research and management of polar bears, recognizes only one species distributed in nineteen discrete subpopulations across five countries.[7][8] Constantine John Phipps Constantine John Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave, PC (19 May 1744 – 10 October 1792) was an English explorer. ... Peter Simon Pallas Peter Simon Pallas (September 22, 1741, Berlin — September 8, 1811, Berlin) was a German zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia. ...

  1. Canadian Arctic Archipelago
  2. Greenland, Denmark
  3. Svalbard, Norway
  4. Central Siberia and Franz-Josef Land, Russia
  5. Alaska, USA

The 19 subpopulations show seasonal fidelity to geographic areas, but DNA studies show significant interbreeding among them.[24] World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Franz Josef Land (russ. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Habitat

A Polar Bear in Churchill, Manitoba
Three Polar Bears investigate the submarine USS Honolulu 280 miles (450 km) from the North Pole.
Mother and two cubs climbing up Guillemot Island, Ukkusiksalik National Park.

Though it spends time on land and ice, the polar bear is regarded as a marine mammal due to its intimate relationship with the sea.[10] The circumpolar species is found in and around the Arctic Ocean, its southern range limited by pack ice. Their southernmost point is James Bay in Canada. While their numbers thin north of 88 degrees, there is evidence of polar bears all the way across the Arctic. Population is estimated to be between 20,000 to 25,000.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (3762 × 2216 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (3762 × 2216 pixel, file size: 5. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1575, 896 KB) Three Polar bears approach the starboard bow of the Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine USS Honolulu (SSN 718) while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1575, 896 KB) Three Polar bears approach the starboard bow of the Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine USS Honolulu (SSN 718) while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole. ... USS Honolulu (SSN-718), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Honolulu, Hawaii. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1335 × 892 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1335 × 892 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ukkusiksalik National Park is a national park in Nunavut, Canada. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Circumpolar stars are those stars which are located near the celestial poles of the celestial sphere, i. ... James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ...


The main population centers are:

Their range is limited by the availability of sea ice which they use as a platform for hunting seals, the mainstay of their diet. Seals and polar bears tend to gather around fissures in the ice called polynyas.[25] The destruction of its habitat on the Arctic ice threatens the bear's survival as a species.[5][26][27][9][28] The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... Location of Franz Josef Land (Map is annotated in German). ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ...

Tourists watching Polar Bears from a "tundra buggy" near Churchill, Manitoba.

The most severe and topically recognized threats to the polar bear are the drastic changes taking place in their natural habitat, which is literally melting away due to global warming.[6][29] The United States Geological Survey, for example, in November 2006, stated that the Arctic shrinkage in the Alaskan portion of the Beaufort Sea has led to a higher death rate for polar bear cubs.[30] Polar bears and Tundra Buggies just outside of Churchill, Manitoba File links The following pages link to this file: Churchill, Manitoba Categories: GFDL images ... Polar bears and Tundra Buggies just outside of Churchill, Manitoba File links The following pages link to this file: Churchill, Manitoba Categories: GFDL images ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Arctic shrinkage refers to the marked decrease in arctic ice levels in recent years. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ...


A 1999 study by scientists from the Canadian Wildlife Service of polar bears in the Hudson Bay showed that global warming is threatening polar bears with starvation. Rising temperatures cause the sea-ice from which the bears hunt to melt earlier in the year, driving them to shore weeks before they have caught enough food to survive the period of scarce food in the late summer and early fall[31] and leading to a 22% decline in the local subpopulation.[32] The Canadian Wildlife Service or CWS (French: Service canadien de la faune, SCF) is an agency of the Government of Canada, administered by the Department of the Environment, also known as Environment Canada. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


There is a photographically confirmed case from the beginning of the 20th century of a Svalbard polar bear drifting on ice as far south as the northern coast of the Norwegian mainland. It was found and killed near the village of Berlevag. More recent sightings in Berlevag, including one in the summer of 2005, remain unconfirmed.[citation needed]


Behaviour

Polar bears are enormous, aggressive, curious, and potentially dangerous to humans. Wild polar bears, unlike most other bears, are barely habituated to people and will quickly size up any animal they encounter as potential prey. Males are normally solitary except for mating season, and females are usually social towards one another. Despite a recurring internet meme that all polar bears are left-handed,[33][34] there is no scientific evidence to support such a contention. Researchers studying polar bears have failed to find any evidence of left-handedness in all bears and one study of injury paterns in polar bear forelimbs found injuries to the right forelimb to be more frequent than those to the left, suggesting, perhaps, right-handedness.[35]


Hunting, diet and feeding

The polar bear is the most carnivorous member of the bear family. It feeds mainly on seals, especially ringed seals that poke holes in the ice to breathe,[36] but will eat anything it can kill: birds, rodents, shellfish, crabs, beluga whales, young walruses, occasionally muskox or reindeer, and very occasionally other polar bears. Its biology is specialized to digest fat from marine mammals and cannot derive much nutrition from terrestrial food.[37],[38] Most animals can easily outrun a polar bear on the open land or in the open water, and polar bears overheat quickly: thus the polar bear subsists almost entirely on live seals and walrus calves taken at the edge of sea-ice in the winter and spring, or on the carcasses of dead adult walruses or whales. They live off of their fat reserves through the late summer and early fall when the sea-ice is at a minimum.[10] They are enormously powerful predators, but they rarely kill adult walruses, which are twice the polar bear's weight, although such an adult walrus kill has been recorded on tape.[1] Humans are the only regular predators of polar bears, although the bears have occasionally been found in the stomachs of Orcas.[39] As a carnivore which feeds largely upon fish-eating carnivores, the polar bear ingests large amounts of vitamin A, which is stored in their livers. The resulting high concentrations make the liver poisonous to humans, causing Hypervitaminosis A.[40] Though mostly carnivorous, they sometimes eat berries, roots, and kelp in the late summer. For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775) The Ringed Seal or Jar Seal (Pusa hispida formerly Phoca hispida) is an earless seal inhabiting the northern coasts. ... This article refers to the whale, beluga. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Caribou redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The effects of excessive vitamin A intake include: birth defects liver abnormalities, reduced bone mineral density that may result in osteoporosis coarse bone growths hair loss excessive skin dryness/peeling Signs of acute toxicity include nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of muscular coordination. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

Polar bear diving in a zoo.

Polar bears are excellent swimmers and have been seen in open Arctic waters as far as 60 miles (100 km) from land. In some cases they spend half their time on ice floes. Their 12 cm (5 in) layer of fat adds buoyancy in addition to insulating them from the cold. Recently, polar bears in the Arctic have undertaken longer than usual swims to find prey, resulting in four recorded drownings in the unusually large ice pack regression of 2005.[41] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (1293 × 909 pixel, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (1293 × 909 pixel, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Swimmer redirects here. ...


Like other bear species, they have developed a liking for garbage as a result of human encroachment, and frequented the dump in Churchill, Manitoba prior to its closure.[42] Polar bears eat nearly anything they find, including hazardous substances such as styrofoam, plastic, car batteries, ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and motor oil.[43][44] To protect the bears, the Churchill dump was closed in 2006. Garbage is now recycled or transported to Thompson, Manitoba.[45] Waste inside a wheelie bin Waste in a bin bag Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Most car batteries are lead-acid batteries. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of mineral oils, water-based or water used as the medium in hydraulic systems. ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... The City of Thompson, Hub of the North is the regional trade and service centre of Northern Manitoba. ...


Polar bears accumulate high levels of artificial halocarbons such as PCBs and pesticides because of their diet. Their position at the top of the food pyramid tends to concentrate pollutants, particularly halocarbons because of their lipophilicity: halocarbons are soluble in the blubber which makes up the bulk of the polar bear's diet. Halocarbons are known to be toxic to other animals because they mimic hormone chemistry, and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears. The overall significance to population health is uncertain because of unique features of polar bear biology such as summertime fasting. PCBs have received the most study, and they have been associated with birth defects and immune system deficiency.[46] Polar bears in Svalbard have the highest concentrations of PCBs, and biologists suggest this may explain the high incidence of hermaphroditic bears in the area.[47] If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... An ecological pyramid. ... ... Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Molecular surface of an IgG molecule Immunoglobulin G(IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains γ and two light chains. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ...


The relevant chemicals have been classified as persistant organic pollutants by the UN, with the aim of discouraging their production. The most notorious of these, PCBs, DDT and other, have been banned, but their concentrations in polar bear tissues continued to rise for decades as these chemicals spread upwards on the food pyramid. The most recent data now indicates a decreasing trend.[48] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ...


Breeding

Mother with cub at Svalbard
A mother and cubs in Churchill, Manitoba

Polar bears mate in April/May over a one week period needed to induce ovulation. The fertilized egg then remains in a suspended state until August or September. During these 4 months, the females then eat prodigial amounts in preparation for pregnancy, doubling their body weight or more. When food becomes scarce in August because of ice breakup, they dig a maternity den in a snow drift and enter a dormant state similar to hibernation. In areas where food is available year-round, they may not enter a den until October. Cubs are born in December without awakening the mother. She remains dormant while nursing her cubs until the family emerges from the den in March. Cubs are weaned at two or three years of age and are separated from their mother. Sexual maturity typically comes at the age of four, but may be delayed by up to two years.[10] Image File history File links Polar bear mother and cup, Liefdefjord, Svalbard, by Michael Haferkamp, july 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Polar bear mother and cup, Liefdefjord, Svalbard, by Michael Haferkamp, july 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (3602 × 2426 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (3602 × 2426 pixel, file size: 5. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


In the 1990's less than 20% cubs in the Western Hudson Bay were weaned at eighteen months, as opposed to 40% of cubs in the early 1980's.[31] A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ...


In Alaska, the United States Geological Survey reports that 42 percent of cubs now reach 12 months of age, down from 65 percent 15 years ago.[30] In other words, less than two of every three cubs that survived 15 years ago are now making it past their first year. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ...


The USGS has also published research which purports that the percentage of Alaskan polar bears that den on sea ice has changed from 62% between the years 1985-1994, to 37% over the years 1998-2004. The Alaskan population thus now more resembles the world population, in that it is more likely to den on land.[49]


Conservation status

Projected change in polar bear habitat from 2001–2010 to 2041–2050. From USGS

The World Conservation Union listed polar bears as a vulnerable species, one of three sub-categories of threatened status, in May 2006.[50] Their latest estimate is that 7 out of 19 subpopulations are declining or already severely reduced.[7] The United States Geological Survey forecasts that two-thirds of the world's polar bears will disappear by 2050, based on moderate projections for the shrinking of summer sea ice caused by global warming.[4] The bears would disappear from Europe, Asia, and Alaska, and be depleted from the Arctic archipelago of Canada and areas off the northern Greenland coast. By 2080 they would disappear from Greenland entirely and from the northern Canadian coast, leaving only dwindling numbers in the interior Arctic archipelago.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... 2050 (MML) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ...


Global warming has already had an impact on polar bear population health and size. Recent declines in polar bear numbers can be linked to the retreat of sea ice and its formation later in the year. Ice is also breaking up earlier in the year, forcing bears ashore before they have time to build up sufficient fat stores, or forcing them to swim long distances, which may exhaust them, leading to drowning.[41] The results of these effects of global warming have been thinner, stressed bears, decreased reproduction, and lower juvenile survival rates. [51]

Polar bear

Because of the inaccessibility of the arctic, there has never been a comprehensive global survey of polar bears, making it difficult to establish a global trend. The earliest preliminary estimates of the global population were around 5,000-10,000 in the early 1970s, but this was revised to 20,000-40,000 in the 1980s.[10] Part of this increase may indicate recovery as a result of conservation measures implemented in the early 1970s, but it is principally a revised estimate based on a growing base of data.[10] Current estimates bound the global population between 20,000-25,000.[7] Long-term studies of local populations of polar bears show they have been shrinking in the Western Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay areas, and are under stress in the Southern Beaufort Sea area.[8][9] In the Western Hudson Bay in Canada, for example, there were an estimated 1194 polar bears in 1987, and 935 in 2004.[32] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3131x2370, 260 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hair Polar Bear Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3131x2370, 260 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hair Polar Bear Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


The need for species protection has been disputed by two professionals: H. Sterling Burnett and Mitchell K. Taylor. Burnett, a Senior Fellow of the right-wing advocacy group National Center for Policy Analysis, has claimed that the total global population of polar bears increased from 5,000 to 25,000 between the 1970s and 2007.[52] Mitchell Taylor, the Nunavut Government Manager of Wildlife Research, wrote a letter to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service arguing that local studies are insufficient evidence for global protection at this time.[53] These two people have attracted disproportionate media attention, even though their views are refuted by all polar bear scientists.[54],[55] The National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) is a non-partisan, non-profit think tank that develops and promotes private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...

First polar bear shot in the S. A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition of 1897.

Hunters from around the arctic have harvested hundreds of polar bears annually since at least the 18th century.[10] The harvest grew rapidly in the 1960's, peaking around 1968 with a global total of 1250 bears that year.[56] Although the polar bear was not deemed endangered at the time, the growing threat encouraged countries to regulate polar bear hunting around that time. Norway passed a series of increasingly strict regulations from 1965 to 1973. Canada began imposing hunting quotas in 1968. The U.S. began regulating in 1971 and adopted the Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972. In 1973 the International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears (known as the Oslo Agreement among experts) was signed by the five nations whose Arctic territory is inhabited by polar bears: U.S., Canada, Norway, Denmark (via its territory Greenland) and Russia (then the Soviet Union). Although the agreement is not enforceable in itself, member countries agreed to place restrictions on recreational and commercial hunting, completely ban hunting from aircraft and icebreakers), and conduct further research.[57],[58] The treaty allows hunting "by local people using traditional methods," although this has been liberally interpreted by member nations. All nations except Norway allow hunting by the Inuit, and Canada and Denmark allow trophy hunting by tourists.[citation needed] Image File history File links Polar. ... Image File history File links Polar. ... S. A. Andrée and Knut Frænkel with the crashed balloon on the pack ice, photographed by the third expedition member, Nils Strindberg. ... The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Congress defines take as “harass, hunt, capture... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. ...


Many environmental and animal protection groups fear that global warming will have a tremendous impact on the viability of polar bear populations and fear that continued trophy hunting will have further negative consequences.[59]


Canada

Play fight

About 60% of the world's polar bears live in Canada.[8] Conservation laws are a provincial jurisdiction. Hunting quotas and restrictions relating to Indian status are in effect, but vary by province. About 500 bears are killed per year by humans across Canada,[60] a rate believed by scientists to be unsustainable in some areas, notably Baffin Bay.[8] Canada has allowed recreational hunters accompanied by local guides and dog-sled teams since 1970,[61] but the practice was not common until the 1980's.[62] Conservation initiatives now conflict with northern resident's income from fur trade and recreational hunting, which can bring in $20,000 to $35,000 Canadian dollars per bear, mostly from American hunters.[63] Inuit are skeptical of conservation concerns because of increases in bear sightings near settlement in recent years.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 566 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1450 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 566 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1450 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


The territory of Nunavut accounts for 80% of Canadian kills.[60] Their government has condemned the American initiative to grant threatened status to polar bears,[64] and northern residents are strongly concerned about it. [65] In 2005 the Government of Nunavut increased the quota from 400 to 518 bears,[66] despite protests from some scientific groups.[67] While most of that quota is hunted by the indigenous Inuit people, a growing share (spiking to 22% in 1997) is sold to recreational hunters.[62] Nunavut polar bear biologist, M.K. Taylor, who is responsible for polar bear conservation in the territory, insists that bear numbers are being sustained under current hunting limits.[53] For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


The Government of the Northwest Territories maintain their own quota of 72 - 103 bears within the Inuvialuit communities of which some are set aside for sports hunters. For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ...


United States

Polar bears at the Detroit Zoo.

Because many marine mammal populations had plummeted due to over-hunting, the United States passed the federal Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972, which prohibited the harassment, injuring or killing of all marine mammal species, including polar bears. This prohibited the importation of polar bear trophies into the U.S. by sport hunters.[68] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 1. ... The Detroit Zoo is located in Royal Oak and Huntington Woods, Michigan, USA. The Detroit Zoological Society, a non-profit organization, operates both the Detroit Zoo and the Belle Isle Nature Zoo, located in the city of Detroit. ... The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Congress defines take as “harass, hunt, capture...


In 1994, the United States modified the Marine Mammal Protection Act, allowing the importation of sport-hunted polar bear trophies into the country and clearing the way for an increase in polar bear hunting. Since 1994, more than 800 sport-hunted polar bear trophies have been imported into the U.S.[69] In May 2007, legislation was introduced in both houses of the United States Congress (H.R. 2327, called the Polar Bear Protection Act) to reverse the 1994 legislation and ban the importation of dead polar bears.[70]. On June 27 this legislation was defeated in congress and not passed. [71]


In February 2005 the environmental group, Center for Biological Diversity, with broad support from environmentalists, petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), part of the Department of the Interior to use the Endangered Species Act and list the bears as a threatened species.[9][72] The FWS did not respond to the petition, despite being required to do so within 90 days under United States law.[72] On 14 December 2006 the Center for Biological Diversity along with Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council filed a lawsuit in California.[73] The Center for Biological Diversity combines conservation biology with litigation, policy advocacy, and an innovative strategic vision to secure a future for animals and plants hovering on the brink of extinction, for the wilderness they need to survive, and by extension for the spiritual welfare of generations to come. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) [1] is a leftist, New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and Los Angeles. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


On December 27, 2006, the United States Department of the Interior in agreement with the three groups proposed that polar bears be added to the endangered species list, the first change of this type to be attributed to global warming. It will take up to a year to make the final determination.[74] The Natural Resources Defense Council contends that though it is "a big step forward" the proposal fails to identify global warming pollution as the cause of rising Arctic temperatures and vanishing sea ice. In addition, it says the proposal offered by Dr. Rosa Meehan, Supervisor of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, does not designate any of the land discussed as the kind of habitat that is essential for the polar bear's survival as "critical habitat" that could help the bear recover.[75][76] December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Russia

Russia declared a complete protection in 1955,[10] but allows hunting by the indigenous people on the basis that it is part of their culture. It signed the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Conservation and Management of the Alaska-Chukotka Polar Bear Population in October 2000.


Denmark

Until 2005, Greenland placed no limit on hunting by indigenous people. In 2005, it imposed a limit of 150 for 2006. It also allowed recreational hunting for the first time.[77]


Norway

Since 1973, Norway has had a complete ban on polar bear hunting.


Entertainment and commerce

Polar bears have been made both controversial and famous for their distinctive white fur and their habitat. Companies like Coca-Cola, Polar Beverages, Nelvana, Bundaberg Rum and Good Humor-Breyers have used images of this bear in logos. The first has consistently displayed the bears as thriving near penguins, though the animals naturally live in opposite hemispheres. The Canadian 2-dollar coin (right) features the image of a polar bear. The panserbjørne of the fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials are polar bears with human-level intelligence. The TV series Lost has featured polar bears on a mysterious tropical island where they are portrayed as fearsome beasts. Also, a polar bear was chosen as mascot for the 1988 Winter Olympics held in Calgary, Canada. The Polar Bear is the mascot of Bowdoin college. The Northwest Territories of Canada have a licence plate in the shape of a polar bear. East, a young adult book by prolific writer Edith Pattou weaves a story around a mysterious ice bear held in an enchantment by The Troll Queen. East is a an ALA Notable Book and is a retelling of the classic story of Beauty and the Beast Canadian two-dollar coin (toonie), reverse, 2004, high-res File links The following pages link to this file: Toonie Categories: Currency images ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Polar Beverages, founded in 1916, is the largest independent soft drink bottling company in the United States and is based in Worcester, Massachusetts. ... Nelvana Limited is a Canadian entertainment company, founded in 1971, that is well-known for its work in childrens animation, among many things. ... Bundaberg Rum is a dark rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, often referred to as Bundy. Bundaberg Rum was first produced 1888 after some local sugar millers proposed using the excess molasses produced in their mills to make rum. ... The Klondike bar is a brand name for a dessert generally consisting of a vanilla ice cream square coated with a thin layer of chocolate. ... This article is about penguin birds. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... Toonie (sometimes spelled twoonie or twonie) is the nickname Canadians collectively gave their two-dollar coin; it is a portmanteau word combining the number two with the name of the loonie, Canadas one-dollar coin. ... In Philip Pullmans His Dark Materials novels, the Panserbjørne (armoured bears in Danish) are large polar bears which are most of times covered in a invulnerable cloud-iron armor. ... The trilogy (U.K versions), in order of succession from left to right. ... LOST redirects here. ... The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and opened by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé. The Olympics were highly successful financially as they brought in million-dollar profits. ... Bowdoin College is a liberal arts college located in Brunswick, Maine. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... A license plate, licence plate, number plate or registration plate (often referred to simply as a plate, or colloquially tag) is a small metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... Edith Pattou is the author of several fantasy novels, including East (novel), an ALA Top Ten Best Book for Young Adults. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has more pictures of: Polar bears

Image File history File links Camera. ... The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ... A grizzly-polar bear hybrid is a rare ursid hybrid that has occurred both in captivity and in the wild. ... USS Connecticut (SSN-22), a Seawolf-class submarine, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the fifth state. ...

References

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  3. ^ http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/ipbhc/natural-history/summaries/
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Optical Society of America (OSA) is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the study of light—optics and photonics—in theory and application, by means of worldwide research, scientific publishing, conferences and exhibitions, partnership with industry, and the education of new generations of scientists. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) was founded in 1919. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... For the baseball player, see Tim Flannery (baseball). ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is Canadas leading organization for scientific research and development. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Ian Stirling is a scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service who studies polar bears. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Heartland Institute is a free-market oriented public policy think tank based in Chicago. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arch marking south entrance to campus during the winter. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Ursus maritimus
  • ARKive - images and movies of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus)
  • Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History species account-Polar Bear
  • Nunavut Dept of Environment
  • USGS Polar Bear Studies

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The name Polar Bear is also a tradename for a type of scuba divers warm undersuit to be worn under a drysuit. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
About Polar Bears: Camelot Bears of Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. (713 words)
The preferred habitat of Polar Bears is the polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Polar Bears are the most carnivorous of all the bears and live almost entirely on ring seals, and to a lesser degree, on bearded seals.
Polar bears mate from late March to late May. Implantation of the fertilized egg is delayed until September or early October and the cubs are born between late November and early January.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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