FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Poland" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Poland
Rzeczpospolita Polska
Republic of Poland
Flag of Poland Coat of arms of Poland
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemMazurek Dąbrowskiego  (Polish)
Dąbrowski's Mazurka

Location of Poland
Location of  Poland  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Poland is a country in Central Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Herb_Polski. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Banner of Poland. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The Polish coat of arms is regulated by article 28(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mazurek DÄ…browskiego (DÄ…browskis Mazurka) is the Polish national anthem (since 26 February 1927), written by Józef Wybicki in 1797. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Warsaw
52°13′N, 21°02′E
Official languages Polish²
Demonym Pole/Polish
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Lech Kaczyński
 -  Prime Minister Donald Tusk
Formation
 -  Christianisation4 14 April 966 
 -  Redeclared 11 November 1918 
EU accession 01 May 2004
Area
 -  Total 312,679 km² (69th³)
120,728 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.07
Population
 -  2007 estimate 38,518,241 (33rd)
 -  2002 census 38,530,080 
 -  Density 122/km² (83rd)
319.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 (IMF)[1] estimate
 -  Total $676.8 billion (24th)
 -  Per capita $17,815 (52nd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 (IMF) estimate
 -  Total $444.2 billion (24th)
 -  Per capita $11,693.9 (49th)
HDI (2005) 0.870 (high) (37th)
Currency Złoty (PLN)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .pl5
Calling code +48
1 See, however, Unofficial mottos of Poland.
² Although not official languages, Belarusian, Kashubian, Lithuanian and German are used in 20 communal offices.
³ The area of Poland according to the administrative division, as given by the Central Statistical Office,[1] amounts to 312,679 km²: land area (311 888 km²) and part of internal waters (791 km²) cut by the coast line. The area of Poland's territory, including all internal waters and the territorial sea, is 322 575 km².
4 The adoption of Christianity in Poland is seen by many Poles, regardless of their religious affiliation, as one of the most significant national historical events; the new religion was used to unify the tribes in the region.
5 Also .eu, as Poland is a member of the European Union.

Poland (Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe. Poland is bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 km² (120,728 sq mi),[1] making it the 69th largest country in the world and 9th in Europe. Poland has a population of over 38.5 million people, which makes it the 33rd most populous country in the world.[2] Not to be confused with capitol. ... The demographics of Poland describe the make-up of the country of Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... For the object, see Pole. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Donald Franciszek Tusk (IPA: [], born 22 April 1957, GdaÅ„sk) is a liberal Polish politician, co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska), and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland. ... Christianization of Poland in April 14 966 by Jan Matejko The Baptism of Poland (Polish: Chrzest Polski) was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the baptism of Mieszko I, who was the first ruler of the Polish state. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 14 or April 30 - Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian Births Fujiwara no Michinaga, Japanese regent Deaths King Dubh I of Scotland Categories: 966 ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .pl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Poland, administered by NASK, Polish research and development organization. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Polish phone numbers since 5th December 2005 : 10 digits, starting with a 0. ... Poland does not have an official state motto i. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... According to Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages there are 16 bilingual communes in Poland: Official/auxiliary German language in commutes in Silesia German in part of Silesia - Opole Voivodeship: Gmina BiaÅ‚a (Gemeinde Zülz; since 06. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: ) is a Polish word for republic or commonwealth, a calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). The word rzeczpospolita has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally a generic term to denote any democratic state. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... There are few areas of Poland Area of Polish territory - 322 575 km² (land area, internal waters area and territorial sea area) Administrative area of Poland - 312 683 km². Same of Polish administrative units include area of internal waters (8 communes in województwo zachodniopomorskie, 2 communes in województwo... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Countries by area. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ...


The establishment of a Polish state is often identified with the adoption of Christianity by its ruler Mieszko I in 966 (see Baptism of Poland), when the state covered territory similar to that of present-day Poland. Poland became a kingdom in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a long association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by uniting to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth collapsed in 1795. Poland regained its independence in 1918 after World War I but lost it again in World War II, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Poland lost over six million citizens in World War II, and emerged several years later as a communist country within the Eastern Bloc under the control of the Soviet Union. In 1989 communist rule was overthrown and Poland became what is constitutionally known as the "Third Polish Republic". Poland is a unitary state made up of sixteen voivodeships (Polish: województwo). Poland is also a member of the European Union, NATO and OECD. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Reign ca. ... Christianization of Poland in April 14 966 by Jan Matejko The Baptism of Poland (Polish: Chrzest Polski) was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the baptism of Mieszko I, who was the first ruler of the Polish state. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... The term Polish-Lithuanian union (or Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—the Republic of the Two... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... It has been suggested that Polish Voivodeships and Counties 1919-1939 - trivia be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Poland
Poland’s topography
Poland’s topography

Poland’s territory extends across several geographical regions. In the northwest is the Baltic seacoast, which extends from the Bay of Pomerania to the Gulf of Gdansk. This coast is marked by several spits, coastal lakes (former bays that have been cut off from the sea), and dunes. The largely straight coastline is indented by the Szczecin Lagoon, the Bay of Puck, and the Vistula Lagoon. The center and parts of the north lie within the Northern European Lowlands. Rising gently above these lowlands is a geographical region comprising the four hilly districts of moraines and moraine-dammed lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age. These lake districts are the Pomeranian Lake District, the Greater Polish Lake District, the Kashubian Lake District, and the Masurian Lake District. The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of northeastern Poland. The lake districts form part of the Baltic Ridge, a series of moraine belts along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. South of the Northern European Lowlands lie the regions of Silesia and Masovia, which are marked by broad ice-age river valleys. Farther south lies the Polish mountain region, including the Sudetes, the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, and the Carpathian Mountains, including the Beskids. The highest part of the Carpathians is the Tatra Mountains, along Poland’s southern border. Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw Baltic Sea Tatra Sudetes Russia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Slovakia Czech Republic Ger. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 615 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1364 pixel, file size: 758 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 615 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1364 pixel, file size: 758 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Bay of Pomerania or Pomeranian Bay (Polish: Zatoka Pomorska; German: Pommersche Bucht) is a basin in the south-western Baltic Sea, off the shores of Poland and Germany. ... The Bay of GdaÅ„sk (also known as the GdaÅ„sk Bay or Gulf of GdaÅ„sk; in Polish Zatoka GdaÅ„ska; in Kashubian/Pomeranian GduÅ„skô Hôwinga; in German Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic sea enclosed by a large curve of the shores of... A spit is a deposition landform found off coasts. ... Lagoon of Szczecin or Bay of Szczecin (Polish: Zalew Szczeciński; German: Stettiner Haff, Oderhaff) is a inland water basin in Poland and Germany situated in the south-western part of the Baltic Sea in the mouth of Oder River north of the city of Szczecin. ... Puck Bay and Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Bay of Puck or Puck Bay (Polish: Zatoka Pucka) is a shallow western part of the Bay of GdaÅ„sk in the southern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Polish land of GdaÅ„sk Pomerania. ... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... The Northern European Lowlands are a geomorphological region in Europe. ... This article is about geological phenomena. ... A moraine-dammed lake occurs when a terminal moraine has prevented some meltwater from leaving the valley. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Sněžka-Åšnieżka Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), are a mountain range in Central Europe. ... ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Mountain landscape ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Mountains (sometimes also known as the Holy Cross Mountains, Polish  Góry ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie?) are a mountain range in central Poland, in the vicinity of the city of Kielce. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Beskidy Mountains (Beskid Mountains, Beskidy, Beskydy, Beskids) is a series of Czech Republic, northwestern Slovakia, and southern Poland, along the border between Poland and the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ... Tatras Panorama of Tatras The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry in both Slovak and Polish), constitute a mountain range which forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. ...


Rivers

The longest rivers are the Vistula (Polish: Wisła), 1,047 km (678 miles) long; the Oder (Polish: Odra) – which forms part of Poland’s western border – 854 km (531 miles) long; its tributary, the Warta, 808 km (502 miles) long; and the Bug – a tributary of the Vistula – 772 km (480 miles) long. The Vistula and the Oder flow into the Baltic Sea, as do numerous smaller rivers in Pomerania. The Łyna and the Angrapa flow by way of the Pregolya to the Baltic, and the Czarna Hańcza flows into the Baltic through the Neman. While the great majority of Poland’s rivers drain into the Baltic Sea, Poland’s Beskids are the source of some of the upper tributaries of the Orava, which flows via the Váh and the Danube to the Black Sea. The eastern Beskids are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea. For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західний Буг, Zakhidnyi Buh), flows from central Ukraine to the west, forming part of the boundary between that nation and Poland, passes along the Polish-Belarusian... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Łyna (-Polish, Russian: Лава or Lava, German: Alle) is a river in northern Poland and the Kaliningrad oblast of Russia, a tributary of the Pregolya river, with a total length of 264 km (190 km in Poland - making it the 11th longest Polish river - and 74 km in Russia) and... Angrapa (Polish: , Russian: , German: ) is a river in northeastern Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast). ... Pregolya (Преголя), also spelt as Pregola (German: Pregel) is a river in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. ... HaÅ„cza Czarna is the largest river of the SuwaÅ‚ki region of north-eastern Poland. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... Orava is the name of a 60. ... The Váh near PieÅ¡Å¥any. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ...


Poland’s rivers have been used since early times for navigation. The Vikings, for example, traveled up the Vistula and the Oder in their longships. In the Middle Ages and in early modern times, when Poland-Lithuania was the breadbasket of Europe, the shipment of grain and other agricultural products down the Vistula toward Gdańsk and onward to eastern Europe took on great importance. For an overview of Polish rivers, see Category:Rivers of Poland. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ...


Geology

Granite crags of the High Tatras
Granite crags of the High Tatras

The geological structure of Poland has been shaped by the continental collision of Europe and Africa over the past 60 million years, on the one hand, and the Quaternary glaciations of northern Europe, on the other. Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathians. The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam, while the ice-age river valleys of the south often contain loess. The Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, the Pieniny, and the Western Tatras consist of limestone, while the High Tatras, the Beskids, and the Karkonosze are made up mainly of granite and basalts. The Kraków-Częstochowa Upland is one of the oldest mountain ranges on earth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1340x625, 402 KB) Highest peaks of Tatra mountains. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1340x625, 402 KB) Highest peaks of Tatra mountains. ... Mountain huts such as this one half way up Lomnický Å¡tít are a common sight in the High Tatras. ... Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of our solid Earth. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Loam field Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pieniny is a town in Lesser Poland, Poland. ... The West Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range on the Polish-Slovak frontier. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Aerial view over the Karkonosze The Karkonosze (Polish; pronounced kár-ko-no-she) or KrkonoÅ¡e (Czech; IPA: ) is a mountain range in the Sudetes in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Polish Jura Chain, Glove Rock (SkaÅ‚a RÄ™kawica) at Ojców National Park Polish Jura, Jurassic monadnock. ...


Mountains and topography

The Pieniny in the Carpathians
The Pieniny in the Carpathians

Poland has 21 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,561 ft) in elevation, all in the High Tatras. The Polish Tatras, which consist of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group of Poland and of the entire Carpathian range. In the High Tatras lies Poland’s highest point, the northwestern peak of Rysy, 2,499 metres (8,199 ft) in elevation. At its foot lies the mountain lake, the Morskie Oko. The second-highest mountain group in Poland is the Beskids, whose highest peak is Babia Góra, at 1,725 metres (5,659 ft). The next highest mountain group is the Karkonosze, whose highest point is Śnieżka, at 1,602 metres (5,256 ft). Among the most beautiful mountains of Poland are the Bieszczady Mountains in the far southeast of Poland, whose highest point in Poland is Tarnica, with an elevation of 1,346 metres (4,416 ft). Tourists also frequent the Gorce Mountains in Gorce National Park, with elevations around 1,300 metres (4,300 ft), and the Pieniny in Pieniny National Park, with elevations around 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The lowest point in Poland—at 2 metres (7 ft) below sea level—is at Raczki Elbląskie, near Elbląg in the Vistula Delta. For a list of the most important mountain ranges of Poland, see the Category:Mountain ranges of Poland. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pieniny is a town in Lesser Poland, Poland. ... Mountain huts such as this one half way up Lomnický Å¡tít are a common sight in the High Tatras. ... The West Tatras form part of the European Tatra mountain range on the Polish-Slovak frontier. ... , Rysy (Hungarian: , German: ) is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, at the Polish-Slovak border. ... Morskie Oko is the largest and fourth deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains and is located in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. ... Beskidy Mountains (Beskid Mountains, Beskidy, Beskydy, Beskids) is a series of Czech Republic, northwestern Slovakia, and southern Poland, along the border between Poland and the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ... Babia Góra in Polish or Babia hora in Slovak is situated in Western Beskidy Mountains. ... Aerial view over the Karkonosze The Karkonosze (Polish; pronounced kár-ko-no-she) or KrkonoÅ¡e (Czech; IPA: ) is a mountain range in the Sudetes in Central Europe. ... Snow Mountain (  Sněžka? in Czech; Åšnieżka in Polish; Schneekoppe in German) is the highest mountain in the Giant Mountains (KrkonoÅ¡e in Czech, Karkonosze in Polish), part of the Sudetes mountain range. ... Bieszczady. ... Gorce National Park (Polish: ) is a national park in Lesser Poland, southern Poland. ... Pieniny is a town in Lesser Poland, Poland. ... Pieniny National Park is the name of two national parks in the Pieniny Mountains: PieniÅ„ski Park Narodowy in Poland Pieninský národný park in Slovakia Category: ... ElblÄ…g (IPA: ; German: ) is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants (2006). ...


Lakes

Rożnowskie Lake, near Rożnów in southeastern Poland
Rożnowskie Lake, near Rożnów in southeastern Poland

With almost ten thousand closed bodies of water covering more than one hectare (2.47 acres) each, Poland has one of the highest numbers of lakes in the world. In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes. The largest lakes, covering more than 100 square kilometers (38.6 square miles), are Lake Śniardwy and Lake Mamry in Masuria, as well as Lake Łebsko and Lake Drawsko in Pomerania. In addition to the lake districts in the north (in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia, Lubuskie, and Greater Poland), there is also a large number of mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area. The lake with the greatest depth—of more than 100 metres (328 ft)—is Lake Hańcza in the Wigry Lake District, east of Masuria in Podlaskie Voivodship. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Åšniardwy (German: ) is a lake in the Masurian Lakeland in Warmia-Masuria, Poland. ... Mamry (German: ) is a lake in the Masurian Lakeland in Warmia-Masuria, Poland. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... Łebsko Lake (German: ) is a coastal lake in Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland. ... Drawsko is a lake in Drawskie Lakeland, West Pomeranian Voivodship, Poland. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... HaÅ„cza is a lake in Sudovia, Podlasie Voivodship, Poland. ... The Podlasie Voivodship (in Polish województwo podlaskie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. ...


Among the first lakes whose shores were settled are those in the Greater Polish Lake District. The stilt house settlement of Biskupin, occupied by more than one thousand residents, was founded before the seventh century BC by people of the Lusatian culture. The ancestors of today’s Poles, the Polanie, built their first fortresses on islands in these lakes. The legendary Prince Popiel is supposed to have ruled from Kruszwica on Lake Gopło. The first historically documented ruler of Poland, Duke Mieszko I, had his palace on an island in the Warta River in Poznań. Stilt houses or pile dwellings are houses raised on stilts over the surface of the soil or a body of water. ... Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. ... Polans (also Polanes, Polish Polanie) were a Slavic tribe inhabitating the shores of the Warta river in the 8th century. ... The tower where, according to legend, Popiel perished Prince Popiel (or Duke Popiel), legendary 9th century ruler of the Polanie or Goplanie tribe. ... Coat of Arms Kruszwica (German: Kruschwitz) is a town in central Poland and is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975-1998). ... GopÅ‚o Lake, view from the Mouse Tower of Kruszwica GopÅ‚o is a lake in Poland near the city of Gniezno in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Reign c. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ...


For the most important lakes of Poland, see the Category:Lakes of Poland.


The coast

Dunes in Słowiński National Park
Dunes in Słowiński National Park

The Polish Baltic coast is approximately 528 kilometres (328 miles) long and extends from Świnoujście on the islands of Usedom and Wolin in the west to Krynica Morska on the Vistula Spit in the east. For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been shaped by the continual movement of sand by currents and winds from west to east. This continual erosion and deposition has formed cliffs, dunes, and spits, many of which have migrated landwards to close off former lagoons, such as Łebsko Lake in Słowiński National Park. The largest spits are Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Spit. The largest Polish Baltic island is Wolin. The largest port cities are Gdynia, Gdańsk, Szczecin, and Świnoujście. The main coastal resorts are Sopot, Międzyzdroje, Kołobrzeg, Łeba, Władysławowo, and the Hel Peninsula. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 540 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Slowinski National Park near Leba, Poland Photographer: Klaus-Dieter Keller, Germany Date: August 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 540 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Slowinski National Park near Leba, Poland Photographer: Klaus-Dieter Keller, Germany Date: August 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship West Pomeranian Powiat City County Gmina ÅšwinoujÅ›cie Estabilished 12th century City Rights 1765 Government  - Mayor Janusz Å»murkiewicz Area  - City 197 km²  (76. ... Landsat satellite photo of Szczecin Lagoon - Usedom is the western of the two large islands separating the waters of the Lagoon from the Baltic Sea, the eastern island is Wolin. ... Wolin is the name shared by an island located in the Baltic Sea located just off the Polish coast, and a town located on the island. ... Krynica Morska (-Polish; formerly: Łysica (1945-1958); German: Kahlberg), is a town in northern Poland with 1,250 inhabitants (2003). ... Landsat photo Vistula Spit The Vistula Spit (Polish: Mierzeja WiÅ›lana, Russian: :Балтийская коса, German: Frische Nehrung) is a peninsular stretch of land cutting Vistula Lagoon off from Gdansk Bay. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Deposition is the geological process where by material is added to a landform. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Kitesurfing, Hel Peninsula Hel Peninsula (Polish Mierzeja Helska, Kashubian Hélskô Sztremlëzna, German Halbinsel Hela) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Stettin redirects here. ... Sopot (pronounce: [sÉ”pÉ”t]; German: ; Kashubian: Sopòt) is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. ... MiÄ™dzyzdroje MiÄ™dzyzdroje is a seaside resort in Poland on the Wolin island on the Baltic coast. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship West Pomeranian Powiat KoÅ‚obrzeg County Gmina KoÅ‚obrzeg Estabilished 10th century City Rights 1255 Government  - Mayor Janusz Gromek Area  - Town 25. ... Łeba is the name of the river in Middle Pomerania, Poland, that goes to Łebsko lake and later on to Baltic sea. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚awowo (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Wiôlgô Wies) is a town on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea in the Kashubia or Eastern Pomerania region, north-western Poland, with some 10,000 inhabitants. ...


The Desert

Błędów Desert the only desert in Poland.
Błędów Desert the only desert in Poland.

Błędów Desert is a desert located in Southern Poland in the Silesian Voivodeship and stretches over the Zagłębie Dąbrowskie region. It has a total area of 32 km². It is the only desert located in Poland. It is one of only five natural deserts in Europe. It is the warmest desert that appears at this latitude. It was created thousands of years ago by a melting glacier. The specific geological structure has been of big importance - the average thickness of the sand layer is about 40 meters (maximum 70 m), which made the fast and deep drainage very easy. In recent years the desert has started to shrink. The phenomenon of mirages has been known to exist there. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... BÅ‚Ä™dów Desert (Polish: ) - desert in Upper Silesian Industry Region (Poland / European Union) at bound Metropolis Katowice. ... BÅ‚Ä™dów Desert (Polish: ) - desert in Upper Silesian Industry Region (Poland / European Union) at bound Metropolis Katowice. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... ZagÅ‚Ä™bie DÄ…browskie (literally Ore Region of DÄ…browa; (?)) is a historical and geographical region in Poland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical term. ... This article is about the optical phenomenon. ...


Land use

The patchwork landscape of Masuria
The patchwork landscape of Masuria

Forests cover 28% of Poland’s land area. More than half of the land is devoted to agriculture. While the total area under cultivation is declining, the remaining farmland is more intensively cultivated. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ...


More than 1% of Poland’s territory — 3,145 square kilometres (1,214 square miles) — is protected within 23 national parks. In this respect, Poland ranks first in Europe. Three more national parks are projected for Masuria, the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, and the eastern Beskids. Most Polish national parks are located in the southern part of the country. In addition, wetlands along lakes and rivers in central Poland are legally protected, as are coastal areas in the north. There are also many areas designated as landscape parks, and numerous nature reserves. There are 23 national parks in Poland: See also List of Biosphere Reserves in Poland External links Polish National Parks Categories: National parks of Poland | Lists of national parks ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki Masuria (Polish: ; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. ... Beskidy Mountains (Beskid Mountains, Beskidy, Beskydy, Beskids) is a series of Czech Republic, northwestern Slovakia, and southern Poland, along the border between Poland and the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ... This article is about national parks. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... In Poland, a Landscape Park (Polish: Park Krajobrazowy) is a type of protected area similar to a National Park, but with less stringent restrictions on development and economic use. ... It has been suggested that Reserve design be merged into this article or section. ...


Flora and fauna

A wisent in the Białowieża Forest
A wisent in the Białowieża Forest

Many animals that have since died out in other parts of Europe still survive in Poland, such as the wisent in the ancient woodland of the Białowieża Forest and in Podlachia. Other such species include the brown bear in Białowieża, in the Tatras, and in the Beskids, the gray wolf and the Eurasian lynx in various forests, the moose in northern Poland, and the beaver in Masuria, Pomerania, and Podlachia. In the forests, one also encounters game animals, such as red deer, roe deer, and boars. In eastern Poland there are a number of ancient woodlands, like Białowieża, that have never been cleared by people. There are also large forested areas in the mountains, Masuria, Pomerania, and Lower Silesia. European wisent (żubr) photographed by Henryk Kotowski in Białowieża, Eastern Poland released under the terms of GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Wisent Wikiportal:Poland/Did you know Categories: GFDL images ... European wisent (żubr) photographed by Henryk Kotowski in Białowieża, Eastern Poland released under the terms of GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Wisent Wikiportal:Poland/Did you know Categories: GFDL images ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Ancient Woodland is a term used in the United Kingdom to refer specifically to woodland dating back to at least 1600 in England and Wales, (or 1750 in Scotland). ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Old chapel Krzna river Potockis Palace i MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Podlachia, Podlesia, or Podlasie is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland and western Belarus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map. ... Binomial name Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat of European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the major predators. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species of deer. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ...

Family of White stork, a national bird in Poland
Family of White stork, a national bird in Poland

Poland is the most important breeding ground for European migratory birds. Out of all of the migratory birds who come to Europe for the summer, one quarter breed in Poland, particularly in the lake districts and the wetlands along the Biebrza, the Narew, and the Warta, which are part of nature reserves or national parks. In Masuria, there are villages in which storks outnumber people. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 780 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 780 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus, 1758 The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. ... Biebrza is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river (near Wizna), with a length of 155 kilometres (28th longest) and the basin area of 7,057 sq. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ...


Climate

The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west and becomes gradually warmer and continental as one moves south and east. Summers are generally warm, with average temperatures between 20 °C (68 °F) and 27 °C (80,6 °F). Winters are cold, with average temperatures around 3 °C (37,4 °F) in the northwest and –8 °C (17,6 °F) in the northeast. Precipitation falls throughout the year, although, especially in the east; winter is drier than summer. The warmest region in Poland is Lesser Poland located in Southern Poland where temperatures in the summer average between 23 °C (73,4 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) but can go as high as 32 °C (89,6 °F) to 38 °C (100,4 °F) on some days in the warmest month of the year July. The warmest city in Poland is Tarnów. The city is located in Lesser Poland; it is the hottest place in Poland all year round. The average temperatures being 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer and 4 °C (39,2 °F) in the winter. Tarnów also has the longest summer in Poland spreading from mid May to mid September. Also it has the shortest winter in Poland which often lasts from January to March, less than the regular three-month winter. The coldest region of Poland is in the Northeast in the Podlachian Voivodeship near the border of Belarus. The climate is efficient due to cold fronts which come from Scandinavia and Siberia. The average temperature in the winter in Podlachian ranges from -15 °C (5 °F) to -4 °C ( 24,8 °F). For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Lesser Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo maÅ‚opolskie) is an administrative region or voivodeship in southern Poland. ... Tarnów is a city in south-eastern Poland with 121,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... Capital city BiaÅ‚ystok Area 20 180 km² Population  - Density 1,221,000 60. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Demographics

For more details on this topic, see Demographics of Poland.
Three generations in West Pomerania after World War II: Pomnik Czynu Polaków, Szczecin
Three generations in West Pomerania after World War II: Pomnik Czynu Polaków, Szczecin

Poland, with 38.5 million inhabitants, has the eighth-largest population in Europe and the sixth-largest in the European Union. It has a population density of 122 inhabitants per square kilometer (328 per square mile). The demographics of Poland describe the make-up of the country of Poland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 638 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 638 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... West Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 West Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Zachodnie; German: Westpommern; Latin: Pomerania Occidentalis) or West Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish: województwo zachodniopomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in the northwestern part of Poland. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Stettin redirects here. ...


Poland historically contained many languages, cultures and religions on its soil. The country had a particularly large Jewish population prior to the Second World War, when the Nazi Holocaust caused Poland's Jewish population, estimated at 3 million before the war, to drop to just 300,000. The outcome of the war, particularly the westward shift of Poland's borders to the area between the Curzon line and the Oder-Neisse line, coupled with post-war expulsion of minorities, gave Poland an appearance of homogeneity. Before World War II the now Polish lands were noted for the richness and variety of their ethnic communities. ... Jewish history in Poland 960 Jewish merchant from Spain, Ibrahim Ibn Jaqub (Abraham ben Jakov), travels to Poland and writes the first description of the country. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... World War II evacuation and expulsion refers to forced deportation, mass evacuation and displacement of peoples spurred on by the hostilities between Axis and Allied powers, and the border changes enacted in the post-war settlement. ...


As of 2002, 36,983,700 people, or 96.74% of the population consider themselves Polish (Census 2002), while 471,500 (1.23%) declared another nationality. 774,900 people (2.03%) did not declare any nationality. The largest nationalities and ethnic groups in Poland are Silesians, Germans (most in the former Opole Voivodeship), Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Russians, Jews and Belarusians. The Polish language, a member of the West Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, functions as the official language of Poland. English and German are the most common second languages studied and spoken. Polish census of 2002 (Polish: ) was a census in Poland taken from 21 May to 8 June 2002. ... Girl in Upper Silesian dress from MysÅ‚owice, 2006 Woman in Silesian dress from Teschen, 1914 Silesians (Silesian: Åšlônzoki; Polish: ; Czech: ; German: ) are the West Slavic inhabitants of Silesia (Czech: ) , Poland and Czech Republic. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


In recent years, Poland's population has decreased because of an increase in emigration and a sharp drop in the birth rate. In 2006, the census office estimated the total population of Poland at 38,536,869, a slight rise on the 2002 figure of 38,230,080. Since Poland's accession to the European Union, a significant number of Poles have immigrated to Western European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Ireland in search of work. Some organizations have stated that Polish emigration is primarily due to Poland's high unemployment rate (11.4%), with Poles searching for better work opportunities abroad. In April 2007, the Polish population of the United Kingdom had risen to approximately 300,000 and estimates place the Polish population in Ireland at 65,000. Unemployment rates in the United States. ...


Polish minorities are still present in the neighboring countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania, as well as in other countries (see Poles for population numbers). Altogether, the number of ethnic Poles living abroad is estimated to be around 20 million. The largest number of Poles outside of the Poland can be found in the United States. For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ...


Urban Areas

Gdańsk, Długi Targ

The largest metropolitan areas in Poland are the Upper Silesian Coal Basin centred on Katowice (3.5 million inhabitants); the capital, Warsaw (3 million);Kraków (1.3 million) Łódź (1.3 million); the “Tricity” of Gdańsk-Sopot-Gdynia in the Vistula delta (1.1 million); Poznań (0.9 million); Wrocław (0.9 million); and Szczecin (0.7 million). For an overview of Polish cities, see List of cities in Poland. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Sopot (pronounce: [sÉ”pÉ”t]; German: ; Kashubian: Sopòt) is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Stettin redirects here. ... It has been suggested that List of cities in Poland over 20,000 population (2002 census) be merged into this article or section. ...


Ethnicity and religion

In terms of ethnicity, Poland has been a homogeneous state since the end of World War II. This is a major departure from much of Polish history. Due to the Holocaust and the flight and expulsion of German and Ukrainian populations, Poland has become almost uniformly Catholic. About 97% of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, with 58% as practising Catholics according to 2005 survey by the Centre for Public Opinion Research.[3] Though rates of religious observance are currently lower than they have been in the past, Poland remains one of the most devoutly religious countries in Europe. Religious minorities include Polish Orthodox (1.3% or about 509,500), Jehovah’s Witnesses (0.3% or about 123,034), Eastern Catholics (0.2%), Lutherans (0.2%), and smaller minorities of Mariavites, Polish Catholics, Pentecostals, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jews, Muslims (including the Tatars of Białystok) and various Protestants (about 86,880 in the largest Evangelical-Augsburg Church, plus about as many in smaller churches). Resulting from the socio-political emancipation of the county, freedom of religion has become guaranteed by the 1989 statute of the Polish constitution,[4] allowing for the emergence of additional denominations.[5] However, due to pressure from the Polish Episcopate, exposition of doctrine has entered public education system as well, drawing criticism from the popular media, as unconstitutional.[6][7] According to 2007 survey, 72% of respondents were not against the fostering of catechism in public schools; nevertheless, the alternative courses in ethics have become available only in one percent of the entire public educational system.[8] Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The flight and expulsion of Germans during and after World War II refers to the forced migration of German nationals (Reichsdeutsche) and some ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories 1943–1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946... Orthodox church in Hajnówka The Autocephalous Church of Poland, commonly known as the Polish Orthodox Church, is one of the independent Orthodox churches. ... Jehovahs Witnesses (JWs) are members of a worldwide Christian religion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The Mariavite Church is an independent Catholic and Christian church that emerged from the Roman Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century. ... The Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC) is a Christian church founded and based in the United States by Polish-Americans who were Roman Catholic. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... The GdaÅ„sk masjid The first noticeable presence of Islam in Poland began in the 14th century. ... This article is about the people. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Holy Trinity Church, Warsaw, of Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland. ... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


Poles (including Silesians and Kashubians) make up an overwhelming 99.3% majority of the Polish population. According to the 2002 census, the remainder of the population is made up of small minorities of Germans (152,897), Belarusians (c. 49,000), and Ukrainians (c. 30,000), as well as Tatars, Lithuanians, Roma, Lemkos, Russians, Karaites, Slovaks, and Czechs. Among foreign citizens, the Vietnamese are the largest ethnic group, followed by Greeks, and Armenians. Girl in Upper Silesian dress from Mysłowice, 2006 Woman in Silesian dress from Teschen, 1914 Silesians (Silesian: Ślônzoki; Polish: ; Czech: ; German: ) are the West Slavic inhabitants of Silesia (Czech: ) , Poland and Czech Republic. ... Kashubians (Kashubian: ; Polish: ), also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group of north-central Poland. ... This article is about the people. ... Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Lemkos (Ukrainian: ) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect/language. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


History

Stańczyk, symbol of Polish history
History of Poland
Chronology

Until 966
966–1385
1385–1569
1569–1795
1795–1918
1918–1939
1939–1945
1945–1989
1989–present Jan Matejko (1838-1893) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Over the past millennium, the territory ruled by Poland has shifted and varied greatly. ... Dates and most important events in Polish history from prehistoric times up to the present day. ... The prehistory of Poland, or the history of Poland before 966 CE, is a period about which relatively little is known, especially when compared to the later eras. ... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Poland and Lithuania in 1387 The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila. ... Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... The History of interwar Poland starts with the recreation of independent Poland in 1918, and ends with the conquest of Poland by Nazi Germany, starting the Second World War. ... The history of Poland from 1939 through 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II. On September 1, 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... In the 1970s and 1980s the whole system in Poland was deeper and deeper in the crisis and was beginning to crumble as was the whole Eastern bloc with the USSR as the fading superpower. ...

Topics

Culture
Demography (Jews)
Economics
Politics (Monarchs and Presidents)
Military (Wars)
Territorial changes (WWII) The Culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1000 year history. ... Historical demography of Poland show that in the past, Polands demography were much more diverse then at present. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s with mixed results. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Mieszko I. Bolesław I Chrobry. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... Below is a list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces participated or which took place on Polish territory. ... Main article: History of Poland In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ...

Main article: History of Poland

Over the past millennium, the territory ruled by Poland has shifted and varied greatly. ...

Prehistory

It was postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now known as Poland. The exact ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups has been hotly debated; in particular the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoples in these regions has been the subject of much controversy. The prehistory of Poland, or the history of Poland before 966 CE, is a period about which relatively little is known, especially when compared to the later eras. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


The most famous archeological find from Poland's prehistory is the Biskupin fortified settlement (now reconstructed as a museum), dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC. The prehistory of Poland, or the history of Poland before 966 CE, is a period about which relatively little is known, especially when compared to the later eras. ... Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Piast dynasty

Main article: History of Poland (966-1385)
Poland around 1020
Poland around 1020

Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the tenth century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the nation's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next centuries. In the twelfth century, Poland fragmented into several smaller states. In 1320, Władysław I became the King of a reunified Poland. His son, Kazimierz III, is remembered as one of the greatest Polish kings. In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Piast the Wheelwright Piast seal Piast coat of arms This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Reign c. ... Christianization of Poland in April 14 966 by Jan Matejko The Baptism of Poland (Polish: Chrzest Polski) was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the baptism of Mieszko I, who was the first ruler of the Polish state. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Kazimierz I Kujawski, Eufrozyna Opolska Consorts Jadwiga Kaliska Children Stefan, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw, Kunegunda, Elżbieta, Jadwiga, Casimir III the Great Date of Birth 1261 Place of Birth - Date of Death 1333 Place of Death Cracow Coronation January... The Kingdom of Poland of the later Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320 and the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ...


Poland was also a centre of migration of peoples and the Jewish community began to settle and flourish in Poland during this era (see History of the Jews in Poland). The Black Death which affected most parts of Europe from 1347 to 1351 did not reach Poland.[9] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


Jagiellon dynasty

Main article: History of Poland (1385-1569)

Under the Jagiellon dynasty Poland forged an alliance with its neighbour, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive defeat on the Teutonic Knights, both countries' main adversary, in the battle of Grunwald. After the Thirteen Years War, the Knight's state became a Polish vassal. Polish culture and economy flourished under the Jagiellons, and the country produced such figures as astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus and poet Jan Kochanowski. Compared to other European nations, Poland was exceptional in its tolerance of religious dissent, allowing the country to avoid the religious turmoil that spread over Western Europe in that time. The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty originating in Lithuania, which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... The term Polish-Lithuanian union (or Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—the Republic of the Two... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders Władysław II Jagiełło, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ...


Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Main article: History of Poland (1569-1795)
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent

A golden age ensued during the sixteenth century after the Union of Lublin which gave birth to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The szlachta (nobility) of Poland, far more numerous than in Western European countries, took pride in their freedoms and parliamentary system. During the Golden Age period, Poland expanded its borders to become the largest country in Europe. Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 304 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 304 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish Golden Age reffers to the times from 15th century Jagiellon Poland to mid-17th century, when in 1648 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was ravaged by the Chmielnicki Uprising and The Deluge and the Golden Age ended. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of Lublin... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


In the mid-seventeenth century, a Swedish invasion ("The Deluge") and Cossack's Chmielnicki Uprising which ravaged the country marked the end of the golden age. Numerous wars against Russia coupled with government inefficiency caused by the Liberum Veto, a right which had allowed any member of the parliament to dissolve it and to veto any legislation it had passed, marked the steady deterioration of the Commonwealth from a European power into a near-anarchy controlled by its neighbours. The reforms, particularly those of the Great Sejm, which passing of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, second modern constitution of the world, were thwarted with the three partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, and 1795) which ended with Poland's being erased from the map and its territories being divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ... Sejm Czteroletni (Four-Year Sejm, also known as Sejm Wielki, the Great Sejm) was a Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth held in Warsaw, inaugurated in 1788. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Partitions of Poland

Main article: History of Poland (1795-1918)

Poles would resent their fate and would several times rebel against the partitioners, particularly in the nineteenth century. In 1807 Napoleon recreated a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic wars, Poland was again divided in 1815 by the victorious Allies at the Congress of Vienna. The eastern portion was ruled by the Russian Czar as a Congress Kingdom, and possessed a liberal constitution. However, the Czars soon reduced Polish freedoms and Russia eventually de facto annexed the country. Later in the nineteenth century, Austrian-ruled Galicia, particularly the Free City of Kraków, became a centre of Polish cultural life. Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... The term Congress Poland is an unofficial name of the Kingdom of Poland, a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... // Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was granted to the Congress Kingdom of Poland by tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ...


Reconstitution of Poland

Main article: History of Poland (1918-1939)
Poland between 1922 and 1938
Poland between 1922 and 1938

During World War I, all the Allies agreed on the reconstitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in Point 13 of his Fourteen Points. Shortly after the surrender of Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts, the most notable being the Polish-Soviet War (1919–1921) when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army. // Interwar Poland Poland in the interbellum PiÅ‚sudskis first task was to reunite the Polish regions that had assumed various economic and political identities since the partition in the late eighteenth century, and especially since the advent of political parties. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Below is a list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces participated or which took place on Polish territory. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


The 1926 May Coup of Józef Piłsudski turned the reins of the Second Polish Republic over to the Sanacja movement. Combatants Sanacja loyal army Government loyal army Commanders Marshal Józef PiÅ‚sudski President StanisÅ‚aw Wojciechowski Prime Minister Wincenty Witos Strength 12,000 6,000-8,000 Casualties Military killed: 215 Civilian killed: 164 Military and civilian wounded: 920 Total: 1299 The May Coup dEtat (Polish: Przewrót... Pilsudski redirects here. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ...


World War II

Main article: History of Poland (1939-1945)

The Sanacja movement controlled Poland until the start of World War II in 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded on September 1 and the Soviet Union followed on September 17. Warsaw capitulated on September 28, 1939. As agreed in the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, Poland was split into two zones, one occupied by Germany while the eastern provinces fell under the control of the Soviet Union. Main article: Polish government in exile On 1 September 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and...


Of all the countries involved in the war, Poland lost the highest percentage of its citizens: over six million perished, half of them Polish Jews. Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution to the Allied war effort, after the Soviets, the British and the Americans. The Polish expeditionary corps played an important role in the Italian Campaign, particularly at the Battle of Monte Cassino. At the war's conclusion, Poland's borders were shifted westwards, pushing the eastern border to the Curzon line. Meanwhile, the western border was moved to the Oder-Neisse line. The new Poland emerged 20% smaller by 77,500 square kilometres (29,900 sq mi). The shift forced the migration of millions of people, most of whom were Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and Jews. The main German Nazi death camps were in Poland. Of a pre-war population of 3,300,000 Polish Jews, 3,000,000 were killed during the Holocaust. Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers. ... This article deals with the treatment of Polish citizens by occupation forces during the Second World War (1939 - 1945). ... The entrance to the Auschwitz extermination camp Persecution of the Jews by the German Nazi occupation government, particularly in the urban areas, began immediately after the occupation. ... From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Combatants  United Kingdom Indian Empire  United States Poland  Brazil  New Zealand  Canada  Free French  South Africa Italy  (after September 8th) Italian Resistance  Germany Italy  (until 8 September 1943) RSI  (until 25 April 1945) Commanders C-in-C AFHQ: Dwight D. Eisenhower (until January 1944) Henry Maitland Wilson (Jan to Dec... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland New Zealand Canada Free France India and others Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark Clark Oliver Leese Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... World War II evacuation and expulsion refers to forced deportation, mass evacuation and displacement of peoples spurred on by the hostilities between Axis and Allied powers, and the border changes enacted in the post-war settlement. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Postwar Communist Poland

Main article: History of Poland (1945-1989)
At the end of World War II, the gray territories were transferred from Poland to the Soviet Union, and the pink territories from Germany to Poland
At the end of World War II, the gray territories were transferred from Poland to the Soviet Union, and the pink territories from Germany to Poland

The Soviet Union instituted a new Communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War was also part of this change. The People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) was officially proclaimed in 1952. In 1956, the régime of Władysław Gomułka became temporarily more liberal, freeing many people from prison and expanding some personal freedoms. Similar situation repeated itself in the 1970s under Edward Gierek, but most of the time persecution of communist opposition persisted. The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... The Peoples Republic of Poland (Polish:Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Poland (also known as July Constitution or Constitution of 1952) was passed on 22 July 1952. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Anti-communist resistance in Poland can be divided into two types: the violent partisan struggle, mostly led by some former Armia Krajowa and Narodowe SiÅ‚y Zbrojne soldiers, which ended around 1950s (see cursed soldiers), and the non-violent struggle by civilians that culminated in the creation and victory of...


Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" ("Solidarność"), which over time became a political force. Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in 1981, it eroded the dominance of the Communist Party and by 1989 had triumphed in parliamentary elections. Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communism across Eastern Europe. A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (first round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (second round). ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


Democratic Poland

Main article: History of Poland (1989-present)

A shock therapy programme of Leszek Balcerowicz during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into a market economy. As with all other post-communist countries, Poland suffered temporary slumps in social and economic standards, but became the first post-communist country to reach its pre-1989 GDP levels.[citation needed] Most visibly, there were numerous improvements in other human rights, such as free speech. In 1991, Poland became a member of the Visegrad Group and joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance in 1999 along with the Czech Republic and Hungary. Poles then voted to join the European Union in a referendum in June 2003, with Poland becoming a full member on May 1, 2004. In the 1970s and 1980s the whole system in Poland was deeper and deeper in the crisis and was beginning to crumble as was the whole Eastern bloc with the USSR as the fading superpower. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ... Leszek Balcerowicz Leszek Balcerowicz (pronounced: [lεʃεk balʦεrÉ”viʧ]) (born January 19, 1947) is one of the greatest economist from Poland and former chairman of the National Bank of Poland. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Political map in 2004 The Visegrád group (also called the Visegrád 4 or V4) is an alliance of four Central European states: Poland Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Historically, the Visegrád group originated in 1335, when the Czech, the Polish and the Hungarian king held a meeting in... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

Poland is a social democracy, with a President as a Head of State, whose current constitution dates from 1997. The government structure centres on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm. The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The current president is Lech Kaczyński, the current prime minister is Donald Tusk. Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997 was Polands first post-communist constitution. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Donald Franciszek Tusk (IPA: [], born 22 April 1957, GdaÅ„sk) is a liberal Polish politician, co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska), and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland. ...


Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a 460-member lower house (Sejm) and a 100-member Senate (Senat). The Sejm is elected under proportional representation according to the d'Hondt method, a method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems. The Senate, on the other hand, is elected under a rare plurality bloc voting method where several candidates with the highest support are elected from each constituency. With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties receiving at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Sejm. When sitting in joint session, members of the Sejm and Senate form the National Assembly (the Zgromadzenie Narodowe). The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: when a new President takes the oath of office; when an indictment against the President of the Republic is brought to the State Tribunal (Trybunał Stanu); and when a President's permanent incapacity to exercise his duties due to the state of his health is declared. To date, only the first instance has occurred. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The DHondt method (mathematically but not operationally equivalent to Jeffersons method, and Budder-Ofer method) is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Bloc voting (or block voting) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single multimember constituency. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ...


The judicial branch plays an important role in decision-making. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court of Poland (Sąd Najwyższy); the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny); the Constitutional Tribunal of Poland (Trybunał Konstytucyjny); and the State Tribunal of Poland (Trybunał Stanu). On the approval of the Senate, the Sejm also appoints the Ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich) for a five-year term. The Ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Polish citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice. The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: ) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... Polish Ombudsman (Polish: Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich, often abbreviated RPO) is an independent central office of the Republic of Poland. ... Citizen redirects here. ... Residency is the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place. ...


Administrative divisions

For more details on this topic, see Administrative division of Poland.

Poland's current voivodeships (provinces) are largely based on the country's historic regions, whereas those of the past two decades (to 1998) had been centred on and named for individual cities. The new units range in area from less than 10,000 km² (Opole Voivodeship) to more than 35,000 km² (Masovian Voivodeship). Administrative authority at voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed voivode (governor), an elected regional assembly (sejmik) and an executive elected by that assembly. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Polish Voivodeships and Counties 1919-1939 - trivia be merged into this article or section. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... Voivodeship sejmiks (Polish: ) are legislatures comprised of elected legislators in the Voivodeships (provinces) of Poland. ...


The voivodeships are subdivided into powiats (often referred to in English as counties), and these are further divided into gminas (also known as communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 379 powiats (including 65 cities with powiat status), and 2,478 gminas. A county (Polish: powiat, pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-4 or rather LAU-1) in other countries. ... The municipality or commune (Polish: gmina, plural: gminy) is the principal unit (lowest level) of territorial division in Poland. ...

Division of Poland into voivodeships and powiats
Division of Poland into voivodeships and powiats
Voivodeship Capital city or cities
in Polish
Greater Poland Wielkopolskie Poznań
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kujawsko-Pomorskie Bydgoszcz / Toruń
Lesser Poland Małopolskie Kraków
Łódź Łódzkie Łódź
Lower Silesian Dolnośląskie Wrocław
Lublin Lubelskie Lublin
Lubusz Lubuskie Gorzów Wielkopolski / Zielona Góra
Masovian Mazowieckie Warsaw
Opole Opolskie Opole
Podlachian Podlaskie Białystok
Pomeranian Pomorskie Gdańsk
Silesian Śląskie Katowice
Subcarpathian Podkarpackie Rzeszów
Świętokrzyskie Świętokrzyskie Kielce
Warmian-Masurian Warmińsko-Mazurskie Olsztyn
West Pomeranian Zachodniopomorskie Szczecin

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1021 × 948 pixel, file size: 467 KB, MIME type: image/png) Mapa administracyjna Polski z zaznaczonymi granicami województw i powiatów, stan na 1 stycznia 2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1021 × 948 pixel, file size: 467 KB, MIME type: image/png) Mapa administracyjna Polski z zaznaczonymi granicami województw i powiatów, stan na 1 stycznia 2007. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Capital city PoznaÅ„ Area 29,826 km² Population (2005)  - Density 3,372,417 113. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (in Polish Województwo Kujawsko-Pomorskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, in central-northern Poland. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina Bydgoszcz Established before 1238 City Rights 1346/1349 Government  - Mayor Konstanty Dombrowicz Area  - City 174. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ... Lesser Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo maÅ‚opolskie) is an administrative region or voivodeship in southern Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Łódź Voivodeship Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodeship Flag of Łódź Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo łódzkie) is an administrative region of central Poland created January 1, 1999, out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrków Trybunalski, Skierniewice and part of PÅ‚ock voivodeships, pursuant to the... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Lublin Voivodeship Coat of Arms Potockis Palace in MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Old chapel Krzna river Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of eastern Poland. ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... Lubusz Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubuskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of western Poland. ... Gorzów Wielkopolski (abbrev. ... Motto: Miasto przyszÅ‚oÅ›ci City of future Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lubusz Powiat city county Gmina Zielona Góra Estabilished 13th century City Rights 1323 Government  - Mayor Janusz Kubicki Area  - City 58. ... Geographical characteristics Area 35,579 km² Land km² Water km² Population Total (2003) 5,136,000 Density 144. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Capital city BiaÅ‚ystok Area 20 180 km² Population  - Density 1,221,000 60. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Capital city GdaÅ„sk Area 18,293 km² Population (2004)  - Density 2,192,000 120/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 4 16 Communes 123 Logo of Pomeranian Voivodeship Sea port in GdaÅ„sk The Sea Towers in Gdynia will be the tallest building (138 m) in Poland outside Warsaw... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... Subcarpathia Voivodeship Subcarpathia Voivodeship (Polish: województwo podkarpackie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, in southeastern Poland. ... Rzeszów ( ) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164,000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945-1998). ... Capital city Kielce Area 11,672 km² Population (2006)  - Density 1,283,500 110/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 1 13 Communes 102 Administrative divisions: ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodeship (Polish: ) should preferably be translated as the ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie province, as it is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of central Poland. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ... Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... Capital city Szczecin Area 22,896 km² Population (2004)  - Density 1,694,865 74/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 3 18 Communes 114 Administrative divisions: West Pomeranian Voivodeship (also West Pomerania Province — Polish: województwo zachodniopomorskie) is a voivodeship, or province, in northwestern Poland. ... Stettin redirects here. ...

Economy

For more details on this topic, see Economy of Poland.
Financial centre of Warsaw, Poland's capital and largest city
Financial centre of Warsaw, Poland's capital and largest city

Poland is considered to have one of the healthiest economies of the post-communist countries, with GDP growing by 6.1% in 2006.[10] Since the fall of communism, Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of liberalising the economy and today stands out as a successful example of the transition from a state-directed economy to a primarily privately owned market economy. Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s with mixed results. ... Image File history File links Warsaw6vb. ... Image File history File links Warsaw6vb. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... A planned economy (also known as command economy and centrally-planned economy) is an economic system in which the state or government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income. ... Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


The privatisation of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed the development of an aggressive private sector. As a consequence, consumer rights organizations have also appeared. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" such as coal, steel, railways, and energy has been continuing since 1990. Between 2007 and 2010, the government plans to float twenty public companies on the Polish stock market, including parts of the coal industry. To date (2007), the biggest privatisations have been the sale of the national telecoms firm Telekomunikacja Polska to France Telecom in 2000, and an issue of 30% of the shares in Poland's largest bank, PKO Bank Polski, on the Polish stockmarket in 2004. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Polish: GieÅ‚da Papierów WartoÅ›ciowych w Warszawie SA (GPW) is the largest stock exchange in Central and Eastern Europe. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Telekomunikacja Polska (Polish Telecom) is Polands former state telephone monopoly, which still dominates the telecom industry. ... France Télécom is the main telecommunication company in France. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Poland has a large number of private farms in its agricultural sector, with the potential to become a leading producer of food in the European Union. Structural reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger-than-expected fiscal pressures. Warsaw leads in the Central Europe in foreign investment.[11] GDP growth had been strong and steady from 1993 to 2000 with only a short slowdown from 2001 to 2002. The prospect of closer integration with the European Union has put the economy back on track,[citation needed] with growth of 3.7% annually in 2003, a rise from 1.4% annually in 2002. In 2004, GDP growth equaled 5.4%, in 2005 3.3% and in 2006 6.2%. For 2007, the government has set a target for GDP growth at 6.5 to 7.0%.[citation needed] A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ...

A one hundred złoty note
A one hundred złoty note

Although the Polish economy is currently undergoing economic development, there are many challenges ahead. The most notable task on the horizon is the preparation of the economy (through continuing deep structural reforms) to allow Poland to meet the strict economic criteria for entry into the European Single Currency (Euro). According to the minister of finance Jacek Rostowski Poland is likely to join ERM in 2009 and adopt Euro in 2012[12] or 2013[13]. http://www. ... http://www. ... Złoty (literally meaning golden, plural: złote or złotych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Erm is a village in the Netherlands and it is part of the Coevorden municipality in Drenthe. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Average salaries in enterprise sector in January 2008 were around 3000PLN (equals to 840 euro or 1300 US dollars)[14] and growing sharply.[15] Salaries varies between the regions: median wage in the capital city Warsaw was 4600 PLN (1200 euro or 2000 US dollars) while in Bialystok only 2400 (670 euro or 1000 US dollars).[16] This article is about the statistical concept. ...

Leopard sport-style car designed and produced in Poland

Since joining the European Union, many workers have left to work in other EU countries (particularly Ireland and the UK) because of high unemployment, which was the second-highest in the EU (14.2% in May 2006).[17] With the rapid growth of the salaries, booming economy, strong value of Polish currency, and the decreasing unemployment (8.8% in September 2007[18]) exodus of Polish workers seems to be over. In 2008 people who came back outnumbered thoses leaving the country.[19] Image File history File links Leopard_car_poland_gazetapl. ... Image File history File links Leopard_car_poland_gazetapl. ... Leopard Leopard 6 Liter Roadster is a Polish classical sport-style luxury car, produced by Leopard Automobile AB in the town of Mielec. ...


Commodities produced in Poland include: electronics, cars (including the luxurious Leopard car), buses (Autosan, Jelcz SA, Solaris, Solbus), helicopters (PZL Świdnik), transport equipment, locomotives, planes (PZL Mielec), ships, military engineering (including tanks, SPAAG systems), medicines (Polpharma, Polfa), food, clothes, glass, pottery (Bolesławiec), chemical products and others. Leopard Leopard 6 Liter Roadster is a Polish classical sport-style luxury car, produced by Leopard Automobile AB in the town of Mielec. ... Autosan police bus Autosan H9-21 Autosan A1010M „Medium” Autosan S.A. is Polish automobile-bus producer. ... Jelcz M181MB/3 articulated bus in Katowice Jelcz buses Jelcz SA is the Polish producer of buses and trucks, located in Jelcz-Laskowice. ... Solaris Urbino 12 Solaris Bus & Coach is a bus, coach and trolleybus manufacturer based in Bolechowo, a PoznaÅ„, Poland uptown. ... PZL is an abbreviation name used by three Polish aerospace manufacturers. ... PZL is an abbreviation name used by three Polish aerospace manufacturers. ... The PZA LOARA ( Przeciwlotniczy Zestaw Artyleryjski = Anti-Aircraft Artilery System ) is a medium armoured, self propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system. ...


Science, technology and education

The education of Poland society was a goal of rulers as early as the 12th century. ... Education in Poland starts at the age of 7 years of primary school (Polish szkoła podstawowa). ...

Education

The education of Polish society was a goal of rulers as early as the 12th century, and Poland soon became one of the most educated European countries. The library catalogue of the Cathedral Chapter of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that already in the early 12th century Polish intellectuals had access to the European literature. In 1364, in Kraków, the Jagiellonian University, founded by King Casimir III, became one of Europe's great early universities. In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established his Commission on National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first state ministry of education. For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish: Commission of National Education, a kind of National Board of Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king StanisÅ‚aw August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ...


Current situation

Today Poland has more than a hundred tertiary education institutions; traditional universities to be found in its major cities of Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Olsztyn, Opole, Poznań, Rzeszów, Szczecin, Toruń, Warsaw, Wrocław and Zielona Góra as well as technical, medical, economic institutions elsewhere, employing around 61,000 workers. There are also around 300 research and development institutes, with about 10,000 more researchers. In total, there are around 91,000 scientists in Poland today. Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina Bydgoszcz Established before 1238 City Rights 1346/1349 Government  - Mayor Konstanty Dombrowicz Area  - City 174. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ... Olsztyn ( ; German: ; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini) is a city in northeast Poland, on the Łyna river. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Rzeszów ( ) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164,000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945-1998). ... Stettin redirects here. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Motto: Miasto przyszÅ‚oÅ›ci City of future Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lubusz Powiat city county Gmina Zielona Góra Estabilished 13th century City Rights 1323 Government  - Mayor Janusz Kubicki Area  - City 58. ...


According to Frost & Sullivan's Country Industry Forecast the country becoming an interesting location for research and development investments [20]. Multinational companies such as: ABB, Delphi, GlaxoSmithKline, Google, Hewlett–Packard, IBM, Intel, LG Electronics and Microsoft, set up their R&D centres in Poland. Motorola in Kraków, Siemens in Wrocław and Samsung in Warszawa are one of the largest owned by those companies [21]. Over 40 R&D centres, and 4,500 of researchers makes Poland biggest R&D hub in the Central and Eastern Europe [22]. Companies chose Poland because of the availability of highly qualified labor force, presence of universities, support of authorities, and the largest market in Central Europe [23].


According to KPMG report [24] 80% of Poland's current investors are contented with their choice and willing to reinvest. In 2006 Intel decided to double the number of employees in its R&D centre[25].


The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Poland's education as the 23rd best in the world, being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average.[2] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Telecommunication and IT

The share of the telecom sector in the GDP is 4.4% (end of 2000 figure), compared to 2.5% in 1996. Nevertheless, despite high expenditures for telecom infrastructure (the coverage increased from 78 users per 1000 inhabitants in 1989 to 282 in 2000). // Telephones - main lines in use: 12. ... Software companies in Poland: Computer Associates ComputerLand SA Logotec Engineering SA The Polished Group Softbank Prokom Software Infoservice Optimus MKS_Vir Young Digital Poland Vulcan Media SuperMemo World Nahlik Soft Jacek Skalmierski Creamsoft Comarch e-Pro See also List of software companies Categories: Companies of Poland ... Telecom is an abbreviation of telecommunication. ...


The value of the telecommunication market is zl 38.2bn (2006), and it grew by 12.4% in 2007 PMR [3]


the coverage mobile cellular is over 1000 users per 1000 people (2007)

  • Telephones—mobile cellular: 38.7 million (Onet.pl & GUS Report, 2007)
  • Telephones—main lines in use: 12.5 million (Telecom Team Report, 2005)

Culture

For more details on this topic, see Culture of Poland.
Polish architecture: Main Market Square in Kraków. St Mary's Basilica (left), Sukiennice (centre), Town Hall Tower (right)
Polish architecture: Main Market Square in Kraków. St Mary's Basilica (left), Sukiennice (centre), Town Hall Tower (right)

Polish culture has been influenced by both Eastern and Western influences. Today, these influences are evident in Polish architecture, folklore, and art. Poland is the birthplace of some world famous individuals, including Pope John Paul II, Marie Skłodowska Curie, Kazimierz Pułaski, Nicolaus Copernicus and Frederic Chopin. The Culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1000 year history. ... Image File history File links Rynekkrk. ... Image File history File links Rynekkrk. ... Rynek Główny. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Gothic Altarpiece by Veit Stoss Interior of the Basilica Exterior of the Basilica St. ... Krakóws Sukiennice. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Note: Names that cannot be confirmed in Wikipedia database nor through given sources are subject to removal. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Kazimierz PuÅ‚aski. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Frédéric-François Chopin as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix in 1838. ...


The character of Polish art always reflected world trends. The famous Polish painter, Jan Matejko included many significant historical events in his paintings. Also a famous person in history of Polish art was Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz. He was an example of a Polish Renaissance Man. Polish literature dates back to 1100s[26] and includes many famous poets and writers such as Jan Kochanowski, Adam Mickiewicz, Bolesław Prus, Juliusz Słowacki, Witold Gombrowicz, Stanisław Lem and, Ryszard Kapuściński. Writers Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska have each won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Self-portrait of Witkacy, 1938 StanisÅ‚aw Ignacy Witkiewicz, a. ... Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... Juliusz SÅ‚owacki. ... Witold Marian Gombrowicz (August 4, 1904 in MaÅ‚oszyce, near Kielce, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – July 24, 1969 in Vence, near Nice, France) was a Polish novelist and dramatist. ... StanisÅ‚aw Lem ( , September 12, 1921 – March 27, 2006) was a Polish science fiction, philosophical and satirical writer. ... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (March 4, 1932 - January 23, 2007) was a popular Polish journalist, author, publicist and poet both at home and abroad. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont (May 7, 1867 – December 5, 1925) (the actual name was Rejment) was a Polish writer who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1924. ... CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz  ; (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004), was a Polish poet, writer, academic, and translator. ... WisÅ‚awa Szymborska WisÅ‚awa Szymborska (IPA: [], born July 2, 1923, Bnin - now a district of Kórnik), Poland) is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes...


Many world renowned Polish movie directors include Academy Awards winners Roman Polański, Andrzej Wajda, Zbigniew Rybczyński, Janusz Kamiński and, Krzysztof Kieślowski. The traditional Polish music composers include world-renowned pianist Frederic Chopin as well as famous composers such as Krzysztof Penderecki, Henryk Mikołaj Górecki, Karol Szymanowski, and others. // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Roman Raymond PolaÅ„ski (born August 18, 1933) is an Academy Award-winning Polish–French film director and actor. ... Andrzej Wajda (born March 6, 1926 in SuwaÅ‚ki) is a Polish film director. ... Zbigniew RybczyÅ„ski is a filmmaker who has won numerous prestigious industry awards internationally. ... Janusz Zygmunt KamiÅ„ski (born June 27, 1959) is an Oscar winning cinematographer and film director who has photographed all of Steven Spielbergs movies since 1993s Schindlers List. ... Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski   (June 27, 1941 Warsaw, Poland – March 13, 1996 Warsaw, Poland) was an influential Oscar-nominated Polish film director and screenwriter, known internationally for his film cycles Three Colors and The Decalogue. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Henryk MikoÅ‚aj Górecki (born December 6, 1933) is a Polish composer of classical music. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Karol Szymanowski Karol Szymanowski Karol Maciej Korwin-Szymanowski (October 6, 1882–March 28, 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist. ...


Notable foods in Polish cuisine include Polish sausage, red beet soup, Polish dumplings, flaczki (tripe soup), cabbage rolls, Oscypek, Polish pork chops, Polish traditional stew, various potato dishes, a fast food sandwich zapiekanka, and many more. Traditional Polish desserts include Polish doughnuts, Polish gingerbread and others. Polish cuisine (Polish: kuchnia polska) is a mixture of Slavic, Jewish and foreign culinary traditions. ... Wiejska kielbasa Various brands of kielbasa Kielbasa (in English usually pronounced or ; in Polish spelled kiełbasa and pronounced (help· info) is the generic Polish word for sausage. ... Borscht with sour cream. ... Pierogi frying A plateful of Pierogi Pierogi (also perogi, perogy, pirohi, piroghi, pirogi, pirogen, piroshke or pyrohy), from the Proto-Slavic pir (festivity) is the name most commonly used in English speaking areas to refer to a variety of Slavic semicircular (or, in some cuisines, square) stuffed dumplings of unleavened... Tripe in an Italian market Look up tripe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gołąbki is a hearty traditional Polish dish consisting of boiled cabbage leaves stuffed with ground beef, chopped onions, and rice, baked in a spicy tomato sauce. ... Polish cuisine (Polish: kuchnia polska) is a mixture of Slavic, Jewish and foreign culinary traditions. ... Bigos is a traditional stew typical of Polish and Lithuanian cuisine that many consider as Polands national dish. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Zapiekanka is a polish name for halved baguette topped mainly with sprats and cheese which is next heated up and sometimes topped with ketchup. ... Traditional pączki Assorted pączki in America Pączki (Polish: pączki, pronounced: MP3 Pronunciation File) are traditional Polish doughnuts. ... Gingerbread cookies Gingerbread in cake form A Lebkuchen house Traditional Toruń gingerbread Gingerbread is a sweet that can take the form of a cake or a cookie in which the predominant flavor is ginger. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Poland

Polands national sports include soccer, volleyball, hockey, basketball and handball. ...

International rankings

Index Rank Countries
reviewed
Human Development Index 2006 37th 177
Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index 2006 58th 168
Index of Economic Freedom 2007 87th 157
Summary Innovation Index 2005 27th 33
UNICEF Child Well-being league table 14th 21
Networked Readiness Index 2006-2007 58th 122
OECD Working time 2nd 27
OICA Automobile Production 20th 53

Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... The World Economic Forums Networked Readiness Index (NRI) measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Working time refers to the period of time that an individual spends at paid occupational labor. ... The Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers), commonly called the OICA, is a federation of automobile manufacturers. ... This is a list of countries by automobile production in 2006 mostly based on OICA accessed in September 2007. ...

See also

Poland Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Note: Names that cannot be confirmed in Wikipedia database nor through given sources are subject to removal. ... There are thirteen UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Poland. ...

References

Find more about Poland on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  1. ^ a b Central Statistical Office of Poland (2007). Mały Rocznik Statystyczny 2007. Retrieved on 15 August 2007.
  2. ^ NationMaster.com 2003-2007, Poland, Facts and figures
  3. ^ (Polish) Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (Centre for Public Opinion Research (Poland) CBOS). Komunikat z badań; Warszawa, Marzec 2005. Co łączy Polaków z parafią? Preface. Accessed 2007-12-14.
  4. ^ (Polish) Dr Zbigniew Pasek, Jagiellonian University, Wyznania religijne. Retrieved on 2007-09-15. Further reading: Ustawa o gwarancjach wolności sumienia i wyznania z dnia 17 V 1989 z najnowszymi nowelizacjami z 1997 roku.
  5. ^ (Polish) Michał Tymiński, Kościół Zielonoświątkowy. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  6. ^ (Polish) Dr. Paweł Borecki, Opinia prawna dotycząca religii w szkole. Kateda Prawa Wyznaniowego Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  7. ^ (Polish) Wirtualna Polska, Wiadomości. Polacy przeciwni wliczaniu ocen z religii do średniej. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  8. ^ (Polish) Olga Szpunar, „Dorośli chcą religii w szkole”. Gazeta Wyborcza Kraków. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  9. ^ Teeple, J. B. (2002). Timelines of World History. Publisher: DK Adult.
  10. ^ Tapping Into Polish Power - Forbes.com
  11. ^ "Poland in the Lead", The Warsaw Voice, September 2002. Retrieved on August 11, 2007.
  12. ^ Gazeta Wyborcza, "Szejnfeld: Wejście do strefy euro korzystne dla przedsiębiorców
  13. ^ Jan Cienski, "Poland Alters Stance on Euro
  14. ^ OECD Economic Outlook No. 82 - Poland
  15. ^ OECD Economic Outlook No. 82 - Poland
  16. ^ Zarobki w Warszawie w 2007 roku
  17. ^ Eurostat September 2007 - Euro area and EU27 unemployment down to 7.3%, 31 October, 2007
  18. ^ Eurostat September 2007 - Euro area and EU27 unemployment down to 7.3%, 31 October, 2007
  19. ^ The Times: Tide turns as Poles end great migration
  20. ^ Newswire Poland Emerges as the European R&D Hub Despite Favorable Conditions in Asia Pacific
  21. ^ Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency Poland - R&D centre
  22. ^ Newswire Poland Emerges as the European R&D Hub Despite Favorable Conditions in Asia Pacific
  23. ^ Newswire Poland Emerges as the European R&D Hub Despite Favorable Conditions in Asia Pacific
  24. ^ KPMG, Why Poland?
  25. ^ Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency Poland - R&D centre
  26. ^ (Polish) Koca, B. (2006). Polish Literature - The Middle Ages (Religious writings). Retrieved on 10 December 2006.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Geographic locale
International organisations


  Results from FactBites:
 
Poland Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online (154 words)
Poland - Land Use from the CIA Atlas of Eastern Europe 1990 (138K)
Poland - Population Density from the CIA Atlas of the Eastern Europe 1990 (123K)
Poland Maps from the Atlas of Eastern Europe, August 1990
Poland (9198 words)
Poland is bordered to the north by the Baltic Sea, to the northeast by Russia and Lithuania, and to the east by Belarus and Ukraine.
Poland's relief was formed by the actions of Ice Age glaciers, which advanced and receded over the northern part of the country several times during the Pleistocene Epoch (1,600,000 to 10,000 years ago).
Poland: A Handbook (1977; originally published in Polish, 2nd ed., 1977), is a comprehensive reference source written by Polish authors and published in Poland for readership outside the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m