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Encyclopedia > Poison gas in World War I
A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I.

The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. The gases ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the severe mustard gas, to lethal agents like phosgene. This chemical warfare was a major component of the first global war and first total war of the 20th century. The killing capacity of gas was limited — only 4% of combat deaths were due to gas — however, the proportion of non-fatal casualties was high, and gas remained one of the soldiers' greatest fears. Because it was possible to develop effective countermeasures to gas attacks, it was unlike most other weapons of the period. In the later stages of the war, as the use of gas increased, its overall effectiveness diminished. This widespread use of these agents of chemical warfare, and wartime advances in the composition of high explosives, gave rise to an occasionally expressed view of World War I as "the chemists' war".[1][2] Use of poison gas in World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Use of poison gas in World War I This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

Contents

History of Poison Gas

1914: tear gas

The early uses of chemicals as weapons were as a tear-inducing irritant (lachrymatory), rather than fatal or disabling poisons. During the first World War, the French were the first to employ gas, using 26-mm grenades filled with tear gas (ethyl bromoacetate) in August, 1914. Germany retaliated in October, 1914, firing fragmentation shells filled with a chemical irritant against British positions at Neuve Chapelle, though the concentration achieved was so small that it was barely noticed.[3] Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... estimate Flash point 47 °C R/S statement R: 26/27/28 S: 7/9, 26, 45 RTECS number AF6000000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ... The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ...


1915: large scale use and lethal gases

Germany was the first to make large scale use of gas as a weapon. On 3 January 1915, 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas (known as T-Stoff) were fired on Russian positions on the Rawka River, west of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov. However, instead of vaporizing, the chemical froze, completely failing to have the desired effect.[3] is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Xylyl Bromide was used as a tear gas in World War I. See also Use of poison gas in World War I Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Rawka river in Dolecko The Rawka River is a river in central Poland, a tributary of the Bzura river (between Łowicz and Sochaczew), with a length of 97 kilometres and the basin area of 1,192 sq. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Combatants German Empire Russian Empire Commanders August von Mackensen General Smirnov Vasily Gurko, VI Corps Strength German Ninth Army unknown Casualties unknown 40,000 casualties The Battle of Bolimov was an inconclusive battle of World War I fought on January 31, 1915 between Germany and Russia and considered a preliminary...


The first killing agent employed by the German military was chlorine. German chemical companies BASF, Hoechst and Bayer (which formed the IG Farben conglomerate in 1925) had been producing chlorine as a by-product of their dye manufacturing.[4] In cooperation with Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin, they began developing methods of discharging chlorine gas against enemy trenches.[5][6] General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... Hoechst AG was a German life-sciences company that became Aventis after its merger with Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Clara Immerwahr be merged into this article or section. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


By 22 April 1915, the German Army had 168 tons of chlorine deployed in 5,730 cylinders opposite Langemark-Poelkapelle, north of Ypres. At 17:00, in a slight easterly breeze, the gas was released, forming a gray-green cloud that drifted across positions held by French Colonial troops who broke ranks, abandoning their trenches and creating an 8,000 yard (4.5 km) gap in the Allied line. However, the German infantry were also wary of the gas and, lacking reinforcements, failed to exploit the break before Canadian and British reinforcements arrived.[3] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... Langemark-Poelkapelle is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ...


In what became the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans used gas on three more occasions; on 24 April against the Canadian 1st Division, on 2 May near Mouse Trap Farm and on 5 May against the British at Hill 60. At this stage, defenses against gas were non-existent; the British Official History stated that at Hill 60: This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... List of military divisions — List of Canadian divisions in WWII The Canadian 1st Infantry Division was formed at the outbreak of World War I in August 1914. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"90 men died from gas poisoning in the trenches; of the 207 brought to the nearest dressing stations, 46 died almost immediately and 12 after long suffering."

Chlorine was inefficient as a weapon, from a purely technical standpoint. It produced a visible greenish cloud and strong odor, making it easy to detect. It was water-soluble, so the simple expedient of covering the mouth and nose with a damp cloth was effective at reducing the effect of the gas. It was thought to be even more effective to use urine rather than water, as the ammonia would neutralize the chlorine, but it is now known that ammonia and chlorine can produce toxic fumes (NH3 + Cl2 —> HCl + NH2Cl). Even if the chemistry had been correct, the amount of ammonia in human urine is extremely small. However, it was known at the time that chlorine reacted readily with urea (present in large amounts in urine) to form dichlorourea.[7] Leafy green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Chlorine required a concentration of 1,000 parts per million to be fatal, destroying tissue in the lungs, likely through the formation of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid when dissolved in the water in the lungs (2Cl2 + 2H2O → 4HCl + O2).[8] Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Human respiratory system Image:Heart-and-hullumgitwalitshnit shmulkelungs. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


Despite its limitations, however, chlorine was an effective psychological weapon – the sight of an oncoming cloud of the gas was a continual source of dread for the infantry.


British gas attacks

The British expressed outrage at Germany's use of poison gas at Ypres but responded by developing their own gas warfare capability. The commander of British II Corps, Lt.Gen. Ferguson (officially) said of gas: The British II Corps was formed in both World War I and World War II. During WWII its first assignment was to the British Expeditionary Force where it was commanded by Alan Brooke (from whose name it took its insignia of a red leaping salmon upon three wavy blue bands...

British infantry advancing through gas at Loos, 25 September 1915.
British infantry advancing through gas at Loos, 25 September 1915.
"It is a cowardly form of warfare which does not commend itself to me or other English soldiers. We cannot win this war unless we kill or incapacitate more of our enemies than they do of us, and if this can only be done by our copying the enemy in his choice of weapons, we must not refuse to do so."

However, the British Army embraced gas with enthusiasm and mounted more gas attacks than any other combatant.[citation needed] This was due partly to the British spending most of the latter years of the war on the offensive. Also the prevailing wind on the Western Front was from the west which meant the British more frequently had favorable conditions for a gas release than the Germans. The first use of gas by the British was at the Battle of Loos, 25 September 1915 but the attempt was a disaster. Chlorine, codenamed Red Star, was the agent to be used (140 tons arrayed in 5,100 cylinders), and the attack was dependent on a favorable wind. However, on this occasion the wind proved fickle, and the gas either lingered in no man's land or, in places, blew back on the British trenches.[3] Download high resolution version (1200x725, 118 KB)British infantry advancing into a gas cloud during the Battle of Loos, 25 September 1915. ... Download high resolution version (1200x725, 118 KB)British infantry advancing into a gas cloud during the Battle of Loos, 25 September 1915. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Austria-Hungary Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ...


1915: more deadly gases

The deficiencies of chlorine were overcome with the introduction of phosgene, first used by France under the direction of French chemist Victor Grignard in 1915. Colorless and having an odor likened to "mouldy hay," phosgene was difficult to detect, making it a more effective weapon. Although phosgene was sometimes used on its own, it was more often used mixed with an equal volume of chlorine, the chlorine helping to spread the denser phosgene.[9] The Allies called this combination White Star after the marking painted on shells containing the mixture. Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... François Auguste Victor Grignard (born in Cherbourg, 6 May 1871, died in Lyon, 13 December 1935) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist. ...


Phosgene was a potent killing agent, deadlier than chlorine. It had a potential drawback in that the symptoms of exposure took 24 hours or more to manifest, meaning that the victims were initially still capable of putting up a fight; although this could also mean that apparently fit troops would be incapacitated by the effects of the gas the following day.


In the first combined chlorine/phosgene attack by Germany, against British troops at Nieltje near Ypres, Belgium on 19 December 1915, 88 tons of the gas were released from cylinders causing 1069 casualties and 69 deaths.[10][9] The British P gas helmet, issued at the time, was impregnated with phenate hexamine and partially effective against phosgene. The modified PH Gas Helmet, which was additionally impregnated with hexamethylenetetramine to improve the protection against phosgene, was issued in January 1916.[9] is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Phenate Hexane (PH) Helmet was an early type of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against Chlorine, Phosgene, and tear gases. ... Hexamine ((CH2)6N4) is a chemical created by the reaction of 6 moles of formaldehyde and 4 moles of ammonia . ...


Around 36,600 tons of the gas were manufactured during the war, out of a total of 190,000 tons for all chemical weapons, making it second only to chlorine (93,800 tons) in the quantity manufactured:[11]

  • Germany 18,100 tons
  • France 15,700 tons
  • United Kingdom 1,400 tons (although they also used French stocks)
  • United States 1,400 tons (although they also used French stocks)

Although it was never as notorious in public consciousness as mustard gas, it killed far more people, about 85% of the 100,000 deaths caused by chemical weapons during World War I. Airborne exposure limit 0. ...

Estimated production of gases (by type)
Nation Production (metric tons)
Irritant Lachrymatory Vesicant Total
Austria-Hungary 5,080 255 5,335
Britain 23,870 1,010 520 25,400
France 34,540 810 2,040 37,390
Germany 55,880 3,050 10,160 69,090
Italy 4,070 205 4,275
Russia 3,550 155 3,705
USA 5,590 5 175 5,770
Total 132,580 5,490 12,895 150,965

The word irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation, often a chemical substance. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... A vesicant (also known as a blister agent) is a chemical agent that causes blistering of the skin. ...

1917, Mustard Gas

The most widely reported and, perhaps, the most effective gas of the First World War was mustard gas, a vesicant, which was introduced by Germany in July 1917 prior to the Third Battle of Ypres.[3] Known to the British as HS (Hun Stuff) and Yellow Cross, mustard gas was not intended as a killing agent (though in high enough doses it was fatal) but instead was used to harass and disable the enemy and pollute the battlefield. Delivered in artillery shells, mustard gas was heavier than air, settled to the ground as an oily sherry-looking liquid and evaporated slowly without sunlight. Airborne exposure limit 0. ... A vesicant (also known as a blister agent) is a chemical agent that causes blistering of the skin. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Sherry solera For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ...

A soldier with mustard gas burns, 1917/1918.
A soldier with mustard gas burns, 1917/1918.

The polluting nature of mustard gas meant that it was not always suitable for supporting an attack as the assaulting infantry would be exposed to the gas when they advanced. When Germany launched Operation Michael on 21 March 1918, they saturated the Flesquières salient with mustard gas instead of attacking it directly, believing that the harassing effect of the gas, coupled with threats to the salient's flanks, would make the British position untenable. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Spring Offensive (Operation Michael) was a German offensive along the Western Front during the First World War which marked the deepest advance by any side since 1914. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ...


Gas never reproduced the dramatic success of 22 April 1915; however, it became a standard weapon which, combined with conventional artillery, was used to support most attacks in the later stages of the war. Gas was employed primarily on the Western Front — the static, confined trench system was ideal for achieving an effective concentration — however, Germany made use of gas against Russia on the Eastern Front, where the lack of effective countermeasures would result in deaths of thousands of Russian infantry, while Britain experimented with gas in Palestine during the Second Battle of Gaza. Mustard Gas (Yperite) was first used by the German Army in September, 1917. Once in the soil, mustard gas remained active for several weeks. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ...


The skin of victims of mustard gas blistered, the eyes became very sore and they began to vomit. Mustard gas caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. This was extremely painful and most soldiers had to be strapped to their beds. It usually took a person four or five weeks to die of mustard gas exposure.


One nurse, Vera Brittain, wrote: "I wish those people who talk about going on with this war whatever it costs could see the soldiers suffering from mustard gas poisoning. Great mustard-coloured blisters, blind eyes, all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke." Vera Mary Brittain, Lady Catlin (1893 – March 29, 1970) was an English writer, feminist and pacifist, best remembered as the author of the best-selling memoir Testament of Youth, recounting her experiences during the First World War and the growth of her ideology of specifically Anglican Christian pacifism. ...


Near the end of the war, the United States began large scale production of an improved vesicant gas known as Lewisite, for use in an offensive planned for the spring of 1919. By the time of the armistice on November 11, a plant in Ohio was producing 10 tons per day of the substance, for a total of about 150 tons. It is uncertain what effect this new chemical would have had on the battlefield, however, as it degrades in moist conditions.[12] Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...


Post-war

By the end of the war, chemical weapons had lost much of their effectiveness against well trained and equipped troops. At that time, one quarter of artillery shells fired contained chemical weapons[13] but caused only 3% of the casualties.


Nevertheless, in the following years, chemical weapons were used in several, mainly colonial, wars where one side had an advantage in equipment over the other. The British used adamsite against Russian revolutionary troops in 1919 and mustard against Iraqi insurgents in the 1920s; Spain used chemical weapons in Morocco against Rif tribesmen throughout the 1920s[14] and Italy used mustard gas in Libya in 1930 and again during its invasion of Ethiopia in 1936.[15] In 1925, a Chinese warlord, Zhang Zuolin, contracted a German company to build him a mustard gas plant in Shenyang,[14] which was completed in 1927. Adamsite is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Reds Finnish Reds White Army Czech Legion Allied intervention UK France United States Japan Italy  Canada  Greece  Romania  Serbia New states Poland Finland  Latvia  Estonia  Lithuania Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Commanders Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Kamenev Budyonny Frunze... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... This article is about a city. ...


Public opinion had by then turned against the use of such weapons, which led to the Geneva Protocol, a treaty banning the use (but not the stockpiling) of lethal gas and bacteriological weapons which was signed by most First World War combatants in 1925. Most countries that signed ratified it within around five years, although a few took much longer – Brazil, Japan, Uruguay and the United States did not do so until the 1970s, and Nicaragua ratified it only in 1990.[16] The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. ...


Although all major combatants stockpiled chemical weapons during the Second World War, the only reports of its use in the conflict were the Japanese use of relatively small amounts of mustard gas and lewisite in China,[17][18] and very rare occurrences in Europe (for example some sulfur mustard bombs were dropped on Warsaw on 3 September 1939, which Germany acknowledged in 1942 but indicated that it had been accidental).[14] Mustard gas was the agent of choice, with the British stockpiling 40,719 tons, the Russians 77,400 tons, the Americans over 87,000 tons and the Germans 27,597 tons.[14] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The mustard gas with which the British hoped to repel an invasion of the United Kingdom in 1940 was never needed,[19][20] and a fear that the Allies also had nerve agents[21] (in fact the Allies were not aware of them until the discovery of German stockpiles) prevented their deployment by Germany. Nevertheless poison gas technology played an important role in the Holocaust. Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ... A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Although chemical weapons have been used in at least a dozen wars since the end of the First World War,[15] they have never been used again in combat on such a large scale. Nevertheless, the use of mustard gas and the more deadly nerve agents by Iraq during the 8-year Iran-Iraq war killed around 20,000 Iranian troops (and injured another 80,000), around a quarter of the number of deaths caused by chemical weapons during the First World War.[22] Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4...


Casualties

The contribution of gas weapons to the total casualty figures was relatively minor. British figures, which were accurately maintained from 1916, recorded that only 3% of gas casualties were fatal, 2% were permanently invalid and 70% were fit for duty again within six weeks. All gas casualties were mentally scarred by exposure, and gas remained one of the great fears of the front-line soldier. Download high resolution version (1200x743, 127 KB)British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas await treatment at a dressing station near Bethune during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April, 1918, part of the German offensive in Flanders. ... Download high resolution version (1200x743, 127 KB)British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas await treatment at a dressing station near Bethune during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April, 1918, part of the German offensive in Flanders. ... The British 55th (West Lancashire) Division was a Territorial Force division which served on the Western Front during the First World War. ... British and Portuguese captured by German forces in the Flanders region (1918) British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

"It was remarked as a joke that if someone yelled 'Gas', everyone in France would put on a mask. ... Gas shock was as frequent as shell shock." (H. Allen, Towards the Flame, 1934)
Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! - An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling,
And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime...
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.
In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.
(Wilfred Owen, "Dulce Et Decorum Est", 1917)

Death by gas was particularly horrific. According to Denis Winter (Death's Men, 1978), a fatal dose of phosgene eventually led to "shallow breathing and retching, pulse up to 120, an ashen face and the discharge of four pints (2 liters) of yellow liquid from the lungs each hour for the 48 of the drowning spasms." The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Dulce et Decorum Est is a poem written by British poet and World War I soldier Wilfred Owen in 1917, and published posthumously in 1920. ...

John Singer Sargent's 1918 painting Gassed.
John Singer Sargent's 1918 painting Gassed.

A common fate of those exposed to gas was blindness, chlorine gas or mustard gas being the main causes. It is a frequent misconception that lines of blinded soldiers, hand on the shoulder of the man in front, being guided by a sighted man to a dressing station were a frequent spectacle. One of the most famous First World War paintings, Gassed by John Singer Sargent, captures such a scene of mustard gas casualties which he "witnessed" at a dressing station at Le Bac-du-Sud near Arras in July 1918. However, the gasses used during that battle (tear gas) caused temporary blindness and/or a painful stinging in the eyes. These bandages were normally water-soaked to provide a rudimentary form of pain relief to the eyes of casualties before they reached more organized medical help. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixel Image in higher resolution (2110 × 792 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixel Image in higher resolution (2110 × 792 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was the most successful portrait painter of his era, as well as a gifted landscape painter and watercolorist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Series halogens Group, Period, Block 17 (VIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 3. ... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was the most successful portrait painter of his era, as well as a gifted landscape painter and watercolorist. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ...

Nation Gas casualties (estimated)
Fatal Non-fatal
Russia 50,000 400,000
Germany 10,000 190,000
France 8,000 182,000
UK 8,000 181,000
Austria-Hungary 3,000 97,000
USA 1,500 71,500
Italy 4,500 55,000
Total 85,000 1,176,500

Mustard gas caused the most gas casualties on the Western Front, despite being produced in smaller quantities than inhalant gases such as chlorine and phosgene. The proportion of mustard gas fatalities to total casualties was low; only 2% of mustard gas casualties died and many of these succumbed to secondary infections rather than the gas itself. Once it was introduced at the third battle of Ypres, mustard gas produced 90% of all British gas casualties and 14% of battle casualties of any type. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders...


Mustard gas was a source of extreme dread. In The Anatomy of Courage (1945), Lord Moran, who had been a medical officer during the war, wrote: "After July 1917 gas partly usurped the role of high explosive in bringing to head a natural unfitness for war. The gassed men were an expression of trench fatigue, a menace when the manhood of the nation had been picked over."[23] Charles McMoran Wilson, 1st Baron Moran, MC (10 November 1882-12 April 1977) is most famous for being Sir Winston Churchills personal physician. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


Mustard gas did not need to be inhaled to be effective — any contact with skin was sufficient. Exposure to 0.1 ppm was enough to cause massive blisters. Higher concentrations could burn flesh to the bone. It was particularly effective against the soft skin of the eyes, nose, armpits and groin, since it dissolved in the natural moisture of those areas. Typical exposure would result in swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids, forcing them closed and rendering the victim temporarily blind. Where it contacted the skin, moist red patches would immediately appear which after 24 hours would have formed into blisters. Other symptoms included severe headache, elevated pulse and temperature (fever), and pneumonia (from blistering in the lungs). Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose. ... The armpit (or axilla) is the area on the human body directly under the area where the arm connects to the shoulder. ... The groin is the crease at the junction of the torso with the legs and the adjacent region that includes the external genitals. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...


Death by mustard gas, when it came, was dreadful. A postmortem account from the British official medical history records one of the first British casualties: This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

Case four. Aged 39 years. Gassed 29 July 1917. Admitted to casualty clearing station the same day. Died about ten days later. Brownish pigmentation present over large surfaces of the body. A white ring of skin where the wrist watch was. Marked superficial burning of the face and scrotum. The larynx much congested. The whole of the trachea was covered by a yellow membrane. The bronchi contained abundant gas. The lungs fairly voluminous. The right lung showing extensive collapse at the base. Liver congested and fatty. Stomach showed numerous submucous haemorrhages. The brain substance was unduly wet and very congested.

A British nurse treating mustard gas cases recorded: In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ...

"They cannot be bandaged or touched. We cover them with a tent of propped-up sheets. Gas burns must be agonizing because usually the other cases do not complain even with the worst wounds but gas cases are invariably beyond endurance and they cannot help crying out."
British gas casualties on the Western Front
Date Agent Casualties (official)
Fatal Non-fatal
April – May 1915 Chlorine 350 7,000
May 1915 – June 1916 Lachrymants 0 0
December 1915 – August 1916 Chlorine 1,013 4,207
July 1916 – July 1917 Various 532 8,806
July 1917 – November 1918 Mustard gas 4,086 160,526
April 1915 – November 1918 Total 5,981 180,539

Many of those who survived a gas attack were scarred for life. Respiratory disease and failing eye sight were common post-war afflictions. Of the Canadians who, without any effective protection, had withstood the first chlorine attacks during 2nd Ypres, 60% of the casualties had to be repatriated and half of these were still unfit by the end of the war, over three years later. For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


In reading the statistics of the time, one should bear the longer term in mind. Many of those who were fairly soon recorded as fit for service were left with scar tissue in their lungs. This tissue was susceptible to tuberculosis attack. It was from this that many of the 1918 casualties died, around the time of the Second World War, shortly before the sulfa drugs became widely available for its treatment. A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ...


One notable poison gas casualty of the Great War was Adolf Hitler, who was temporarily blinded. As a result, Hitler adamantly refused to authorise the use of poison gas on the battlefield during World War II, for fear of retaliation.[24] However, poison gas agents such as carbon monoxide and Zyklon B were extensively used against civilians in extermination camps. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


Countermeasures

None of the First World War combatants were prepared for the introduction of poison gas as a weapon. Once gas had appeared, development of gas protection began and the process continued for much of the war producing a series of increasingly effective gas masks.


Even at Second Ypres, Germany, still unsure of the weapon's effectiveness, only issued breathing masks to the engineers handling the gas. At Ypres a Canadian medical officer, who was also a chemist, quickly identified the gas as chlorine and recommended that the troops urinate on a cloth and hold it over their mouth and nose, the theory being the uric acid would crystallize the chlorine. The first official equipment issued was similarly crude; a pad of material, usually impregnated with a chemical, tied over the lower face. To protect the eyes from tear gas, soldiers were issued with gas goggles. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Watersport goggles Blowtorching goggles and safety helmet Goggles are a form of protective eyewear that usually enclose the eye area to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. ...

British Vickers machine gun crew wearing PH gas helmets with exhaust tubes.
British Vickers machine gun crew wearing PH gas helmets with exhaust tubes.

The next advance was the introduction of the gas helmet — basically a bag placed over the head. The fabric of the bag was impregnated with a chemical to neutralize the gas — however, the chemical would wash out into the soldier's eyes whenever it rained. Eye-pieces, which were prone to fog up, were initially made from talc. When going into combat, gas helmets were typically worn rolled up on top of the head, to be pulled down and secured about the neck when the gas alarm was given. The first British version was the Hypo helmet, the fabric of which was soaked in sodium hyposulfite (commonly known as "hypo"). The British P gas helmet, partially effective against phosgene and with which all infantry were equipped with at Loos, was impregnated with phenate hexamine. A mouthpiece was added through which the wearer would breathe out to prevent carbon dioxide build-up. The adjutant of the 1/23rd Battalion, The London Regiment, recalled his experience of the P helmet at Loos: Download high resolution version (1243x773, 201 KB)A British Vickers machine gun crew on the Oise sector, Marne, 1916. ... Download high resolution version (1243x773, 201 KB)A British Vickers machine gun crew on the Oise sector, Marne, 1916. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3•5H2O, an efflorescent, monoclinic crystalline substance also called sodium hyposulfite or “hypo. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... An adjutant (from the Latin adiutans, present participle of the verb adiutare, to help; the Romans actually used adiutor for the noun) is an officer who assists a more senior officer. ... Battalions of the London Regiment early 1900s by Richard Caton Woodville (1856-1927) The London Regiment is a Territorial Army regiment in the British Army. ...

"The goggles rapidly dimmed over, and the air came through in such suffocatingly small quantities as to demand a continuous exercise of will-power on the part of the wearers."

A modified version of the P Helmet, called the PH Helmet, was issued in January 1916, and was additionally impregnated with hexamethylenetetramine to improve the protection against phosgene.[9] Hexamine ((CH2)6N4) is a chemical created by the reaction of 6 moles of formaldehyde and 4 moles of ammonia . ...

Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators, Ypres, September 1917.
Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators, Ypres, September 1917.

Self-contained box respirators represented the culmination of gas mask development during the First World War. Box respirators used a two-piece design; a mouthpiece connected via a hose to a box filter. The box filter contained granules of chemicals that neutralised the gas, delivering clean air to the wearer. Separating the filter from the mask enabled a bulky but efficient filter to be supplied. Nevertheless, the first version, known as the Large Box Respirator (LBR) or "Harrison's Tower", was deemed too bulky — the "box" canister needed to be carried on the back. The LBR had no mask, just a mouthpiece and nose clip; separate gas goggles had to be worn. It continued to be issued to the artillery gun crews but the infantry were supplied with the "Small Box Respirator" (SBR). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1071, 521 KB) Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR). ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... An air filter is a device which cleans dirty air. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ...


The Small Box Respirator featured a single-piece, close-fitting rubberized mask with eye-pieces. The box filter was compact and could be worn around the neck. The SBR could be readily upgraded as more effective filter technology was developed. The British-designed SBR was also adopted for use by the American Expeditionary Force. The SBR was the prized possession of the ordinary infantryman; when the British were forced to retreat during the German Spring Offensive of 1918, it was found that while some troops had discarded their rifles, hardly any had left behind their respirators. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.(In France, AEF is a news agency specialised in Education and Formation) The AEF fought alongside allied forces against imperial German... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


It was not only humans that needed protection from gas; horses and mules, which were the main means of transport, were also vulnerable to gas and needed to be provided with protection. As animals were never used near the front-line, protection from gas only became necessary when the practice of firing gas shells into rear areas was adopted. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A barren of mules. ...


For mustard gas, which did not need to be inhaled in order to inflict casualties, no effective countermeasure was found during the war. The kilt-wearing Highland regiments of Scotland were especially vulnerable to mustard gas injuries due to their bare legs. At Nieuwpoort in Flanders some Scots battalions took to wearing women's tights beneath the kilt as a form of protection. Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 1st  - Total 30,659 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Inverness ISO 3166-2 GB-HLD ONS code 00QT Demographics Population Ranked 7th  - Total (2005) 213,590  - Density 8 / km² Politics The Highland Council http://www. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... Nieuwpoort is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ... Three women wearing different styles of tights Tights are a type of leg coverings fabric extending from the waist to feet. ...


The Canadian soldiers are said to have found a way to minimize the effects of the mustard gas. Since the gas was sent by the wind towards them, they understood that it would minimize the exposure to the gas if the Canadians not only did not flee but ran through the gas. The French, conversely, when the gas was first used against them, fled, and therefore spent more time in the gas, suffering greater casualties.

Gas alert by Arthur Streeton, 1918.
Gas alert by Arthur Streeton, 1918.

Gas alert procedure became a routine for the front-line soldier. To warn of a gas attack, a bell would be rung, often made from a spent artillery shell. At the noisy batteries of the siege guns, a compressed air strombus horn was used, which could be heard nine miles away. Notices would be posted on all approaches to an affected area, warning people to take precautions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x805, 208 KB) Gas alert, 1918, watercolour and gouache with pencil, 37. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x805, 208 KB) Gas alert, 1918, watercolour and gouache with pencil, 37. ... Arthur Streeton by George Lambert (1917). ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Table of Pneumaticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia This article is about the tool. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ...


Other British attempts at countermeasures were not so effective. An early plan was to use 100,000 fans to disperse the gas. Burning coal or carborundum dust was tried. A proposal was made to equip front-line sentries with diving helmets, air being pumped to them through a 100 ft (30 m) hose. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Silicon carbide (SiC) or moissanite is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon. ... Diving helmets are worn by divers who need to speak and hear underwater. ...


However, the effectiveness of all countermeasures is apparent. In 1915, when poison gas was relatively new, less than 3% of British gas casualties died. In 1916, the proportion of fatalities jumped to 17%. By 1918, the figure was back below 3%, though the total number of British gas casualties was now nine times the 1915 levels.



Various gas masks employed on the Western Front during the war.
Various gas masks employed on the Western Front during the war.


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x451, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in World War I ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x451, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poison gas in World War I ...


Delivery systems

A British cylinder release at Montauban on the Somme, June 1916 — part of the preparation for the Battle of the Somme.
A British cylinder release at Montauban on the Somme, June 1916 — part of the preparation for the Battle of the Somme.
Phosgene delivery system unearthed at the Somme, 2006

The first system employed for the mass delivery of gas involved releasing the gas from cylinders in a favourable wind such that it was carried over the enemy's trenches. The main advantage of this method was that it was relatively simple and, in suitable atmospheric conditions, produced a concentrated cloud capable of overwhelming the gas mask defences. The disadvantages of cylinder releases were numerous. First and foremost, delivery was at the mercy of the wind. If the wind was fickle, as was the case at Loos, the gas could backfire, causing friendly casualties. Gas clouds gave plenty of warning, allowing the enemy time to protect themselves, though many soldiers found the sight of a creeping gas cloud unnerving. Also gas clouds had limited penetration, only capable of affecting the front-line trenches before dissipating. Download high resolution version (671x1000, 105 KB)As part of the preparations for the Battle of the Somme, the British launch a gas attack against German trenches in front of Montauban on the Somme, June 1916. ... Download high resolution version (671x1000, 105 KB)As part of the preparations for the Battle of the Somme, the British launch a gas attack against German trenches in front of Montauban on the Somme, June 1916. ... Montauban-de-Picardie is a village in the Somme département, Picardy region of Northern France. ... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Industrial compressed gas cylinders used for oxy-fuel welding and cutting of steel. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. The battle was the British component of the combined Anglo-French offensive known as the Second Battle of Artois. ...


Finally, the cylinders had to be emplaced at the very front of the trench system so that the gas was released directly over no man's land. This meant that the cylinders had to be manhandled through communication trenches, often clogged and sodden, and stored at the front where there was always the risk that cylinders would be prematurely breached during a bombardment. A leaking cylinder could issue a telltale wisp of gas that, if spotted, would be sure to attract shellfire. 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ...

German gas attack on the eastern front.
German gas attack on the eastern front.

A British chlorine cylinder, known as an "oojah", weighed 190 lb (86 kg), of which only 60 lb (27 kg) was chlorine gas, and required two men to carry. Phosgene gas was introduced later in a cylinder, known as a "mouse", that only weighed 50 lb (23 kg). Image File history File links Russian_front_gas_attack. ... Image File history File links Russian_front_gas_attack. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ...


Delivering gas via artillery shell overcame many of the risks of dealing with gas in cylinders. The Germans, for example, used 5.9 inch artillery shells. Gas shells were independent of the wind and increased the effective range of gas, making anywhere within reach of the guns vulnerable. Gas shells could be delivered without warning, especially the clear, nearly odorless phosgene — there are numerous accounts of gas shells, landing with a "plop" rather than exploding, being initially dismissed as dud HE or shrapnel shells, giving the gas time to work before the soldiers were alerted and took precautions. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ...

Loading a battery of Livens gas projectors.
Loading a battery of Livens gas projectors.

The main flaw associated with delivering gas via artillery was the difficulty of achieving a killing concentration. Each shell had a small gas payload and an area would have to be subjected to a saturation bombardment to produce a cloud to match cylinder delivery. Mustard gas, however, did not need to form a concentrated cloud and hence artillery was the ideal vehicle for delivery of this battlefield pollutant. British soldiers loading a battery of Livens gas projectors during the First World War. ... British soldiers loading a battery of Livens gas projectors during the First World War. ... ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ...


The solution to achieving a lethal concentration without releasing from cylinders was the "gas projector", essentially a large-bore mortar that fired the entire cylinder as a missile. The British Livens projector (invented by Captain W.H. Livens in 1917) was a simple device; an 8-inch diameter tube sunk into the ground at an angle, a propellant was ignited by an electrical signal, firing the cylinder containing 30 or 40 lb (14 or 18 kg) of gas up to 1,900 meters. By arranging a battery of these projectors and firing them simultaneously, a dense concentration of gas could be achieved. The Livens was first used at Arras on 4 April 1917. On 31 March 1918 the British conducted their largest ever "gas shoot", firing 3,728 cylinders at Lens. US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Loading and fitting electrical leads to a battery of Livens projectors. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Lens is commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département. ...


Unexploded weapons

Unexploded WWI ammunition, including chemical ammunition, has been a serious problem in former battle areas from immediately after the end of the War until the present. Shells may be, for instance, uncovered when farmers plough their fields, and are also regularly discovered when public works or construction work is done. While classical shells pose a risk of explosion, their disposal is relatively easy.[citation needed] This is not the case with chemical shells.


An additional difficulty is the current stringency of environmental legislation. In the past, a common method of getting rid of unexploded chemical ammunition was to detonate or dump it at sea; this is nowadays prohibited in most countries. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The problems are especially acute in some northern regions of France. The French government no longer disposes of chemical weapons at sea. For this reason, piles of untreated chemical weapons accumulated. In 2001, it became evident that the pile stored at a depot in Vimy was unsafe; the inhabitants of the neighboring town were evacuated, and the pile moved, using refrigerated trucks and under heavy guard, to a military camp in Suippes.[25][26] The French government announced the construction of an automated plant for the dismantling of chemical munitions inherited from previous wars; this factory, codenamed SECOIA, is to be operational in 2007.[27] The capacity of the plant is meant to be 25 tons per year (extensible to 80 tons at the beginning), for a lifetime of 30 years.[28] Vimy is city in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


In Belgium, a similar plant was planned in 1993 and brought in service in 1999[citation needed], indicating the difficulties in disposal of such wastes.[citation needed] Germany, too, has to deal with unexploded ammunition and polluted lands resulting from the explosion of an ammunition train in 1919.[28]


Gases used

A=Allies, C=Central Powers
Name First use Type Used by
Chlorine 1915 Irritant/Lung Both
Phosgene 1915 Irritant/Skin and mucous membranes, corrosive, toxic Both
Chloromethyl chloroformate 1915 Irritant/Eyes, skin, lungs Both
Trichloromethyl chloroformate 1916 Severe irritant, causes burns Both
Chloropicrin 1916 Irritant, lachrymatory, toxic Both
Stannic chloride 1916 Severe irritant, causes burns A
a-Chlorotoluene (Benzyl chloride) 1917 Irritant, lachrymatory C
Bis(chloromethyl) ether (Dichloromethyl ether) 1918 Irritant, can blur vision C
Diphenylchloroarsine (Diphenyl chlorasine) 1917 Irritant/Sternutatory C
Ethyldichloroarsine 1918 Vesicant C
N-Ethylcarbazole 1918 Irritant C
Benzyl bromide 1915 Lachrymatory C
Xylyl bromide 1914 Lachrymatory, toxic Both
Ethyl iodoacetate 1916 Lachrymatory A
Bromoacetone 1916 Lachrymatory, irritant Both
Bromomethyl ethyl ketone 1916 Irritant/Skin, eyes C
Acrolein 1916 Lachrymatory, toxic A
Hydrocyanic acid (Prussic acid) 1916 Paralyzing A
Hydrogen sulfide (Sulphuretted hydrogen) 1916 Irritant, toxic A
Mustard gas (Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) 1917 Vesicant (blistering agent) Both

General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... Diphosgene (ClCO2CCl3) Diphosgene (Trichloromethyl chloroformate, ClCO2CCl3) is a chemical originally developed for chemical warfare, a few months after the first use of phosgene. ... Chloropicrin is a slightly oily, colorless or faintly yellow liquid of the formula CCl3NO2. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Chlorides | Metal halides | Halides ... Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a chloromethyl group. ... Adamsite is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine. ... Benzyl bromide, or α-bromotoluene, is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a bromomethyl group. ... Xylyl Bromide was used as a tear gas in World War I. See also Use of poison gas in World War I Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Bromoacetone, or bromo-2-propanone, is a lachrymatory agent. ... In organic chemistry, acrolein or propenal is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ...

Effect on World War II

In the Geneva Gas Protocol of the Third Geneva Convention, signed in 1925, the signatory nations agreed not to use poison gas in the future, stating "the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices, has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilised world."[29] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ...


Nevertheless, precautions were taken in World War II. In both Axis and Allied nations, children in school were taught to wear gas masks in case of gas attack. Italy did use poison gas against Ethiopia in 1935 and 1936, and Empire of Japan used gas against China in 1941. Germany developed the poison gases tabun, sarin, and soman during the war, and, infamously, used Zyklon B in Nazi extermination camps. Neither Germany nor the Allied nations used any of their war gases in combat, despite maintaining large stockpiles and occasional calls for their use,[30] possibly heeding warnings of awful retaliation. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ Reddy, Chris (April 2, 2007). The Growing Menace of Chemical War. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  2. ^ Saffo, Paul (2000). Paul Saffo presentation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e Heller, Charles E. (September 1984). Chemical Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918. Combat Studies Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  4. ^ Legg, J.; Parker, G. (2002). The Germans develop a new weapon: the gas cloud. The Great War. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  5. ^ Staff (2005). Fritz Haber. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  6. ^ Abelshauser, Werner (2003). German Industry and Global Enterprise, BASF: The History of a Company. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521827264. 
  7. ^ For example, see: Chattaway, Frederick Daniel (December 22, 1908). "The Action of Chlorine upon Urea Whereby a Dichloro Urea is Produced". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 81 (549): 381-388. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. 
  8. ^ O'Leary, Donal (2000). Chlorine. University College Cork. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  9. ^ a b c d Staff (2004). Choking Agent: CG. CBWInfo. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  10. ^ http://www.chemistry.usna.edu/plebechem/vsepr/chok.html
  11. ^ http://www.mitretek.org/AShortHistoryOfChemicalWarfareDuringWorldWarI.htm
  12. ^ Vilensky, Joel A.; Sinish, Pandy R. (2006). "Blisters as Weapons of War: The Vesicants of World War I". Chemical Heritage Newsmagazine 24 (2). Retrieved on 2007-08-02. 
  13. ^ http://www.worldwar1.com/arm006.htm
  14. ^ a b c d Staff (2005). Blister Agent: Sulfur Mustard (H, HD, HS). CBWInfo. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  15. ^ a b Rosenheck, Dan. "WMDs: the biggest lie of all", New Statesman, August 25, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  16. ^ Staff (2005). High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Protocol. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  17. ^ Staff (2003). History of Chemical and Biological Warfare: 1901-1939 A.D.. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response, Pinal County. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  18. ^ Staff. 1930s. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  19. ^ Chemical Weapons against Invasion. Council for British Archaeology. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  20. ^ A History Of Chemical Warfare
  21. ^ Tucker, Jonathan B.. "War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda", James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  22. ^ Fassihi, Farnaz. "In Iran, grim reminders of Saddam's arsenal", The Star-Ledger, October 27, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  23. ^ Wilson, Charles McMoran (Lord Moran) (1945). The Anatomy of Courage, 1st edition, London: Constable. 
  24. ^ Bernstein, Barton J. (2006). Why We Didn’t Use Poison Gas in World War II. American Heritage. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  25. ^ J. C. (April 17, 2001). Sécurité. Les 55 tonnes d’obus chimiques sont stockées au camp militaire de Suippes. (French). L'Humanité. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  26. ^ http://www.france5.fr/articles/W00068/1324/
  27. ^ http://www.defense.gouv.fr/sites/defense/enjeux_defense/defense_et_societe/protection_de_lenvironnement/protection_de_lenvironnement_et_developpement_durable/
  28. ^ a b J. C. (April 17, 2001). Déminage (French). Sénat. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  29. ^ Third Geneva Convention (June 17, 1925). Text of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Brigham Young University. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  30. ^ The U.S. reportedly had about 135,000 tons of chemical warfare agents during the WW II; Germany had 70,000 tons, Britain 40,000 and Japan 7,500 tons. The German nerve gasses were deadlier than the old-style suffocants (chlorine; phosgene) and blistering agents (mustard gas) in Allied stockpiles. Churchill, and several American Generals reportedly called for their use against Germany and Japan, respectively (Weber, 1985).

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles McMoran Wilson, 1st Baron Moran, MC (10 November 1882 – 12 April 1977) is most famous for being Sir Winston Churchills personal physician. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also known as Nerve agents, it is the term used for a type of chemical warfare substance that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...

General references

  • Bull, S. (2003). Trench warfare. PRC Publishing. ISBN 1-85648-657-5. 
  • Chattaway, F.D. (1908). The Action of Chlorine upon Urea Whereby a Dichloro Urea is Produced. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 81:381-388.[1]
  • Fassihi, F. In Iran, grim reminders of Saddam's arsenal. The [New Jersey] Star-Ledger, 27 October, 2002.[2]
  • Haber, L. F. (2002). The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War, Oxford University Press.
  • Harris, R. and Paxman, J. (2002). A Higher Form of Killing : The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-8129-6653-8.  (first published 1982)
  • Palazzo, Albert. Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (2000).[3]
  • Weber, M. (1985-6). Churchill Wanted to 'Drench' Germany With Poison Gas. The Journal for Historical Review 6(4): 501.[4]
  • Winter, D. (1978). Death's Men: Soldiers of the Great War. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-016822-2. 

External links

World War I Portal
  • Chemical Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918, Charles E. Heller, 1984
  • Chemical Weapons in World War I
  • Gas Warfare
  • Weapons of War: Poison Gas
  • Gas-Poisoning, by Arthur Hurst, M.A., MD (Oxon), FRCP 1917 effects of chlorine gas poisoning
  • Dulce Et Decorum Est - Wilfred Owen's famous WWI poem on a chlorine gas attack


  Results from FactBites:
 
Poison gas in World War I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3945 words)
The killing capacity of gas was limited — only 3% of combat deaths were due to gas — however, the proportion of non-fatal casualties was high and gas remained one of the soldiers' greatest fears.
Gas never reproduced the dramatic success of 22 April 1915; however, it became a standard weapon which, combined with conventional artillery, was used to support most attacks in the later stages of the war.
Gas shells could be delivered without warning, especially the clear, nearly odourless phosgene — there are numerous accounts of gas shells, landing with a "plop" rather than exploding, being initially dismissed as dud HE or shrapnel shells, giving the gas time to work before the soldiers were alerted and took precautions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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dylan
11th May 2010
This is the best web site i have come across for this topic and is the best if you are looking for gases look here

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