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Encyclopedia > Poison
EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC.
Part of a series on
Toxicology and poison
Toxicology (Forensic) - Toxinology
History of poison
(ICD-10 T36-T65, ICD-9 960-989)
Concepts
Poison - Venom - Toxicant - Antidote
Acceptable daily intake - Acute toxicity
Bioaccumulation - Biomagnification
Fixed Dose Procedure - LD50 - Lethal dose
Toxic capacity - Toxicity Class
Toxins and venoms
Neurotoxin - Necrotoxin - Hemotoxin
Mycotoxin - Aflatoxin - Phototoxin
List of fictional toxins
Incidents
Bradford - Minamata - Niigata
Alexander Litvinenko - Bhopal
2007 pet food recalls
List of poisonings
Poisoning types
Elements
Toxic metal (Lead - Mercury - Cadmium - Antimony - Arsenic - Beryllium - Iron - Thallium) - Fluoride - Oxygen
Seafood
Shellfish (Paralytic - Diarrheal - Neurologic
Amnesic)
- Ciguatera - Scombroid
Tetrodotoxin
Other substances
Pesticide - Organophosphate - Food
Nicotine - Theobromine - Carbon monoxide - Vitamin - Medicines
Living organisms
Mushrooms - Plants - Animals
Related topics
Hazard symbol - Carcinogen
Mutagen - List of Extremely Hazardous Substances - Biological warfare
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In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. Legally and in hazardous chemical labelling, poisons are especially toxic substances; less toxic substances are labelled "harmful", "irritant", or not labelled at all. Poison has several meanings: Poison, a substance that causes injury, illness, or death to organisms Poison (band), an American glam metal band Poison (album), a hip-hop / R&B album by Bell Biv DeVoe that features a hit title track (see below) Poison (film), a controversial film directed by Todd... Image File history File links Hazard_T.svg Summary Description: The hazard symbol for toxic/highly toxic substances according to directive 67/548/EWG by the European Chemicals Bureau. ... Image File history File links Hazard_T.svg Summary Description: The hazard symbol for toxic/highly toxic substances according to directive 67/548/EWG by the European Chemicals Bureau. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. ... Toxinology is the specialized area of toxicology that deals specifically with biological toxins, such as venoms or poisonous plants. ... The history of poisons (poison being defined as a substance that causes death or injury when swallowed or absorbed)[1] stretches over a period from before 4500 BC to the present day. ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... A toxicant is a chemical compound that has an effect on organisms. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... Acceptable Daily Intake or ADI is a measure of a specific substance (usually a food additive) in food or drinking water that can be ingested over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... Biomagnification is a similar but distinct concept from bioaccumulation. ... The fixed-dose procedure (FDP) was proposed in 1984 to assess a substances acute oral toxicity using fewer animals with less suffering than the older LD50 test developed in 1927. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... Toxic capacity can mean the toxicity of a substance, possibly in relation to a specific organism and toxic capacity can mean the capacity of an organism, organic system or ecosystem to contain a toxic substance or a selection of toxic substances (a compound) without showing signs of poisoning or dying. ... Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for pesticides created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Hemotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (hemolysis), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage. ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Phototoxins are toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous photosensitivity in a much broader range of subjects. ... This is a list of toxins, poisons and chemical weapons from works of fiction (usually in fantasy and science fiction). ... The Bradford sweets poisoning was the accidental arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England in 1858; an estimated 20 people died when sweets accidentally made with arsenic were sold from a market stall. ... Minamata disease ), sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease ), is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. ... Main article: Minamata disease Niigata Minamata disease ) is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. ... On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ... The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984,[1] in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Dogs and cats have been the main affected pets of the recall. ... This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. ... Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the human body. ... This article is about the element. ... Arsenic poisoning kills by allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic enzymes, leading to death from multi-system organ failure. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... Iron poisoning is caused by an excess of iron in the blood. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, fluoride compounds are toxic. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) is one of the four recognised symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurologic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. ... Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is one of the four recognised syndromes of shellfish poisoning (the others being neurotoxic shellfish poisoning [1], diarrhetic shellfish poisoning [2] and paralytic shellfish poisoning). ... Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin CTX1B Ciguatera is a foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as ciguatoxin, which is present in many micro-organisms (particularly, the micro-algae Gambierdiscus toxicus) living in tropical waters. ... Scombroid fish poisoning is an illness that results from eating spoiled (decayed) fish. ... Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin, tetrodonic acid, TTX) is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote, which blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the pores of the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. ... Pesticide poisonings, where chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. ... Many organophosphates are potent neurotoxins, functioning by inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in nerve cells. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of its use as an insecticide; however, such use is less frequent now than previously. ... Theobromine poisoning or chocolate poisoning is an adverse reaction to the alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, and some other foods. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Vitamin poisoning, or hypervitaminosis, refers to a condition of high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. ... The term drug overdose (or simply overdose) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced. ... Poison Mushroom redirects here. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ... The skull and crossbones, a common symbol for poison. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... This is a list of Extremely Hazardous Substances as defined by Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... Look up damage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Look up activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ...


In medicine (particularly veterinary) and in zoology, a poison is often distinguished from a toxin and a venom. Toxins are poisons produced via some biological function in nature, and venoms are usually defined as biologic toxins that are injected by a bite or sting to cause their effect, while other poisons are generally defined as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Terminology

Some poisons are also toxins, usually referring to naturally produced substances, such as the bacterial proteins that cause tetanus and botulism. A distinction between the two terms is not always observed, even among scientists. For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...


Animal toxins that are delivered subcutaneously (e.g. by sting or bite) are also called venom. In normal usage, a poisonous organism is one that is harmful to consume, but a venomous organism uses poison to defend itself while still alive. A single organism can be both venomous and poisonous. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Venom. ... For other uses, see Bite (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ...


The derivative forms "toxic" and "poisonous" are synonymous.


Within chemistry and physics, a poison is a substance that obstructs or inhibits a reaction, for example by binding to a catalyst. For example, see nuclear poison. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... For information on radioactive toxins see Radiation poisoning A nuclear poison is a substances with a large neutron absorption cross-section in applications, such as nuclear reactors, when absorbing neutrons is an undesirable effect. ...


Paracelsus, the father of toxicology, once wrote: "Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. Only the dose makes a thing not a poison." The phrase "poison" is often used colloquially to describe any harmful substance, particularly corrosive substances, carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants, and to exaggerate the dangers of chemicals. The legal definition of "poison" is stricter. A medical condition of poisoning can also be caused by substances that are not legally required to carry the label "poison". Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ...


Uses of poison

Poisons are usually not used for their toxicity, but may be used for their other properties. The property of toxicity itself has limited applications: mainly for controlling pests and weeds, and for preserving building materials and food stuffs. Where possible, specific agents which are less poisonous to humans have come to be preferred, but exceptions such as phosphine continue in use. This article is about the chemical. ...


Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of assassination, murder, suicide and execution. [1][2] As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as the ancient Athenians did (see Socrates), inhaled, as with carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide (see gas chamber), or injected (see lethal injection). Many languages describe lethal injection with their corresponding words for "poison shot". Poison was also employed in gunpowder warfare. For example, the 14th century Chinese text of the Huo Long Jing written by Jiao Yu outlined the use of a poisonous gunpowder mixture to fill cast iron grenade bombs.[3] Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ...

"Poisoning of Queen Bona" by Jan Matejko

Poisonous materials are often used for their chemical or physical properties other than being poisonous. The most effective, easiest, safest, or cheapest option for use in a chemical synthesis may be a poisonous material. Particularly in experimental laboratory syntheses a specific reactivity is used, despite the toxicity of the reagent. Chromic acid is an example of such a "simple to use" reagent. Many technical applications call for some specific physical properties; a toxic substance may possess these properties and therefore be superior. Reactivity, in particular, is important. Hydrogen fluoride (HF), for example, is poisonous and extremely corrosive. However, it has a high affinity (free energy) for silicon, which is exploited by using HF to etch glass or to manufacture silicon semiconductor chips. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (645 × 800 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Атручэньне каралевы Боны. Ян Матэйка, 1859 Poisoning of Queen Bona. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (645 × 800 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Атручэньне каралевы Боны. Ян Матэйка, 1859 Poisoning of Queen Bona. ... Bona Sforza in her youth Bona Sforza in 1517 Bona Sforza (February 2, 1494 - November 19, 1557) was a member of the Milanese Sforza dynasty, was a queen of Poland, Grand Duchess of Lithuania, and became the second wife of Sigismund I of Poland in 1518. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... In chemistry, chromic acid is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, with the formula H2CrO4. ... Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. Together with hydrofluoric acid, it is the principal industrial source of fluorine and hence the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e. ... Chemical affinity results from electronic properties by which dissimilar substances are capable of forming chemical compounds. ... The thermodynamic free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Etching is used in microfabrication to chemically remove layers from the surface of a wafer during manufacturing. ...


Biological poisoning

Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning. In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons. Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ...


Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur immediately or after each exposure. The patient gradually becomes ill, or becomes ill after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most commonly occurs following exposure to poisons that bioaccumulate such as mercury and lead. To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid death or impairment. Agents that act on the nervous system can paralyze in seconds or less, and include both biologically derived neurotoxins and so-called nerve gases, which may be synthesized for warfare or industry. The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Also known as Nerve agents, it is the term used for a type of chemical warfare substance that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


Inhaled or ingested cyanide as used as method of execution on US gas chambers almost instantly starves the body of energy by inhibiting the enzymes in mitochondria that make ATP. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States, quickly stops the heart by eliminating the cell potential necessary for muscle contraction. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In biological cells that are electrically at rest, the cytosol possesses a uniform electric potential or voltage compared to the extracellular solution. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. ...


Most (but not all) biocides, including pesticides, are created to act as poisons to target organisms, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can also occur in non-target organism, including the humans who apply the biocides and other beneficial organisms. For example, the herbicide 2,4-D imitates the action of a plant hormone, to the effect that the lethal toxicity is specific to plants. Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful" (EU). A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... This article is about modern humans. ... In agriculture and gardening, a beneficial organism is any animal, insect or other living organism, including microorganisms, that provides an advantage in the growing process. ... 2,4-D (or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ...


Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly, by toxication. An example is "wood alcohol" or methanol, which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, and the genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between individuals. Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


The study of the symptoms, mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis of biological poisoning is known as toxicology. Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ...


Exposure to radioactive substances can produce radiation poisoning, an unrelated phenomenon. Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ...


Poisoning management

  • Poison Control Centers (In the US reachable at 1-800-222-1222 at all hours) provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of suspected exposure to poisons or toxic substances.

Poison Control Centers (PCC) provide immediate, free and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous, hazardous or toxic substances. ...

Initial management

CPR redirects here. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Decontamination

  • If the toxin was recently ingested, absorption of the substance may be able to be decreased through gastric decontamination. This may be achieved using activated charcoal, gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, or nasogastric aspiration. Routine use of emetics (syrup of Ipecac) and cathartics are no longer recommended.
    • Activated charcoal is the treatment of choice to prevent absorption of the poison. It is usually administered when the patient is in the emergency room. However, charcoal is ineffective against metals, Na, K, alcohols, glycols, acids, and alkalis.
    • Whole bowel irrigation cleanses the bowel, this is achieved by giving the patient large amounts of a polyethylene glycol solution. The osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution is not absorbed into the body, having the effect of flushing out the entire gastrointestinal tract. Its major uses are following ingestion of sustained release drugs, toxins that are not absorbed by activated charcoal (i.e. lithium, iron), and for the removal of ingested packets of drugs (body packing/smuggling).[4]
    • Gastric lavage, commonly known as a stomach pump, is the insertion of a tube into the stomach, followed by administration of water or saline down the tube. The liquid is then removed along with the contents of the stomach. Lavage has been used for many years as a common treatment for poisoned patients. However, a recent review of the procedure in poisonings suggests no benefit.[5] It is still sometimes used if it can be performed within 1 h of ingestion and the exposure is potentially life threatening.
    • Nasogastric aspiration involves the placement of a tube via the nose down into the stomach, the stomach contents are then removed via suction. This procedure is mainly used for liquid ingestions where activated charcoal is ineffective, i.e. ethylene glycol.
    • Emesis (i.e. induced by ipecac) is no longer recommended in poisoning situations.[6]
    • Cathartics were postulated to decrease absorption by increasing the expulsion of the poison from the gastrointestinal tract. There are two types of cathartics used in poisoned patients; saline cathartics (sodium sulfate, magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate) and saccharide cathartics (sorbitol). They do not appear to improve patient outcome and are no longer recommended.[7]

Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Gastric lavage, also commonly called a stomach pump, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. ... Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution (GoLYTELY®, CoLyte®), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract. ... Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube, NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach. ... Syrup of Ipecac (derived from the dried rhizome and roots of the Ipecacuanha plant), is an emetic—a substance used to induce vomiting. ... Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes material mostly derived from charcoal. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name:ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... The word alkali can mean:- In chemistry, an alkali is the solution of a base in water. ... Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution (GoLYTELY®, CoLyte®), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Gut redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Gastric lavage, also commonly called a stomach pump, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. ... Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube, NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Catharsis is a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great pity, sorrow, laughter, or any extreme change in emotion that results in the renewal, restoration and revitalization for living. ... Gut redirects here. ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... Magnesium citrate is a chemical agent used medicinally as a laxative and to empty the bowel prior to a surgery or colonoscopy. ... Magnesium sulfate (or sulphate) is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulfate, with the formula MgSO4. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ...

Antidotes

Some poisons have specific antidotes: An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ...

Poison/Drug Antidote
paracetamol (acetaminophen) N-acetylcysteine
vitamin K anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin vitamin K
opioids naloxone
iron (and other heavy metals) desferrioxamine, Deferasirox or Deferiprone
benzodiazepines flumazenil
ethylene glycol ethanol, fomepizole or Thiamine
methanol ethanol or fomepizole
cyanide amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite & sodium thiosulfate
Organophosphates Atropine & Pralidoxime
Magnesium Calcium Gluconate
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil, Diltiazem) Calcium Gluconate
Beta-Blockers (Propranolol, Sotalol) Calcium Gluconate and/or Glucagon
Isoniazid Pyridoxine
Atropine Physostigmine

Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... N-acetylcysteine is a chemical, commonly called NAC, produced by the body that enhances the production of the co-enzyme glutathione, a powerful antioxidant. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Deferoxamine, otherwise known as desferrioxamine or desferal, is a chelating agent used to remove excess iron from the body. ... Deferasirox (marketed as Exjade®) is an oral iron chelator. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Fomepizole or 4-Methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Fomepizole or 4-Methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrito functional group. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ... R-phrases R35 S-phrases Flash point Non flammable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) (sometimes spelled thiosulphate) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Structure of the molecule pralidoxime Pralidoxime belongs to a family of compounds, called oximes that bind to organophosphate inactivated acetylcholinesterase. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Calcium lactate gluconate is a soluble salt often used in effervescent calcium tablets. ... Verapamil (brand names: Isoptin®, Verelan®, Calan®) is a medical drug that acts as an L-type calcium channel blocker. ... Calcium lactate gluconate is a soluble salt often used in effervescent calcium tablets. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... Calcium lactate gluconate is a soluble salt often used in effervescent calcium tablets. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Main article: vitamin B6 Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ...

Enhanced excretion

Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ... Hemoperfusion (British English: haemoperfusion) is a medical process used to remove toxic substances from a patients blood. ... Peritoneal dialysis In medicine, peritoneal dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea and potassium from the blood, as well as excess fluid, when the kidneys are incapable of this (i. ... An exchange transfusion is a medical treatment in which apheresis is used to remove one persons red blood cells or platelets and replace them with transfused blood products. ...

Further treatment

  • In the majority of poisonings the mainstay of management is providing supportive care for the patient, i.e. treating the symptoms rather than the poison.

References

  1. ^ Kautilya suggests employing means such as seduction, secret use of weapons, poison etc. - Kautilya Arthshastra and the Science of Management: Relevance for the Contemporary Society By S.D.Chamola. ISBN 8178711265. Page 40.
  2. ^ Kautilya urged detailed precautions against assassination - tasters for food, elaborate ways to detect poison. - Moderate Machiavelli? Contrasting The Prince with the Arthashastra of Kautilya. Journal. Critical Horizons. Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1440-9917 (Print) 1568-5160 (Online). Subject: Humanities, Social Sciences and Law. Issue: Volume 3, Number 2 / September, 2002. DOI: 10.1163/156851602760586671
  3. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 180.
  4. ^ "Position paper: whole bowel irrigation." (2004). J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (6): 843-54. PMID 15533024. 
  5. ^ Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage.". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933-43. PMID 15641639. 
  6. ^ "Position paper: Ipecac syrup." (2004). J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (2): 133-43. PMID 15214617. 
  7. ^ "Position paper: cathartics." (2004). J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (3): 243-53. PMID 15362590. 

Chanakya (c. ...

See also

An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... A food taster is a person that eats food to be served to someone else to confirm that it is safe to eat and does not contain toxins or poisons. ... The history of poisons (poison being defined as a substance that causes death or injury when swallowed or absorbed)[1] stretches over a period from before 4500 BC to the present day. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... This is a list of Extremely Hazardous Substances as defined by Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. ... This is a list of toxins, poisons and chemical weapons from works of fiction (usually in fantasy and science fiction). ... This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... Mr. ...

External links

// Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the human body. ... Argyria (ISV from Greek: αργύρος argyros silver + -ia) is an extremely rare condition caused by the ingestion of elemental silver, silver dust or silver compounds. ... Arsenic poisoning kills by allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic enzymes, leading to death from multi-system organ failure. ... Manganism or manganese poisoning is a toxic condition resulting from chronic exposure to manganese and first identified in 1837 by J. Couper. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Many organophosphates are potent neurotoxins, functioning by inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in nerve cells. ... Cyanide poisoning occurs when a living organism injests cyanide. ... In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, fluoride compounds are toxic. ... Pesticide poisonings, where chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) is one of the four recognised symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurologic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. ... Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is one of the four recognised syndromes of shellfish poisoning (the others being neurotoxic shellfish poisoning [1], diarrhetic shellfish poisoning [2] and paralytic shellfish poisoning). ... Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin CTX1B Ciguatera is a foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as ciguatoxin, which is present in many micro-organisms (particularly, the micro-algae Gambierdiscus toxicus) living in tropical waters. ... Scombroid fish poisoning is an illness that results from eating spoiled (decayed) fish. ... Poison Mushroom redirects here. ... Thanks to the Grasspea Flour, an aquatint print by Goya showing the effects of Lathyrism Lathyrism or Neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of humans and domestic animals, caused by eating certain legumes of the genus Lathyrus. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism. ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus: Poisoning (334 words)
A poison is any substance that is harmful to your body.
The dangers of poisoning range from short-term illness to brain damage, coma and death.
To prevent poisoning it is important to use and store products exactly as their labels say.
Poisoning (1943 words)
The type of poison, the amount and time of exposure, and the age, size, and health of the victim are all factors which determine the severity of symptoms and the chances for recovery.
Symptoms of plant poisoning range from irritation of the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth and throat to nausea, vomiting, convulsions, irregular heartbeat, and even death.
The outcome of poisoning varies from complete recovery to death, and depends on the type and amount of the poison, the health of the victim, and the speed with which medical care is obtained.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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