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Encyclopedia > Poetry of the United States
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The poetry of the United States began as a literary art during the colonial era. Unsurprisingly, most of the early poetry written in the colonies and fledgling republic used contemporary British models of poetic form, diction, and theme. However, in the 19th century a distinctive American idiom began to emerge. By the later part of that century, when Walt Whitman was winning an enthusiastic audience abroad, poets from the United States had begun to take their place at the forefront of the English-language avant-garde. This position was sustained into the 20th century to the extent that Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot were perhaps the most influential English-language poets in the period around World War I. By the 1960s, the young poets of the British Poetry Revival looked to their American contemporaries and predecessors as models for the kind of poetry they wanted to write. The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) // Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other American colonies, see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Diction is the art of enunciating with clarity, of speaking in such a way that each word is clearly heard. ... In literature (as well as many works of nonfiction), a theme is the main idea of the story, or the message the author is conveying. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Walt Whitman Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 - March 26, 1892) was an American Romantic [] poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... |The poets listed below were either born in the United States or else published much of their poetry while living in that country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ...


Toward the end of the millennium, consideration of American poetry had diversified, as scholars placed an increased emphasis on poetry by women, African Americans, Hispanics, Chicanos and other subcultural groupings. Poetry, and creative writing in general, also tended to become more professionalized with the growth of Creative Writing programs on campuses across the country. A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Hispanic world. ... Chicano poetry is a branch of American literature written by and primarily about Mexican-Americans and the Mexican-American experience. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from generic writing. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...

Contents

Poetry in the colonies

Anne Bradstreet
Anne Bradstreet

One of the first recorded poets of the British colonies was Anne Bradstreet (1612–1672), who remains one of the earliest known women poets in English. Her poems are untypically tender evocations of home and family life and of her love for her husband. In marked contrast, Edward Taylor (1645–1729) wrote poems expounding Puritan virtues in a highly wrought metaphysical style that can be seen as typical of the early colonial period. This narrow focus on the Puritan ethic was, understandably, the dominant note of most of the poetry written in the colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries. http://www. ... http://www. ... Anne Bradstreet (ca. ... . ... Edward Taylor (ca. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ...


Another distinctly American lyric voice of the colonial period was Phillis Wheatley, a slave whose book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, was published in 1773. She was one of the best-known poets of her day, at least in the colonies, and her poems were typical of New England culture at the time, meditating on religious and classical ideas. A statue of Phillis Wheatley in Boston Phillis Wheatley Phillis Wheatley (1753 – December 5, 1784), was the first African American female writer to be published in the United States. ... The origins of slavery in Colonial America are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ...


The 18th century saw an increasing emphasis on America as fit subject matter for its poets. This trend is most evident in the works of Philip Freneau (1752–1832), who is also notable for the unusually sympathetic attitude to Native Americans shown in his writings. However, as might be expected from what was essentially provincial writing, this late colonial poetry is generally technically somewhat old-fashioned, deploying the means and methods of Pope and Gray in the era of Blake and Burns. Philip Morin Freneau ( January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832 ) was a United States poet and one of the most important writers/poets of The Age of Reason. He focused on writing nonpolitical poetry. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. ... Alexander Pope, an English poet best known for his Essay on Criticism and Rape of the Lock Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is generally regarded as the greatest English poet of the early eighteenth century, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. ... Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (December 26, 1716 – July 30, 1771), was an English poet, classical scholar and professor of history at Cambridge University. ... William Blake in an 1807 portrait by Thomas Phillips. ... Robert Burns, foremost Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and a lyricist. ...


On the whole, the development of poetry in the American colonies mirrors the development of the colonies themselves. The early poetry is dominated by the need to preserve the integrity of the Puritan ideals that created the settlement in the first place. As the colonists grew in confidence, the poetry they wrote increasingly reflected their drive towards independence. This shift in subject matter was not reflected in the mode of writing which tended to be conservative, to say the least. This can be seen as a product of the physical remove at which American poets operated from the center of English-language poetic developments in London. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Postcolonial poetry

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1873.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1873.

The first significant poet of the independent United States was William Cullen Bryant (1794–1878), whose great contribution was to write rhapsodic poems on the grandeur of prairies and forests. He was rumored to be a flamming homosexual. His lover was an underage boy prostitue named Rocco. Other notable poets to emerge in the early and middle 19th century include Ralph Waldo Emerson , another homo,(1803–1882), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–1882), John Greenleaf Whittier (1807–1892), Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849), Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–1894), Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862), James Russell Lowell (1819–1891), and Sidney Lanier (1842–1881). As might be expected, the works of these writers are united by a common search for a distinctive American voice to distinguish them from their British counterparts. To this end, they explored the landscape and traditions of their native country as materials for their poetry. Public Domain image from http://www. ... Public Domain image from http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William Cullen Bryant William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 - June 12, 1878) was an American Romantic poet and journalist. ... Prairie refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically supported grasses and herbs, with few trees, and having generally a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Greenleaf Whittier John Greenleaf Whittier (December 17, 1807 – September 7, 1892) was an American Quaker poet and forceful advocate of the abolition of slavery in the United States. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is most well-known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... James Russell Lowell circa 1855. ... Sidney Lanier. ...


The most significant example of this tendency may be The Song of Hiawatha by Longfellow. This poem uses Native American tales collected by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who was superintendent of Indian affairs for Michigan from 1836 to 1841. Longfellow also imitated the meter of the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, possibly to avoid British models. The resulting poem, while a popular success, did not provide a model for future U.S. poets. For other uses of the name Hiawatha, see Hiawatha (disambiguation). ... Henry Schoolcraft Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (March 28, 1793–December 10, 1864) was an American geographer, geologist and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his discovery in 1832 of the source of the Mississippi River. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ...

Another factor that distinguished these poets from their British contemporaries was the influence of the transcendentalism of the poet/philosophers Emerson and Thoreau. Transcendentalism was the distinctly American strain of the English Romanticism that began with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Emerson, as much as anyone the founder of transcendentalism, had visited England as a young man to meet these two English poets, as well as Thomas Carlyle. While Romanticism mellowed into Victorianism in post-reform England, it grew more energetic in America from the 1830s through to the Civil War. Image File history File links EmilyDickinson. ... Image File history File links EmilyDickinson. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Edgar Allan Poe was probably the most recognized American poet outside of America during this period. Diverse authors in France, Sweden and Russia were heavily influenced by his works, and his poem "The Raven" swept across Europe, translated into many languages. In the twentieth century the American poet William Carlos Williams said of Poe that he is the only solid ground on which American poetry is anchored. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... For other uses, see The Raven (disambiguation). ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ...


An American idiot

The final emergence of a truly indigenous English-language poetry in the United States was the work of two poets, Walt Whitman (1819–1892) and Emily Dickinson (1830–1886). On the surface, these two poets could not have been less alike. Whitman's long lines, derived from the metric of the King James Version of the Bible, and his democratic inclusiveness stand in stark contrast with Dickinson's concentrated phrases and short lines and stanzas, derived from Protestant hymnals. What links them is their common connection to Emerson (a blurb from whom Whitman printed on the first edition of Leaves of Grass), and a daring quality in regard to the originality of their visions. These two poets can be said to represent the birth of two major American poetic idioms—the free metric and direct emotional expression of Whitman, and the gnomic obscurity and irony of Dickinson—both of which would profoundly stamp the American poetry of the 20th century. Download high resolution version (1985x2453, 1533 KB)This image was made in 1887 in New York, by photographer George C. Cox. ... Download high resolution version (1985x2453, 1533 KB)This image was made in 1887 in New York, by photographer George C. Cox. ... Walt Whitman Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 - March 26, 1892) was an American Romantic [] poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Walt Whitman Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 - March 26, 1892) was an American Romantic [] poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... H:For other uses of King James Version, see King James Version (disambiguation). ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Walt Whitman, age 37, frontispiece to Leaves of Grass, Fulton St. ... It has been suggested that Gnomic literature be merged into this article or section. ... Irony, from the Greek ειρων (self-deprecator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ...


The development of these idioms can be traced through the works of poets such as Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869–1935), Stephen Crane (1871–1900), Robert Frost (1874–1963) and Carl Sandburg (1878–1967). As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century the outlines of a distinctly new poetic tradition were clear to see. Edwin Arlington Robinson Edwin Arlington Robinson (December 22, 1869 – April 6, 1935) was an American poet, who won three Pulitzer Prizes for his work. ... Stephen Crane Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 - 5 June 1900) was an American novelist, poet and journalist. ... Robert Frost (1941) Robert Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Carl Sandburg in 1955 Carl August Sandburg (January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was an American poet, historian, novelist, balladeer and folklorist. ...


Modernism and after

Ezra Pound in 1913.
Ezra Pound in 1913.

This new idiom, combined with a study of 19th-century French poetry, formed the basis of the United States input into 20th-century English-language poetic modernism. Ezra Pound (18851972) and T. S. Eliot (18881965) were the leading figures at the time, but numerous other poets made important contributions. These included Gertrude Stein (18741946), Wallace Stevens (18791955), William Carlos Williams (18831963), Hilda Doolittle (H.D.) (18861961), Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1914), Marianne Moore (18871972), E. E. Cummings (18941962), and Hart Crane (18991932). Williams was to become exemplary for many later poets because he, more than any of his peers, contrived to marry spoken American English with free verse rhythms. Ezra pound in 1913 from http://www. ... Ezra pound in 1913 from http://www. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... // Robert Louis Stevenson, A Childs Garden of Verses Algernon Charles Swinburne, Marino Faliero Alfred lord Tennyson, Tiresias and Other Poems, and Balin and Balan Leonard Bacon Rupert Brooke Elizabeth Daryush, daughter of Robert Bridges Sir Julian Sorell Huxley John Robinson Jeffers Marianne Moore Edwin Muir Edith Sitwell Sir Sacheverell... // John Betjeman becomes Poet Laureate A.R. Ammons: Briefings: Poems Small and Easy Collected Poems: 1951-1971, winner of the National Book Award in 1973 John Ashbery, Three Poems Ted Berrigan, Ron Padgett, and Tom Clark, Back In Boston Again John Berryman, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux) Elizabeth Bishop and... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888–January 4, 1965) was a poet, dramatist and literary critic, whose works, such as The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, and Four Quartets, are considered major achievements of twentieth century Modernist poetry. ... // Matthew Arnold, Essays in Criticism, second series Rubén Darío, Azul Ernest Henley, A Book of Verses George Meredith, A Reading of Earth Ernest Lawrence Thayer, Casey at the Bat September 26 - Thomas Stearns Eliot born in St. ... // Meic Stephens founds Poetry Wales Russian poet Anna Akhmatova was allowed to travel outside the Soviet Union to Sicily and England in order to receive the Taormina prize and an honorary doctoral degree from Oxford University Randall Jarrell, Little Friend, Little Friend Seamus Heaney, Death of a Naturalist Philip Larkin... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer and catalyst in the development of modern art and literature, who spent most of her life in France. ... // Arthur Rimbaud, Illuminations J. Thomson, The City of Dreadful Night, published in National Reformer, and later in 1880 January 16 — Robert William Service (died 1958) a Scots-Canadian poet who wrote The Shooting of Dan McGrew and The Cremation of Sam McGee February 3 — Gertrude Stein (died 1946), American writer... // W.H. Auden becomes a U.S. citizen Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry Roy Campbell, Talking Bronco Walter De la Mare, The Traveller Henry Reed, A Map of Verona, including Naming of Parts Dylan Thomas, Deaths and Entrances, including Fern Hill and A... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... // Robert Browning, Dramatic Idyls, including Ivàn Ivànovitch Alfred Lord Tennyson, Ballads and Other Poems Joseph Campbell (Ireland) Vachel Lindsay Harold Edward Munro Wallace Stevens Frances Browne James Branch Cabell Richard Henry Dana Sarah Josepha Hale Rosanna Eleanor Leprohon James Clerk Maxwell Poetry Categories: | | ... // The Group, a British poetry movement, starts meeting in London with gatherings taking place once a week, on Friday evenings, at first at Hobsbaums flat and later at the house of Edward Lucie-Smith. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... // Robert Browning, Jocoseria Emma Lazarus writes The New Colossus in aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund for the New York Statue of Liberty George Meredith, Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth Algernon Charles Swinburne, A Century of Roundels Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Poems of Passion February 18 — Nikos Kazantzakis... // Babette Deutsch, Collected Poems, 1919-1962 T.S. Eliot - Collected Poems 1909-1962 Philip Hobsbaum and Edward Lucie-Smith, editors, A Group Anthology Silvia Plath, The Bell Jar, an autobiographical novel published under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas Adrienne Rich, Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, her third volume of poetry... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolittle (September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania – September 27, 1961, Zürich), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... // Frederick James Furnivall founds the Shelley Society September 18 — The Symbolist manifesto (‘Le Symbolisme’, Le Figaro} published this date by Jean Moréas, who announced that Symbolism was hostile to plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description, and that its goal instead was to clothe the Ideal... // Eric Gregory Award: Adrian Mitchell, Geoffrey Hill National Book Award for Poetry: Randall Jarrell, The Woman at the Washington Zoo Pulitzer Prize for Poetry: Phyllis McGinley: Times Three: Selected Verse From Three Decades Poetry List of poetry awards Categories: | ... Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1914) was an American poet. ... // Notorious American poetaster Julia A. Moore publishes her second collection, A Few Choice Words to the Public, but unlike her bestseller of 1876, The Sweet Singer of Michigan Salutes the Public, it finds few buyers. ... // The cover of the first edition of BLAST March — The Little Review founded by Margaret Caroline Anderson as part of Chicagos literary renaissance July 2 — BLAST, a short-lived journal of the Vorticist movement, is founded with the publication of the first of its total of two editions The... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... // Robert Browning, Parleyings with Certain People George Meredith, Ballads and Poems of Tragic Life June 28 — Orrick Glenday Johns (died 1946), American poet September 21 — Sir Thomas Herbert Parry-Williams, (died 1975), Welsh poet, translator and academic Leonard Bacon Rupert Brooke Skipwith Cannell (died 1957), American poet associated with the... // John Betjeman becomes Poet Laureate A.R. Ammons: Briefings: Poems Small and Easy Collected Poems: 1951-1971, winner of the National Book Award in 1973 John Ashbery, Three Poems Ted Berrigan, Ron Padgett, and Tom Clark, Back In Boston Again John Berryman, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux) Elizabeth Bishop and... E. E. Cummings Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), abbreviated E. E. Cummings or e. ... // The Yellow Book, with a cover illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley. ... // Eric Gregory Award: Donald Thomas, James Simmons, Brian Johnson (poet, Jenny Joseph Queens Gold Medal for Poetry: Christopher Fry National Book Award for Poetry: Alan Dugan, Poems Pulitzer Prize for Poetry: Alan Dugan: Poems Poetry List of poetry awards Categories: | ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 in Garrettsville, Ohio, United States – April 27, 1932 at sea) was a U.S. poet. ... // Stephen Crane, War is Kind Ernest Dowson, Decorations: in Verse and Prose Stéphane Mallarmé, Poésies (posthumous) W.B. Yeats, The Wind Among the Reeds May 25 — Kazi Nazrul Islam (died 1976), Bengali poet and composer best known as the Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet), popular among Bengalis and considered... // W. B. Yeats rents a house in Dublin. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers can perceive to be... For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film) Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the accentuation of sounds or other events over time. ...


While these poets were unambiguously aligned with High modernism, other poets active in the United States in the first third of the 20th century were not. Among the most important of the latter were those who were associated with what came to be known as the New Criticism. These included John Crowe Ransom (18881974), Allen Tate (18991979), and Robert Penn Warren (19051989). Other poets of the era, such as Archibald MacLeish (18921982), experimented with modernist techniques but were also drawn towards more traditional modes of writing. The modernist torch was carried in the 1930s mainly by the group of poets known as the Objectivists. These included Louis Zukofsky (19041978), Charles Reznikoff (18941976), George Oppen (19081984), Carl Rakosi (19032004) and, later, Lorine Niedecker (19031970). Kenneth Rexroth, who was published in the Objectivist Anthology, was, along with Madeline Gleason (19091973), a forerunner of the San Francisco Renaissance. High modernism is a particular instance of modernism, coined towards the end of modernism. ... New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ... John Crowe Ransom (April 30, 1888, Pulaski, Tennessee- July 3, 1974, Gambier, Ohio) was an American poet, essayist, social and political theorist, man of letters, and academic. ... // Matthew Arnold, Essays in Criticism, second series Rubén Darío, Azul Ernest Henley, A Book of Verses George Meredith, A Reading of Earth Ernest Lawrence Thayer, Casey at the Bat September 26 - Thomas Stearns Eliot born in St. ... // The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics is founded by Allen Ginsberg and Anne Waldman. ... John Orley Allen Tate (November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American poet, essayist, and social commentator, and Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, 1943 - 1944. ... // Stephen Crane, War is Kind Ernest Dowson, Decorations: in Verse and Prose Stéphane Mallarmé, Poésies (posthumous) W.B. Yeats, The Wind Among the Reeds May 25 — Kazi Nazrul Islam (died 1976), Bengali poet and composer best known as the Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet), popular among Bengalis and considered... // Kingsley Amis - Collected Poems Ted Hughes - Moor Town Craig Raine - A Martian Sends a Postcard Home See 1979 Governor Generals Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards. ... Robert Penn Warren Robert Penn Warren (April 24, 1905 – September 15, 1989) was an American poet, novelist, and literary critic, and was one of the founders of The New Criticism. ... // Ezra Pound presents Hilda Doolittle (the poet H.D.) with a sheaf of love poems with the collective title Hildas Book March — art student Vachel Lindsay goes into the streets of New York City and tries to sell or give away copies of one of his poems. ... // Dead Poets Society, a film with excerpts from many traditional poets, ending with the title and opening line of Walt Whitmans lament on the death of Abraham Lincoln, O Captain! My Captain! My Left Foot, a film about Christy Brown, the Irish poet, and based on his autobiography Edward... Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... // Rudyard Kipling, Barrack-Room Ballads, including Gunga Din Alfred Tennyson, The Death of Oenone Richard Aldington (died 1962), English poet, novelist, writer, translator and biographer June 12 — Djuna Barnes (died 1982), American writer and poet Mary Phelps Crosby Archibald MacLeish Hugh MacDiarmid (Scotland) Edna St. ... // Final edition of This Magazine published. ... William Carlos Williams, who was the only poet to be published as both an Objectivist and an Imagist The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... The cover of the 1978 edition of Zukofskys long poem A. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 - May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets. ... // Nobel Prize in Literature is shared by French poet Frédéric Mistral and Spanish dramatist José Echegaray y Eizaguirre. ... // L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Magazine, edited by Bruce Andrews and Charles Bernstein, first published Stevie, a film based on a play about the poet Stevie Smith is released Maya Angelou, And Still I Rise Paul Blackburn, translator (posthumous), Proensa: An Anthology of Troubadour Poetry Odysseus Elytis... Charles Reznikoff (August 31, 1894 - January 22, 1976) was the poet for whom the term Objectivist was first coined. ... // The Yellow Book, with a cover illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley. ... // Two poems written in 1965 by Mao Zedong just before the Cultural Revolution, including Two Birds: A Dialogue, are published on January 1[1] Elizabeth Bishop, One Act Marya Fiamengo, In Praise of Older Women Thom Gunn, Jack Straws Castle Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes James Merrill: Divine Comedies, including... George Oppen, a picture now used as the cover for the recently published Selected Poems George Oppen (April 24, 1908 - July 7, 1984) was an American poet, best known as one of the members of the Objectivist group of poets. ... // W.B. Yeats in Dublin on 24 January, 1908 Ezra Pound leaves America for Europe. ... // December 19 - Philip Larkin turns down the British Poet Laureateship, and Ted Hughes becomes Poet Laureate. ... Carl Rakosi (November 6, 1903 – June 24, 2004) was the last surviving member of the Objectivist poets. ... // William Butler Yeats leaves Ireland for an extended stay in the United States on a lecture tour Thomas Traherne, Poetical Works (posthumous) W. B. Yeats, In the Seven Woods, Ideas of Good and Evil January 9 — Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946), African-American poet November 6 — Carl... // Rita Dove, American Smooth: Poems (Norton); named a notable book of the year by The New York Times Book Review Donald Justice, Collected Poems (Knopf); published posthumously; named a notable book of the year by The New York Times Book Review Michael Ryan, New And Selected Poems Derek Walcott, The... Lorine Niedecker (May 12, 1903 - December 31, 1970) was born on the Black Hawk Island near Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. ... // William Butler Yeats leaves Ireland for an extended stay in the United States on a lecture tour Thomas Traherne, Poetical Works (posthumous) W. B. Yeats, In the Seven Woods, Ideas of Good and Evil January 9 — Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946), African-American poet November 6 — Carl... // Charles Causley, Figgie Hobbin See 1970 Governor Generals Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards. ... Kenneth Rexroth (December 22, 1905 – June 6, 1982) was an American poet, translator and critical essayist. ... Madeline Gleason (1909-1973) was a United States poet and dramatist who was partly responsible for bringing about the San Francisco Renaissance. ... // Andrew Cecil Bradley, Oxford Lectures on Poetry Founding of the Poetry Recital Society (now the Poetry Society) T.E. Hulme leaves the Poets Club, and starts meeting with F.S. Flint and other poets in a new group which Hulme referred to as the Secession Club; they meet at the... // Adrienne Rich, Rape Derek Walcott, Another Life See 1973 Governor Generals Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ...


Many of the Objectivists came from urban communities of new immigrants, and this new vein of experience and language enriched the growing American idiom. Another source of enrichment was the emergence into the American poetic mainstream of African American poets such as Langston Hughes (19021967) and Countee Cullen (19031946). An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and newspaper columnist. ... // Hilda Doolittle meets and befriends Ezra Pound Thomas Hardy, Poems of the Past and Present Walter De la Mare, Songs of Childhood John Edward Masefield, Salt-Water Ballads, including I must go down to the sea again W.B. Yeats, Cathleen Ni Houlihan February 1 — Langston Hughes (died 1967), African... // Cecil Day-Lewis is selected as the new Poet Laureate of the UK. Margaret Atwood, The Circle Game Ted Hughes, Wodwo Wole Soyinka, Idanre, and Other Poems See 1967 Governor Generals Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards. ... Countee Cullen, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946) was an American poet, one of the finest of the Harlem Renaissance. ... // William Butler Yeats leaves Ireland for an extended stay in the United States on a lecture tour Thomas Traherne, Poetical Works (posthumous) W. B. Yeats, In the Seven Woods, Ideas of Good and Evil January 9 — Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946), African-American poet November 6 — Carl... // W.H. Auden becomes a U.S. citizen Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry Roy Campbell, Talking Bronco Walter De la Mare, The Traveller Henry Reed, A Map of Verona, including Naming of Parts Dylan Thomas, Deaths and Entrances, including Fern Hill and A...


World War II and after

Archibald Macleish called John Gillespie Magee, Jr. "the first poet of the war". Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... John Gillespie Magee Jr Magees Grave, Scopwick Pilot Officer John Gillespie Magee, Junior (June 9, 1922 – December 11, 1941) was an American aviator and poet who died fighting in World War II while serving in the Royal Canadian Air Force, which he had joined before the United States had...


World War II saw the emergence of a new generation of poets, many of whom were influenced by Wallace Stevens. Richard Eberhart (born 1904), Karl Shapiro (1913–2000) and Randall Jarrell (1914–1965) all wrote poetry that sprang from experience of active service. Together with Elizabeth Bishop (1911–1979), Theodore Roethke (1908–1963) and Delmore Schwartz (1913–1966), they formed a generation of poets that in contrast to the preceding generation often wrote in traditional verse forms. Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Richard Ghormley Eberhart (April 5, 1904 – June 9, 2005) was a prolific American poet who published more than a dozen books of poetry and approximately twenty works in total. ... Karl Jay Shapiro (November 10, 1913-May 14, 2000) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning United States poet, famous for his poetry written in the Pacific Theater while he served there during World War II. His collection V-Letter and Other Poems, written while Shapiro was stationed in New Guinea, was... Photograph of Jarrell in 1956 Randall Jarrell (May 6, 1914 - October 15, 1965), was a United States author, writer and poet. ... Elizabeth Bishop (February 8, 1911 – October 6, 1979), was an American poet and writer, increasingly regarded as one of the finest 20th century poets writing in English. ... Theodore Huebner Roethke (; RET-key) (May 25, 1908 – August 1, 1963) was a United States poet, who published several volumes of poetry characterized by its rhythm and natural imagery. ... Delmore Schwartz Delmore Schwartz (December 8, 1913 - July 11, 1966) was an American poet from Brooklyn, New York, called the greatest of American writers, whose work has a place in the hearts and minds of the everyman, adrift in the anguish of modernity (J. Kredell: A Smudge on the American...


After the war, a number of new poets and poetic movements emerged. John Berryman (1914–1972) and Robert Lowell (1917–1977) were the leading lights in what was to become known as the confessional movement, which was to have a strong influence on later poets like Sylvia Plath (1932–1963) and Anne Sexton (1928–1974). Both Berryman and Lowell were closely acquainted with modernism, but were mainly interested in exploring their own experiences as subject matter and a style that Lowell referred to as "cooked", that is consciously and carefully crafted. John Allyn Berryman (originally John Allyn Smith) (October 25, 1914 – January 7, 1972) was an American poet, born in McAlester, Oklahoma. ... Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was a highly regarded mid-twentieth-century American poet. ... A confessional poet traffics in intimate, and perhaps derogatory, information about him or herself, in poems about illness, sexuality, despondence and the like. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... Anne Sexton, 1974 Anne Sexton (November 9, 1928, Newton, Massachusetts – October 4, 1974, Weston, Massachusetts), born Anne Gray Harvey, was an American poet and writer. ...

Sylvia Plath self-portrait, c. 1951.
Sylvia Plath self-portrait, c. 1951.

In contrast, the Beat poets, who included such figures as Jack Kerouac (1922-1969), Allen Ginsberg (1926–1997), Gregory Corso (1930–2001), Joanne Kyger (born 1934), Gary Snyder (born 1930), Diane Di Prima (born 1934), Denise Levertov (1923–1997), Amiri Baraka (born 1934) and Lawrence Ferlinghetti (born 1919), were distinctly raw. Reflecting, sometimes in an extreme form, the more open, relaxed and searching society of the 1950s and 1960s, the Beats pushed the boundaries of the American idiom in the direction of demotic speech perhaps further than any other group. Sylvia Plath self-portrait c. ... Sylvia Plath self-portrait c. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... The Beat Generation was a group of American writers who came to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American Beat poet. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... Joanne Kyger (born November 19, 1934) is an American poet associated with the San Francisco Renaissance and the Beats. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Diane Di Prima (born August 6, 1934) is an American poet who was one of the most active of women poets associated with the Beats. ... Denise Levertov (October 24, 1923 - December 20, 1997) was a British born American poet. ... Amiri Baraka Amiri Baraka (born Everett LeRoi Jones on October 7, 1934, in Newark, New Jersey) is a American writer of poetry, drama, essays, and music criticism. ... Lawrence Ferlinghetti Lawrence Ferlinghetti (born Lawrence Ferling[1] on March 24, 1919) is an American poet who is known as the co-owner of the City Lights Bookstore and publishing house, which published early literary works of the Beats, including Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. ...


Around the same time, the Black Mountain poets, under the leadership of Charles Olson (1910–1970), were working at Black Mountain College. Somewhere between raw and cooked, these poets were exploring the possibilities of open form but in a much more programmatic way than the Beats. The main poets involved were Robert Creeley (1926–2005), Robert Duncan (1919–1988), Ed Dorn (1929–1999), Paul Blackburn (1926–1971), Hilda Morley (1919–1998), John Wieners (1934–2002), and Larry Eigner (1927–1996). They based their approach to poetry on Olson's 1950 essay Projective Verse, in which he called for a form based on the line, a line based on human breath and a mode of writing based on perceptions juxtaposed so that one perception leads directly to another. Cid Corman (born 1924) and Theodore Enslin (born 1924) are often associated with this group but are perhaps more correctly viewed as direct descendants of the Objectivists. The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat... This article is in need of attention. ... Robert Creeley (May 21, 1926 - March 30, 2005) was an American poet, author of more than sixty books, and usually associated with the Black Mountain poets, though his verse aesthetic diverged from that schools. ... Robert Duncan (January 7, 1919 – February 3, 1988), was an American poet associated with the Black Mountain poets and the beat generation. ... Edward Dorn (1929-1999) was a United States poet who was associated with the Black Mountain poets. ... Paul Blackburn (November 24, 1926 – September 13, 1971) was born in St. ... Hilda Morley (1916 – 1998-03-23) was an American poet. ... John Wieners (born 6 January 1934 in Milton, Massachusetts, and died 1 March 2002 in Boston) was a United States lyric poet. ... Larry Eigner(1927- February 3rd, 1996) was an American poet associated with the group of poets that centered around Charles Olson at Black Mountain College in the mid 20th Century. ... Cid Corman (1924 - March 12, 2004) was an American poet, translator and editor who was a key figure in the history of American poetry in the second half of the 20th century. ... Theodore Vernon Enslin (born March 25, 1925) is an American poet associated with Cid Cormans Origin magazine and press. ...


The Beats and some of the Black Mountain poets are often considered to have been responsible for the San Francisco Renaissance. However, as previously noted, San Francisco had become a hub of experimental activity from the 1930s thanks to Rexroth and Gleason. Other poets involved in this scene included Charles Bukowski (1920–1994) and Jack Spicer (1925–1965). These poets sought to combine a contemporary spoken idiom with inventive formal experiment. Henry Charles Bukowski (August 16, 1920 – March 9, 1994), was a Los Angeles poet and novelist. ... This page is about the poet. ...

Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou

Jerome Rothenberg (born 1931) is well-known for his work in ethnopoetics, but he was also the coiner of the term "deep image". Deep image poetry is inspired by the symbolist theory of correspondences. Other poets who worked with deep image include Robert Kelly (born 1935), Diane Wakoski (born 1937) and Clayton Eshleman (born 1935). Image File history File links Publicists photo This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links Publicists photo This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Jerome Rothenberg (born 1931) is an American poet and editor who is noted for his work in ethnopoetics. ... Ethnopoetics refers to poetic traditions which are typically seen as tribal or otherwise ethnic by the West (or indeed between any ethnoculturally different peoples). ... Deep image is a term coined by Jerome Rothenberg and Robert Kelly in the second issue of Trobar, and was used to describe poetry written by him and by Robert Kelly, Diane Wakoski and Clayton Eshleman. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Robert Kelly (born 1935) is an American poet associated with the deep image group. ... Diane Wakoski (born 1937) is an American poet who is associated with the deep image poets and the Beats. ... Clayton Eshleman (born June 1, 1935) is an American poet. ...


The Small Press poets (sometimes called the mimeograph movement) are another influential and eclectic group of poets who also surfaced in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1950s and are still active today. Fiercely independent editors, who were also poets, edited and published low-budget periodicals and chapbooks of emerging poets who might otherwise have gone unnoticed. This work ranged from formal to experimental. Gene Fowler, A.D. Winans, Hugh Fox, Paul Foreman, John Bennett, Stephen Morse,Judy L. Brekke, and F. A. Nettelbeck are among the many poets who are still actively continuing the Small Press Poets tradition. Many have turned to the new medium of the Web for its distribution capabilities. The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Small press is a term often used to describe publishers who typically specialize in genre fiction, or limited edition books or magazines. ... Gene Fowler was an American journalist, author and dramatist. ... ... There are a few notable persons named John Bennett: John B. Bennett, U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan John O. Bennett, state senator and acting governor of the U.S. state of New Jersey John Bennett , author of The Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo with Seventeen other... Small Press Editors and Publishers -- Stephen Morse Stephen Morse (1945 - ) Sometimes referred to as the last living Oakland Side Beat poet, edited and published The White Elephant, 5 editions 1970 -1973,and Juice 7 editions 1974 - 1982. ... F. A. Nettelbeck (born 1950, Chicago) is an American poet. ...


Just as the West Coast had the San Francisco Renaissance and the Small Press Movement, the East Coast produced the New York School. This group aimed to write poetry that spoke directly of everyday experience in everyday language and produced a poetry of urbane wit and elegance that contrasts strongly with the work of their Beat contemporaries. Leading members of the group include John Ashbery (born 1927), Frank O'Hara (1926–1966), Kenneth Koch (1925–2002), James Schuyler (1923–1991), Richard Howard (born 1929), Ted Berrigan (1934–1983), Anne Waldman (born 1945) and Bernadette Mayer (born 1945). The New York School was an informal group of American poets, painters and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... John Ashbery John Ashbery (born July 28, 1927) is an American poet. ... Francis Russell OHara (June 27, 1926 – July 25, 1966) was an American poet who, along with John Ashbery, James Schuyler and Kenneth Koch, was a key member of what was known as the New York School of poetry. ... Kenneth Koch (27 February 1925 - 6 July 2002) was an American poet, playwright, and professor, active from the 1950s until his death at age 77. ... James Schuyler(9 November 1923 – 12 April 1991) was a major American poet in the late 20th century. ... Richard Howard is a distinguished American poet, literary critic, essayist, teacher, and translator. ... Ted Berrigan (15 November 1934 - 4 July 1983) was an American poet. ... Anne Waldman (born April 2, 1945) is an American poet. ... Bernadette Mayer (born in 1945 in Brooklyn, New York, United States) is a poet and prose writer. ...


John Cage (1912–1992), one-time Black Mountain College resident and composer, and Jackson Mac Low (born 1922) both wrote poetry based on chance or aleatory techniques. Inspired by Zen, Dada and scientific theories of indeterminacy, they were to prove to be important influences on the 1970's U.S avant-garde. John Cage For the character of John Cage from the TV show Ally McBeal see: John Cage (Character) John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer, writer and visual artist. ... Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 - December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of... This article is about the religion Zen. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Aleatoric (or aleatory) music or composition, is music where some element of the composition is left to chance. ...


James Merrill (1926–1995), off to the side of all these groups and very much sui generis, was a poet of great formal virtuosity and the author of the epic poem The Changing Light at Sandover (1982). The influence of Wallace Stevens is evident throughout Merrill's verse, as well as the musical precedents of German and French poetry (languages taught to Merrill by his childhood governess). poet James Merrill, age 30, in a 1957 publicity photograph for The Seraglio James Ingram Merrill (March 3, 1926 - February 6, 1995) was a Pulitzer Prize winning American writer, increasingly regarded as one of the most important 20th century poets in the English language. ... Sui generis (English pronunciation (IPA) or ) is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning of its own kind/genus or unique in its characteristics. ... The cover of The Changing Light at Sandover shows the ballroom of James Merrills childhood home in the 1930s The Changing Light At Sandover is a 560-page poem by James Merrill (1926-1995). ... A governess is a female employee from outside of the family who teaches children within the family circle. ...


American poetry now

The last thirty years in United States poetry has seen the emergence of a number of groups and trends. It is probably too soon to judge the long-term importance of these, and what follows is merely a brief outline sketch. Saul Williams, hip-hop poet, preacher, actor, rapper, singer and musician This work is copyrighted. ... Saul Williams, hip-hop poet, preacher, actor, rapper, singer and musician This work is copyrighted. ... Saul Williams Saul Stacey Williams (born February 29, 1972) has been considered a powerful voice of the hip hop generation as a poet, preacher, actor, rapper, singer, and musician. ...


The 1970s saw a revival of interest in surrealism, with the most prominent poets working in this field being Andrei Codrescu (born 1946), Russell Edson (born 1935) and Maxine Chernoff (born 1952). Performance poetry also emerged from the Beat and hippie happenings, and the talk-poems of David Antin (born 1932) and ritual events performed by Rothenberg, to become a serious poetic stance which embraces multiculturalism and a range of poets from a multiplicity of cultures. This mirrored a general growth of interest in poetry by African Americans including Gwendolyn Brooks (born 1917), Maya Angelou (born 1928), Ishmael Reed (born 1938) and Nikki Giovanni (born 1943). Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a movement stating that the liberation of our mind, and subsequently the liberation of the individual self and society, can be achieved by exercising the imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind to the attainment of a dream-like state different from, or... Andrei Codrescu (born December 20, 1946), born in Sibiu, Romania. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maxine Chernoff is an American writer and poet. ... Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, usually spelled hippy in the United Kingdom, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining during the mid-1970s. ... David Antin David Antin (born in New York City in 1932) is a United States poet and critic. ... Multiculturalism is an ideology advocating that society should consist of, or at least allow and include, distinct cultural groups, with equal status. ... Gwendolyn Brooks (June 7, 1917 – December 3, 2000) was an award-winning African American woman poet. ... Maya Angelou (born Marguerite Johnson April 4, 1928) is an American poet, memoirist, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Ishmael Scott Reed (b. ... Nikki Giovanni Yolanda Cornelia Nikki Giovanni (b. ...


The most controversial avant-garde grouping during this period has been the Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name). Language-centered writing is extremely theoretical, discounting speech as the basis for verse, and dedicated to questioning the referentiality of language and the dominance of the sentence as the basic unit of syntax. The idea appears to be that language when stripped of its normal associative and denotative meanings becomes closer to the source of language and may actually provide insights that might not otherwise be possible. Those critical of the Language movement point out that taken to its logical conclusion this abandonment of sense and context creates a poetry that could be just as well be written by the proverbial infinite sized room full of monkeys with an infinite number of word processors. The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name) are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s; its central figures are all actively writing, teaching, and performing... L=A=N=G=U=A=G=Ewas an avant garde poetry magazine edited by Charles Bernstein and Bruce Andrews that ran thirteen issues from 1978 to 1981. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterised in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...


The Language poets movement includes a very high proportion of women, which mirrors another general trend; the rediscovery and promotion of poetry written both by earlier and contemporary women poets. In addition to Language poets, a number of the most prominent African American poets to emerge are women, and other prominent women writers include Adrienne Rich (born 1929) and Amy Gerstler (born 1956). Image:AdrienneRich. ... Amy Gerstler (b. ...


The Language group also contains an unusually high proportion of academics. Poetry has tended to move more and more into the campus, with a growth in creative writing and poetics programs providing an equal growth in the number of teaching posts available to practicing poets. This increased professionalization and abundance of academic presses combined with a lack of any coherent process for critical evaluation is one of the clearest developments and one which seems likely to have unpredictable consequences for the future of poetry in the United States. Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from generic writing. ...


The 1980s also saw the emergence of a group of poets who became known as the New Formalists. These poets, who included Molly Peacock, Brad Leithauser, Dana Gioia and Marilyn Hacker, write in traditional forms and have declared that this return to rhyme and more fixed meters is the new avant-garde. Critics of the New Formalists have compared their traditionalism with the conservative politics of the Reagan era. It is intended as an insult. New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse. ... Molly Peacock (born 1947) is an American poet of the New Formalist school as well as a nonfiction writer. ... Brad Leithauser (b. ... Michael Dana Gioia (born December 24, 1950) is an American poet who retired early from his career as a corporate executive at General Foods to write. ... Marilyn Hacker (born 1942) is an American poet, critic, and reviewer. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Many poets (A growing group of poets loosely called Outlaw Poets or Small Press Poets) ignore what they see as the extremes and academic elitism of the self-proclaimed avant-garde of both poetic groups, choosing to use both traditional and experimental approaches to their work. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Concurrently, a Chicago construction worker named Marc Smith was growing bored with increasingly esoteric academic poetry readings. In 1984, at the Get Me High Lounge, Smith devised the format that has come to be known as slam poetry. A competitive poetry performance, poetry slam opened the door for a new generation of writers, spoken word performers, and audiences by emphasizing a style of writing that is edgy,topical, and easily understood. Nuyorican Poets Cafe, New York City Slam poetry is a postmodern performance poetry, a form of spoken word performed at a competitive poetry event, called a slam, at which poets perform their own poems (or, in rare cases, those of others) that are judged on a numeric scale by randomly... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ...


Poetry slam has produced noted poets like Alix Olson, Taylor Mali, and Saul Williams, as well as inspired hundreds of open mics. Alix Olson is an American poet who works exclusively in spoken word. ... Taylor McDowell Mali is an American slam poet and high school teacher. ... Saul Williams Saul Stacey Williams (born February 29, 1972) has been considered a powerful voice of the hip hop generation as a poet, preacher, actor, rapper, singer, and musician. ...


See also

|The poets listed below were either born in the United States or else published much of their poetry while living in that country. ... This is a list of articles about poetry in a single language or produced by a single nation. ... The Academy of American Poets is the largest organization in the United States dedicated to the art of poetry. ... Chicano poetry is a branch of American literature written by and primarily about Mexican-Americans and the Mexican-American experience. ...

References

  • Baym, Nina, et al (eds.): The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter sixth edition, 2003). ISBN 0-393-97969-5
  • Hoover, Paul (ed): Postmodern American Poetry - A Norton Anthology (1994). ISBN 0-393-31090-6
  • Moore, Geoffrey (ed): The Penguin Book of American Verse (Revised edition 1983) ISBN 0-14-042313-3

Postmodern American Poetry is a 1994 poetry anthology edited by Paul Hoover; it is a Norton anthology published by W. W. Norton and Co. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Poetry of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2944 words)
The poetry of the United States began as a literary art during the colonial era.
Performance poetry also emerged from the Beat and hippie happenings, and the talk-poems of David Antin (born 1932) and ritual events performed by Rothenberg, to become a serious poetic stance which embraces multiculturalism and a range of poets from a multiplicity of cultures.
A competitive poetry performance, poetry slam opened the door for a new generation of writers, spoken word performers, and audiences by emphasizing a style of writing that is edgy,topical, and easily understood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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