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Encyclopedia > Poetry
The Chinese poem "Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain" by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty).

Poetry (from the Greek "ποίησις", poiesis, a "making" or "creating") is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. Poetry may be written independently, as discrete poems, or may occur in conjunction with other arts, as in poetic drama, hymns or lyrics. Poetry, published in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English-speaking world. ... Image File history File links Quatrain_on_Heavenly_Mountain. ... Image File history File links Quatrain_on_Heavenly_Mountain. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... Look up lyrics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Poetry, and discussions of it, have a long history. Early attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy.[1] Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition and rhyme, and emphasised the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from prose.[2] From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more loosely defined as a fundamental creative act using language.[3] The history of poetry as an art form predates literacy. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical composition. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ...


Poetry often uses particular forms and conventions to expand the literal meaning of the words, or to evoke emotional or sensual responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. Poetry's use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly, metaphor and simile create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... An incantation is the words spoken during a ritual. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ironic redirects here. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Common examples are Curley was flopping like a fish on a line(extract of Mice and Men) etc. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some forms of poetry are specific to particular cultures and genres, responding to the characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. While readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as being written in rhyming lines and regular meter, there are traditions, such as those of Du Fu and Beowulf, that use other approaches to achieve rhythm and euphony. In today's globalized world, poets often borrow styles, techniques and forms from diverse cultures and languages. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Dante redirects here. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... Euphony describes flowing and aesthetically pleasing speech. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ...

Contents

History

The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian, circa 2nd millennium BC.

Poetry as an art form may predate literacy.[4] Many ancient works, from the Vedas (1700–1200 BC) to the Odyssey (800675 BC), appear to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.[5] Poetry appears among the earliest records of most literate cultures, with poetic fragments found on early monoliths, rune stones and stelae. The history of poetry as an art form predates literacy. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... This article is about great floods. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... Children reading. ... Veda redirects here. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... // Homer, born near or before the beginning of the century Hesiod, born near or before the beginning of the century in Boeotia Archilochus of Paros (born c. ... A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... This article is about the stone structure. ...


The oldest surviving poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus.[6] Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, Iliad and Odyssey, and the Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics" — the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as the Chinese through the Shi Jing, one of the Five Classics of Confucianism, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in context spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap.[7] Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... The Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... A statue of Bashō in Hiraizumi, Iwate. ... Statue of Bashō at ChÅ«sonji, Hiraizumi, Iwate Prefecture Oku no Hosomichi (Japanese: 奥の細道, meaning Narrow Road to Oku [the Deep North]) is a major work by Matsuo Bashō. Oku no Hosomichi was written based on a journey taken by Bashō in the late spring of 1689. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article is concerned with Biblical poetry, specifically poetry in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... Rap redirects here. ...

Paul Valéry, drawn by himself.

Context can be critical to poetics and to the development of poetic genres and forms. Poetry that records historic events in epics, such as Gilgamesh or Ferdowsi's Shahnameh,[8] will necessarily be lengthy and narrative, while poetry used for liturgical purposes (hymns, psalms, suras and hadiths) is likely to have an inspirational tone, whereas elegy and tragedy are meant to evoke deep emotional responses. Other contexts include Gregorian chants, formal or diplomatic speech,[9] political rhetoric and invective,[10] light-hearted nursery and nonsense rhymes, and even medical texts.[11] Image File history File links Valéry01. ... Image File history File links Valéry01. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Geoffrey Chaucer Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... A bitter and injurious term of insult. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... Nonsense verse is a form of poetry, normally composed for humorous effect, which is intentionally and overtly paradoxical, silly, witty, whimsical or just plain strange. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


The Polish historian of aesthetics, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, in a paper on "The Concept of Poetry," traces the evolution of what is in fact two concepts of poetry. Tatarkiewicz points out that the term is applied to two distinct things that, as the poet Paul Valéry observes, "at a certain point find union. Poetry [...] is an art based on language. But poetry also has a more general meaning [...] that is difficult to define because it is less determinate: poetry expresses a certain state of mind." ."[12] WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz (April 3, 1886, Warsaw – April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and author of works in ethics. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


Western traditions

Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry — the epic, the comic, and the tragic — and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.[13] Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ...


Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age,[14] as well as in Europe during the Renaissance.[15] Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to, prose, which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure.[16] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ...

This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic, "Negative Capability."[17] This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into the twentieth century. Image File history File links John_keats. ... Image File history File links John_keats. ... Keats redirects here. ... Romanticism largely began as a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day. ... Keats redirects here. ... Negative capability is a theory of the poet John Keats, expressed in his letter to George and Thomas Keats dated Sunday, 21 December 1817. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Twentieth-century disputes

Some 20th century literary theorists, relying less on the opposition of prose and poetry, focused on the poet as simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates. The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon, and some modernist poets essentially do not distinguish between the creation of a poem with words, and creative acts in other media such as carpentry.[18] Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided, as when Archibald MacLeish concludes his paradoxical poem, "Ars Poetica," with the lines: "A poem should not mean / but be."[19] Archibald MacLeish from http://www. ... Archibald MacLeish from http://www. ... Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Mountebanks ... Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... Ars Poetica is a term meaning The Art of Poetry or On the Nature of Poetry. Early examples of Ars Poetica by Aristotle and Horace have survived and have since spawned many other poems that bear the same name. ...


Disputes over the definition of poetry, and over poetry's distinction from other genres of literature, have been inextricably intertwined with the debate over the role of poetic form. The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the twentieth century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic "poetry". Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose, although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non-metrical means.[20] While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure, this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses as on the revival of older forms and structures.[21] // Prose poetry is usually considered a form of poetry written in prose that breaks some of the normal rules associated with prose discourse, for heightened imagery or emotional effect, among other purposes. ... New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse. ...


More recently, postmodernism has fully embraced MacLeish's concept and come to regard boundaries between prose and poetry, and also among genres of poetry, as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet, to emphasize the role of the reader of a text, and to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read.[22] Today, throughout the world, poetry often incorporates poetic form and diction from other cultures and from the past, further confounding attempts at definition and classification that were once sensible within a tradition such as the Western canon. Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Look up Reader in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ...


Basic elements

Prosody

Main article: Meter (poetry)

Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem. Rhythm and meter, although closely related, should be distinguished.[23] Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter), while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Thus, the meter of a line may be described as being "iambic", but a full description of the rhythm would require noting where the language causes one to pause or accelerate and how the meter interacts with other elements of the language. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter. In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ...


Rhythm

See also Parallelism, inflection, intonation, foot

The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents, syllables, or moras, depending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches.[24] Japanese is a mora-timed language. Syllable-timed languages include Latin, Catalan, French and Spanish. English, Russian and, generally, German are stress-timed languages. Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. Languages also can rely on either pitch, such as in Vedic or ancient Greek, or tone. Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese, Lithuanian, and most subsaharan languages.[25] In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... In every language, speech emission is based on a sequence of elementary sound units; some of them play a specific part: through their isochronic recurrence, they produce the rhythm of the sentences. ... In every language, speech emission is based on a sequence of elementary sound units; some of them play a specific part: through their isochronic recurrence, they produce the rhythm of the sentences. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... A Tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words. ... The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ...


Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided). In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter. Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line.[26] In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... In music, see elision (music). ... A classical language is a language with a literary tradition that can be judged as classical. According to George L. Hart: [To] qualify as a classical tradition, a language must fit several criteria: it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own not... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences. Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar) which ensured a rhythm.[27] In Chinese poetry, tones as well as stresses create rhythm. Classical Chinese poetics identifies four tones: the level tone, rising tone, falling tone, and entering tone. Note that other classifications may have as many as eight tones for Chinese and six for Vietnamese. Image File history File links Robinsonjeffers. ... Image File history File links Robinsonjeffers. ... John Robinson Jeffers (January 10, 1887–January 20, 1962) was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This article is concerned with Biblical poetry, specifically poetry in the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... This article is about the musical term. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... Venpa (வெண்பா in Tamil) is a form of classical tamil poetry. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (possibly empty). ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Tones in Chinese derive from the traditional Middle Chinese tone classes, known as Ping Sheng (平聲), Shang Sheng (上聲), Qu Sheng (去聲), and Ru Sheng (入聲), which in English in the linguistic literature, are sometimes called the level, rising, departing and entering tones. ... Entering tone (Simplified Chinese: 入声; Traditional Chinese: 入聲; pinyin: rùshÄ“ng) is one of four tones in the phonology in Middle Chinese. ...


The formal patterns of meter used developed in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. In the case of free verse, rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence than a regular meter. Robinson Jeffers, Marianne Moore, and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry.[28] Jeffers experimented with sprung rhythm as an alternative to accentual rhythm.[29] For the software company, see Freeverse. ... John Robinson Jeffers (January 10, 1887–January 20, 1962) was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. ... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech. ...


Meter

Main articles: Scansion and Systems of scansion
Homer

In the Western poetic tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line. Thus, "iambic pentameter" is a meter comprising five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb." This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry, and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho, and by the great tragedians of Athens. Similarly, "dactylic hexameter," comprises six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the "dactyl." Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry, the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod. In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ... There are almost as many systems of marking the scansion of a poem as there are books on the topic. ... Photograph taken of the bust of Homer in the British Museum, London. ... Photograph taken of the bust of Homer in the British Museum, London. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... An iamb or iambus is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry. ... // Ancient Greek literature (before AD 300) Main article: Ancient Greek literature Classical Greek Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... Dactyl may mean: A dactyl, a creature in Greek mythology. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived...


Meter is often scanned based on the arrangement of "poetic feet" into lines.[30] In English, each foot usually includes one syllable with a stress and one or two without a stress. In other languages, it may be a combination of the number of syllables and the length of the vowel that determines how the foot is parsed, where one syllable with a long vowel may be treated as the equivalent of two syllables with short vowels. For example, in ancient Greek poetry, meter is based solely on syllable duration rather than stress. In some languages, such as English, stressed syllables are typically pronounced with greater volume, greater length, and higher pitch, and are the basis for poetic meter. In ancient Greek, these attributes were independent of each other; long vowels and syllables including a vowel plus more than one consonant actually had longer duration, approximately double that of a short vowel, while pitch and stress (dictated by the accent) were not associated with duration and played no role in the meter. Thus, a dactylic hexameter line could be envisioned as a musical phrase with six measures, each of which contained either a half note followed by two quarter notes (i.e. a long syllable followed by two short syllables), or two half notes (i.e. two long syllables); thus, the substitution of two short syllables for one long syllable resulted in a measure of the same length. Such substitution in a stress language, such as English, would not result in the same rhythmic regularity. In Anglo-Saxon meter, the unit on which lines are built is a half-line containing two stresses rather than a foot.[31] Scanning meter can often show the basic or fundamental pattern underlying a verse, but does not show the varying degrees of stress, as well as the differing pitches and lengths of syllables.[32] In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... Eduard Sievers developed a theory of the meter of Anglo-Saxon Alliterative verse. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...


As an example of how a line of meter is defined, in English-language iambic pentameter, each line has five metrical feet, and each foot is an iamb, or an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. When a particular line is scanned, there may be variations upon the basic pattern of the meter; for example, the first foot of English iambic pentameters is quite often inverted, meaning that the stress falls on the first syllable.[33] The generally accepted names for some of the most commonly used kinds of feet include: Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... In prosody the Inversion of a foot is the reversal of the order of its elements. ...

One of Henry Holiday's illustrations to Lewis Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark, which is written predominantly in anapestic tetrameter: "In the midst of the word he was trying to say / In the midst of his laughter and glee / He had softly and suddenly vanished away / For the snark was a boojum, you see."
  • spondee — two stressed syllables together
  • iamb — unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
  • trochee — one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
  • dactyl — one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
  • anapest — two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable
  • pyrrhic - two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter)

The number of metrical feet in a line are described in Greek terminology as follows: Download high resolution version (455x675, 127 KB)An illustration by Henry Holiday from the 19th century. ... Download high resolution version (455x675, 127 KB)An illustration by Henry Holiday from the 19th century. ... Henry Holiday was an English Pre-Raphaelite artist, born on June 17, 1839 in London. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... The Bellman supporting the Banker by a finger entwined in his hair The Hunting of the Snark (An Agony in 8 Fits) is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) in 1874, when he was 42 years old. ... Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line. ... Look up Spondee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An iamb or iambus is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry. ... A trochee or choree, choreus, is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A dactyl (Gr. ... An anapaest is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A pyrrhic is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ...

There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamb of four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry. Languages which utilize vowel length or intonation rather than or in addition to syllabic accents in determining meter, such as Ottoman Turkish or Vedic, often have concepts similar to the iamb and dactyl to describe common combinations of long and short sounds. In poetry, a dimeter is a metrical line of verse with two feet. ... In poetry, a trimeter is a metre of three metrical feet per line - example: When here the spring we see, Fresh green upon the tree. ... In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet: And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea (Anapaest tetrameter) (Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib) You who are bent and bald and blind (Iambic tetrameter, except for the first foot which is a trochee) (W... In poetry, a pentameter is a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet: Be what you can if thus your heart so deem, For more the man will less the foible seem. ... Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ... Heptameter is one or more lines of verse containing seven metrical feet (usually fourteen or twenty-one syllables). ... Octameter in poetry is a line of eight metrical feet. ... In Greek and Latin poetry, choriamb refers to a prosodic foot of four syllables, of the pattern long-short-short-long. ... // Ancient Greek literature (before AD 300) Main article: Ancient Greek literature Classical Greek Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Latin poetry was a major part of Latin literature during the height of the Latin language. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ...


Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet. The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse.[34] The dactyl, on the other hand, almost gallops along. And, as readers of The Night Before Christmas or Dr. Seuss realize, the anapest is perfect for a light-hearted, comic feel.[35] Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem, illustrated by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist, better known by his pen name, Dr. Seuss (pronounced ). He published over 40 childrens books, which were often characterized by his imaginative characters and frequent use of rhymed prose; his most notable books include...


There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests, feet which he considers natural to the language.[36] Actual rhythm is significantly more complex than the basic scanned meter described above, and many scholars have sought to develop systems that would scan such complexity. Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words, and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress.[37] Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator who served in the post of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (known popularly as the Poet Laureate of the United States) from 1997 to 2000. ... This page is about the novelist. ...


Metrical patterns

Main article: Meter (poetry)

Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearian iambic pentameter and the Homerian dactylic hexameter to the Anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress), or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop. Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular. Regularity can vary between language. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur or occurs to a much lesser extent in English.[38] In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line. ... A caesura, in poetry, is an audible pause that breaks up a line of verse. ... The term feminine ending has several meanings, depending on context. ... Look up Spondee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Iambic tetrameter is a meter in poetry. ...

Some common metrical patterns, with notable examples of poets and poems who use them, include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Pushkin redirects here. ...

For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... Iambic tetrameter is a meter in poetry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To His Coy Mistress is a poem written by the British author and Puritan statesman Andrew Marvell (1621 – 1678) either during or just before the Interregnum. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Trochaic octameter is a poetic meter that has eight trochaic metrical feet per line. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... For other uses, see The Raven (disambiguation). ... Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... The Bellman supporting the Banker by a finger entwined in his hair The Hunting of the Snark (An Agony in 8 Fits) is a nonsense poem written by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) in 1874, when he was 42 years old. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Byrons Don Juan (Penguin Classics version) Don Juan is a long narrative poem by Lord Byron, based on the legend of Don Juan. ... An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter. ... Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart. ... Phèdre (originally Phèdre et Hippolyte) is a dramatic tragedy in five acts written in alexandrine verse by Jean Racine. ...

Rhyme, alliteration, assonance

Main articles: Rhyme, Alliterative verse, and Assonance
The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse and in paragraph form, not separated into lines or stanzas.

Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element.[46] A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... Consonance is the repition of consonant sounds, but not vowels as in assonance Examples: lady lounges lazily , dark deep dread crept in for consonance in music, see Consonance and dissonance Lakefield College School Key Literary Terms ...


Rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines ("internal rhyme").[47] Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme.[48] The degree of richness of a language's rhyming structures plays a substantial role in determining what poetic forms are commonly used in that language. In poetry, internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme which occurs within a single line of verse. ...


Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas.[49] Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures. Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry, but goes back to the Homeric epic. Because verbs carry much of the pitch in the English language, assonance can loosely evoke the tonal elements of Chinese poetry and so is useful in translating Chinese poetry. Consonance occurs where a consonant sound is repeated throughout a sentence without putting the sound only at the front of a word. Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element. The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ...


Rhyming schemes

Main article: Rhyme scheme

In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poet forms, such as ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme. Rhyme entered European poetry in the High Middle Ages, in part under the influence of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (modern Spain).[50] Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the first development of literary Arabic in the sixth century, as in their long, rhyming qasidas. Some rhyming schemes have become associated with a specific language, culture or period, while other rhyming schemes have achieved use across languages, cultures or time periods. Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat, while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes. A rhyme scheme is like the pattern of rhyming like lines in a poem or in like lyrics for music. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... A rhyme scheme is like the pattern of rhyming like lines in a poem or in like lyrics for music. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is about the historical region. ... // Alqama ibn Abada Amr ibn Kulthum ( - c. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... The chant royal is a poetic form that consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e... Rubaiyat is a common shorthand name for the collection of Persian verses known more formally as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. ...

Dante and Beatrice gaze upon the highest Heaven; from Gustave Doré's illustrations to the Divine Comedy, Paradiso, Canto 31.

Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line does not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "a-a-b-a" rhyme scheme. This rhyme scheme is the one used, for example, in the rubaiyat form.[51] Similarly, an "a-b-b-a" quatrain (what is known as "enclosed rhyme") is used in such forms as the Petrarchan sonnet.[52] Some types of more complicated rhyming schemes have developed names of their own, separate from the "a-b-c" convention, such as the ottava rima and terza rima. The types and use of differing rhyming schemes is discussed further in the main article. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x952, 205 KB) Dante and Beatrice gaze upon the highest Heaven (The Empyrean); from Gustave Dorés illustrations to the Divine Comedy, Paradiso Canto 31. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x952, 205 KB) Dante and Beatrice gaze upon the highest Heaven (The Empyrean); from Gustave Dorés illustrations to the Divine Comedy, Paradiso Canto 31. ... Dante redirects here. ... Although the details surrounding the life of Beatrice Portinari, pronounced bay-a-treech-eh, (1266-1290) are subject to much dispute, there is little doubt she was a major influence in Dante Alighieris life, influencing particularly his works of La Vita Nuova and La Divina Commedia. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Enclosed rhyme (or enclosing rhyme) is the rhyme scheme abba (that is, where the first and fourth lines, and the second and third lines rhyme). ... A Petrarchan sonnet, also called the Italian sonnet, is a sonnet comprising an octave and a closing sestet. ... Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Roman origin. ... Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that was first used by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. ... A rhyme scheme is like the pattern of rhyming like lines in a poem or in like lyrics for music. ...

Ottava rima
The ottava rima is a poem with a stanza of eight lines with an alternating a-b rhyming scheme for the first six lines followed by a closing couplet first used by Boccaccio. This rhyming scheme was developed for heroic epics but has also been used for mock-heroic poetry.
Dante and terza rima

Dante's Divine Comedy[53] is written in terza rima, where each stanza has three lines, with the first and third rhyming, and the second line rhyming with the first and third lines of the next stanza (thus, a-b-a / b-c-b / c-d-c, et cetera.) in a chain rhyme. The terza rima provides a flowing, progressive sense to the poem, and used skillfully it can evoke a sense of motion, both forward and backward. Terza rima is appropriately used in lengthy poems in languages with rich rhyming schemes (such as Italian, with its many common word endings).[54] Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Roman origin. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that was first used by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. ... Chain rhyme is the linking together of stanzas by carrying a rhyme over from one stanza to the next. ...


Poetic form

Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry, and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. Many modern poets eschew recognisable structures or forms, and write in 'free verse'. But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form and some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, howevermuch it may appear to have been ignored. Similarly, in the best poetry written in the classical style there will be departures from strict form for emphasis or effect. Among the major structural elements often used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraph, and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos. The broader visual presentation of words and calligraphy can also be utilized. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes (see following section), such as in the sonnet or haiku. In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Verse paragraphs ... (Note: unrelated to The Cantos by Ezra Pound) Cantos (http://www. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ...


Lines and stanzas

Poetry is often separated into lines on a page. These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet, or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern. Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone. See the article on line breaks for information about the division between lines. In computing, a newline is a special character or sequence of characters indicating the end of a line. ...


Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas, which are denominated by the number of lines included. Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet (or distich), three lines a triplet (or tercet), four lines a quatrain, five lines a quintain (or cinquain), six lines a sestet, and eight lines an octet. These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm. For example, a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone. Stanzas often have related couplets or triplets within them. In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ... A tercet is three lines of poetry forming a stanza or complete poem. ... A tercet is three lines of poetry forming a stanza or complete poem. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ... Look up Cinquain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Cinquain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... [[]]A Sestet is the name given to the second division of a sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines. ... Look up octet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Alexander Blok's poem, "Noch, ulitsa, fonar, apteka" ("Night, street, lamp, drugstore"), on a wall in Leiden.

Other poems may be organized into verse paragraphs, in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used, but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms, alliterations, and rhymes established in paragraph form. Many medieval poems were written in verse paragraphs, even where regular rhymes and rhythms were used. Download high resolution version (1577x1180, 228 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1577x1180, 228 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Blok in 1907 Alexander Blok (Александр Александрович Блок, November 28 [O.S. November 16] 1880 – August 7, 1921), was perhaps the most gifted lyrical poet produced by Russia after Alexander Pushkin. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Verse paragraphs ...


In many forms of poetry, stanzas are interlocking, so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Examples of such interlocking stanzas include, for example, the ghazal and the villanelle, where a refrain (or, in the case of the villanelle, refrains) is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas. Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. For example, the strophe, antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas. In such cases, or where structures are meant to be highly formal, a stanza will usually form a complete thought, consisting of full sentences and cohesive thoughts. This article is about the poetic form. ... Look up Villanelle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... Antistrophe, the portion of an ode which is sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response the strophe, which was sung from east to west. ... Epode, in verse, the third part in an ode, which followed the strophe and the antistrophe, and completed the movement. ... This article is about the art form. ...


In some cases, particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry, stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. In skaldic poetry, the dróttkvætt stanza had eight lines, each having three "lifts" produced with alliteration or assonance. In addition to two or three alliterations, the odd numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels, not necessarily at the beginning of the word; the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables (not necessarily at the end of the word). Each half-line had exactly six syllables, and each line ended in a trochee. The arrangement of dróttkvætts followed far less rigid rules than the construction of the individual dróttkvætts. The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ...


Visual presentation

Main article: Visual poetry

Even before the advent of printing, the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth. Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem. In Arabic, Hebrew and Chinese poetry, the visual presentation of finely calligraphed poems has played an important part in the overall effect of many poems. Visual poetry, is poetry or art in which the visual arrangement of text, images and symbols is important in conveying the intended effect of the work. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... For the word puzzle, see Acrostic (puzzle). ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Hebrew poetry is poetry written in the Hebrew language. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


With the advent of printing, poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work. Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox, and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes. Some Modernist poetry takes this to an extreme, with the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page forming an integral part of the poem's composition, whether to complement the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths, or to create juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning, ambiguity or irony, or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form.[55] In its most extreme form, this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing.[56] For other uses, see Print. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... A caesura, in poetry, is an audible pause that breaks up a line of verse. ... Look up juxtaposition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ironic redirects here. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ...


Poetic diction

Main article: Poetic diction
Illustration for the cover of Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Goblin Market used complex poetic diction in nursery rhyme form: "We must not look at goblin men, / We must not buy their fruits: / Who knows upon what soil they fed / Their hungry thirsty roots?"

Poetic diction treats of the manner in which language is used, and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form. Many languages and poetic forms have very specific poetic dictions, to the point where distinct grammars and dialects are used specifically for poetry. Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry. ... Image File history File links Rossetti-golden_head. ... Image File history File links Rossetti-golden_head. ... Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (December 5, 1830 – December 29, 1894) was an English poet. ... Illustration for the cover of Christina Rossettis Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862), by her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti Goblin Market (composed in April, 1859 and published in 1862) is an important poem by Christina Rossetti. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 – April 09, 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. ... Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor, as well as tones of voice, such as irony.[57] Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor."[58] Since the rise of Modernism, some poets have opted for a poetic diction that deemphasizes rhetorical devices, attempting instead the direct presentation of things and experiences and the exploration of tone. On the other hand, Surrealists have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits, making frequent use of catachresis. In rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in his audience (his reader(s) or listener(s)). These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Common examples are Curley was flopping like a fish on a line(extract of Mice and Men) etc. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Ironic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Look up Tone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Max Ernst. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Catachresis (from Greek ), which literally means the incorrect or improper use of a word -- such as using the word decimate (e. ...


Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures, and were prominent in the west during classical times, the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.[59] Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory. Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Noah and the baptismal flood of the Old Testament (top panel) is typographically linked (prefigured) by the baptism of Jesus in the New Testament (bottom panel). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A symbol or (in many senses) token is a representation of something — an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. ... Allusion is a figure of speech, reference/representation of/to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Another strong element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku. Vivid images are often, as well, endowed with symbolism. Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry. ... Imagery is any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste). ... Max Ernst. ... For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ...


Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase (such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea") or a longer refrain. Such repetition can add a somber tone to a poem, as in many odes, or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes. For example, in Antony's famous eulogy of Caesar in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Antony's repetition of the words, "For Brutus is an honorable man," moves from a sincere tone to one that exudes irony.[60] A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ... For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). ... Ironic redirects here. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ...


Poetic forms

Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures. In more developed, closed or "received" poetic forms, the rhyming scheme, meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules, ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle. Described below are some common forms of poetry widely used across a number of languages. Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary. For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the poetic form. ... Look up Villanelle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the art form. ... This article is about the art form. ...


Sonnets

Main article: Sonnet

Among the most common form of poetry through the ages is the sonnet, which, by the thirteenth century, was a poem of fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. The conventions associated with the sonnet have changed during its history, and so there are several different sonnet forms. Traditionally, English poets use iambic pentameter when writing sonnets, with the Spenserian and Shakespearean sonnets being especially notable. In the Romance languages, the hendecasyllable and Alexandrines are the most widely used meters, although the Petrarchan sonnet has been used in Italy since the 14th century. Sonnets are particularly associated with love poetry, and often use a poetic diction heavily based on vivid imagery, but the twists and turns associated with the move from octave to sestet and to final couplet make them a useful and dynamic form for many subjects. Shakespeare's sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with 20 being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse.[61] The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... The Spenserian sonnet was used by Edmund Spenser. ... The Shakespearean sonnet, also called the Elizabethan or English sonnet, is a sonnet comprising three quatrains and a final couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Hendecasyllable verse (in Italian endecasillabo) is a kind of verse used mostly in Italian poetry, defined by its having the last stress on the tenth syllable. ... An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A Petrarchan sonnet, also called the Italian sonnet, is a sonnet comprising an octave and a closing sestet. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets Shakespeares sonnets, or simply The Sonnets, is a collection of poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ...


Jintishi

Main articles: Shi (poetry)#Jintishi and Jintishi

The jintishi (近體詩) is a Chinese poetic form based on a series of set tonal patterns using the four tones of the classical Chinese language in each couplet: the level, rising, falling and entering tones. The basic form of the jintishi has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion, and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics. One of the masters of the form was Du Fu, who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century). There are several variations on the basic form of the jintishi. Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Download high resolution version (480x634, 40 KB) Description: Photograph of a old painting of Du Fu. ... Download high resolution version (480x634, 40 KB) Description: Photograph of a old painting of Du Fu. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Allusion is a figure of speech, reference/representation of/to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ...


Sestina

Main article: Sestina

The sestina has six stanzas, each comprising six unrhymed lines, in which the words at the end of the first stanza’s lines reappear in a rolling pattern in the other stanzas. The poem then ends with a three-line stanza in which the words again appear, two on each line. The sestina is a highly structured form of poetry, invented by the Provençal troubadour Arnaut Daniel the late 12th century. ...


Villanelle

Main article: Villanelle

The Villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains. The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme. The villanelle has been used regularly in the English language since the late nineteenth century by such poets as Dylan Thomas,[62] W. H. Auden,[63] and Elizabeth Bishop.[64] It is a form that has gained increased use at a time when the use of received forms of poetry has generally been declining. Look up Villanelle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Look up Villanelle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 - 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Elizabeth Bishop (February 8, 1911 – October 6, 1979), was an American poet and writer. ...


Pantoum

Main article: Pantoum

The pantoum is a rare form of poetry similar to a villanelle. It is composed of a series of quatrains; the second and fourth lines of each stanza are repeated as the first and third lines of the next. The pantoum is a rare form of poetry similar to a villanelle. ...


Tanka

Main articles: Waka (poetry)#tanka and Tanka

The Tanka is a form of Japanese poetry, generally not possessing rhyme, with five lines structured in a 5-7-5 7-7 patterns. The 5-7-5 phrase (the "upper phrase") and the 7-7 phrase (the "lower phrase") generally show a shift in tone and subject matter. Tanka were written as early as the Nara period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, at a time when Japan was emerging from a period where much of its poetry followed Chinese form. Tanka was originally the shorter form of Japanese formal poetry, and was used more heavily to explore personal rather than public themes. It thus had a more informal poetic diction. By the 13th century, Tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, and it is still widely written today. Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ... See Waka (disambiguation) for other usages. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (917x1123, 383 KB) Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (917x1123, 383 KB) Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Hitomaro by Kikuchi Yosai Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. ... Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson Waka and Kanshi, Chinese poetry written in Chinese, were the two great pillars of traditional Japanese poetry. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Hitomaro by Kikuchi Yosai Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ...


Haiku

Main article: Haiku

Haiku is a popular form of traditional Japanese poetry. As it has evolved in recent centuries, haiku is a 17-onji verse comprising three metrical units of 5, 7, and 5 onji. The onji is a linguistic idea identical in concept with that of mora. Onji are not syllables. For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ... On is a Japanese word corresponding to a sound; onji corresponds to sound symbol. On (or onji) are the syllables that are counted in Japanese Haiku. ... Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress or timing) in some languages. ...


Ruba'i

Main article: Ruba'i

Four lines of verse practised by Arabian and Persian poets. Omar Khayyam is famous for his Rubaiyat. The most famous translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam from Persi into English was done by Edward Fitzgerald. An example is given below:
Rubaiyat or rubaiyat (Arabic: رباعیات) (a plural word derived from the root arbaa meaning four) means quatrains in the Persian language. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tomb of Omar Khayam, Neishapur, Iran. ... Tomb of Omar Khayam, Neishapur, Iran. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Edward Marlborough FitzGerald (March 31, 1809–June 14, 1883) was an English writer, best known as the poet of the English translation of Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám. ...

They say the Lion and the Lizard keep
The Courts where Jamshyd gloried and drank deep:
And Bahram, that great Hunter--the Wild Ass
Stamps o'er his Head, and he lies fast asleep.

Sijo

Main article: Sijo

A short musical lyric practised by Korean poets. They are usually written in three lines. The lines average 14-16 syllables, for a total of 44-46. There is a pause in the middle of each line and so, in English, Sijo are sometimes printed in six lines instead of three. An example is given below:
Sijo (IPA: ) is a purely Korean[1] poetic form. ... Sijo (IPA: ) is a purely Korean[1] poetic form. ...

You ask how many friends I have? Water and stone, bamboo and pine.
The moon rising over the eastern hill is a joyful comrade.
Besides these five companions, what other pleasure should I ask?

Ode

Main article: Ode

Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar,[65] and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins.[66] The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures. In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction, and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode. Over time, differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure, but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode. One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry. For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Quintus_Horatius_Flaccus. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Quintus_Horatius_Flaccus. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... Antistrophe, the portion of an ode which is sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response the strophe, which was sung from east to west. ... Epode, in verse, the third part in an ode, which followed the strophe and the antistrophe, and completed the movement. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ...


Ghazal

Main article: Ghazal

The ghazal (Persian/Urdu/Arabic: غزل) is a form of poetry common in Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line (which need be of only a few syllables). Each line has an identical meter, and there is a set pattern of rhymes in the first couplet and among the refrains. Each couplet forms a complete thought and stands alone, and the overall ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. The last couplet generally includes the signature of the author. This article is about the poetic form. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... Like the Bengali language, Bengali poetry traces its lineage to Pāli and other Prakrit socio-cultural traditions. ... A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ...


As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu. Ghazals have a classical affinity with Sufism, and a number of major Sufi religious works are written in ghazal form. The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well. Among the masters of the form is Rumi, a Persian poet who lived in Turkey. Urdu ( , , trans. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Other forms

Other forms of poetry include acrostic poetry, in which letter patterns create multiple messages (such as where the first lettres of lines, read downward, form a separate phrase or word), and concrete poetry, which uses word arrangement, typeface, color or other visual effects to complement or dramatize the meaning of the words used; cinquains, which have five lines with two, four, six, eight, and two syllables, respectively, and free verse, which is based on the irregular rhythmic cadence or the recurrence, with variations, of phrases, images, and syntactical patterns rather than the conventional use of meter. For the word puzzle, see Acrostic (puzzle). ... Look up Cinquain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... For the software company, see Freeverse. ...


Poetic genres

In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics.[67] Some commentators view genres as natural forms of literature.[68] Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works.[69] For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ...


Epic poems are one commonly identified genre, often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time.[70] Lyric poetry, which tends to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative, is another 'commonly identified genre. Some commentators may organize bodies of poetry into further subgenres, and individual poems may be seen as a part of many different genres.[71] In many cases, poetic genres show common features as a result of a common tradition, even across cultures. Greek lyric poetry influenced the genre's development from India to Europe.[citation needed] The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, which retells in a continuous narrative the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. ...


Described below are some common genres, but the classification of genres, the description of their characteristics, and even the reasons for undertaking a classification into genres can take many forms.


Narrative poetry

Main article: Narrative poetry

Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry, but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more direct appeal than the epic to human interest. Geoffrey Chaucer Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Geoffrey Chaucer Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... Look up Story in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Human interest news articles are about particular individuals or groups of people. ...


Narrative poetry may be the oldest genre of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed from compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes and were more suitable for an evening's entertainment. Much narrative poetry — such as Scots and English ballads, and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems — is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings, once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales. This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Geoffrey Chaucer Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... http://www. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during performance before an audience. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... The Bard (ca. ...


Notable narrative poets have included Ovid, Dante, Chaucer, William Langland, Luís de Camões, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, Robert Burns, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexander Pushkin, Edgar Allan Poe and Alfred Tennyson. Geoffrey Chaucer Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Pushkin redirects here. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ...


Epic poetry

Main article: Epic poetry

Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. Examples of epic poems include Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Vergil's Aeneid, the Nibelungenlied and Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas, Epic of Gilgamesh, the Mahabharata, Valmiki's Ramayana, Ferdowsi's Shahnama, and the Epic of King Gesar. While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, a number of notable epics have continued to be written. For example, Derek Walcott won the Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros.[72] The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Valmiki_ramayan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Valmiki_ramayan. ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... This article is about the type of character. ... This article is about a system of myths. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... Front of the first edition of Os Lusíadas Os Lusíadas, pron. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... The Epic of King Gesar is the premier epic poem of Tibet and much of Central Asia. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Derek Alton Walcott (born January 23, 1930) is a West-Indian poet, playwright, writer and visual artist who writes mainly in English. ... Omeros is a 1990 book of poetry by Derek Walcott. ...


Dramatic poetry

Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying and sometimes related forms in many cultures. Verse drama may have developed out of earlier oral epics, such as the Sanskrit and Greek epics.[73] Greek tragedy in verse dates to the sixth century B.C., and may have been one of the influences on the development of Sanskrit drama,[74], just as Indian drama in turn appears to have influenced the development of the bainwen verse dramas in China, the forerunning of the Chinese Opera. [75]East Asian verse dramas also notably include the Noh form in Japan. Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama. ... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... Kalidasa and Asvaghosa were the main pioneers of Sanskrit drama. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x800, 143 KB) Description: Oil painting of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) by Josef Stieler, 1828. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (542x800, 143 KB) Description: Oil painting of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) by Josef Stieler, 1828. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Satirical poetry

Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The punch of an insult delivered in verse can be many times more powerful and memorable than that of the same insult, spoken or written in prose. The Greeks and Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman Martial's epigrams, whose insults stung the entire spectrum of society. 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... An insult is a statement or action which affronts or demeans someone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...

The same is true of the English satirical tradition. Embroiled in the feverish politics of the time and stung by an attack on him by his former friend, Thomas Shadwell (a Whig), John Dryden (a Tory), the first Poet Laureate, produced in 1682 Mac Flecknoe, one of the greatest pieces of sustained invective in the English language, subtitled "A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S." In this, the late, notably mediocre poet, Richard Flecknoe, was imagined to be contemplating who should succeed him as ruler "of all the realms of Nonsense absolute" to "reign and wage immortal war on wit." Image File history File links John_Dryden_portrait. ... Image File history File links John_Dryden_portrait. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Image File history File links John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, detail of portrait NPG 804 at National Portrait Gallery. ... Image File history File links John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, detail of portrait NPG 804 at National Portrait Gallery. ... John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (April 1, 1647 - July 26, 1680) was an English nobleman, a friend of King Charles II of England, and the writer of much satirical and bawdy poetry. ... Manoel Maria de Bocage, Portuguese writer File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Manoel Maria de Bocage, Portuguese writer File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Manuel Maria Barbosa de Bocage (1765-1805), Portuguese poet, was a native of Setubal. ... Thomas Shadwell Thomas Shadwell (c. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... MacFlecknoe is a satire written by John Dryden. ... Richard Flecknoe (c. ...


Another master of 17th-century English satirical poetry was John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. He was known for ruthless satires such as "A Satyr Against Mankind" (1675) and a "A Satyr on Charles II." For other people of this name, see John Rochester. ...


Another exemplar of English satirical poetry was Alexander Pope, who famously chided critics in his Essay on Criticism (1709). For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexander Pope An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the British writer Alexander Pope. ...


Dryden and Pope were writers of epic poetry, and their satirical style was accordingly epic; but there is no prescribed form for satirical poetry. There are several people and places named Dryden. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ...


The greatest satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki and Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage, commonly known as Bocage. Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Manuel Maria Barbosa de Bocage (1765-1805), Portuguese poet, was a native of Setubal. ...


Lyric poetry

Main article: Lyric poetry

Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic poetry and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. While the genre's name, derived from "lyre," implies that it is intended to be sung, much lyric poetry is meant purely for reading. // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Download high resolution version (388x624, 74 KB)Christine de Pizan - Project Gutenberg eBook 12254 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (388x624, 74 KB)Christine de Pizan - Project Gutenberg eBook 12254 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Christine de Pizan instructing her son. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... personal could refer to personal identity; a personal advertisement; an persons ego or self image, interests or goals; a personal problem; personal involvement; a trademark belonging to Sony. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... MENTAL STATE Listening to music by the North Carolina band Something For You can send a person or, in some extreme cases, another animal posessing ears into a strange mental state in which a pleasurable sense is sent to the ears. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... This article is about the musical composition. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ...


Though lyric poetry has long celebrated love, many courtly-love poets also wrote lyric poems about war and peace, nature and nostalgia, grief and loss. Notable among these are the 15th century French lyric poets, Christine de Pizan and Charles, Duke of Orléans. Spiritual and religious themes were addressed by such medieval lyric poets as St. John of the Cross and Teresa of Ávila. The tradition of lyric poetry based on spiritual experience was continued by later poets such as John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins and T. S. Eliot. Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Christine de Pizan instructing her son. ... Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois on the orders of Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Saint John of the Cross (Juan de la Cruz) was a Spanish Carmelite friar, born on June 24, 1542 at Fontiveros, a small village near Avila. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ...


Although the most popular form for western lyric poetry to take may be the 14-line sonnet, as practiced by Petrarch and Shakespeare, lyric poetry shows a bewildering variety of forms, including increasingly, in the 20th century, unrhymed ones. This the most common type of poetry, as it deals intricately with the author's own emotions and views. Due to this fact, lyric poems of the First-person narrative are often accused of navel-gazing, and may be scorned by other, less self-centered, poets. The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... From the c. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... First-person narrative is a literary technique in which the story is narrated by one character, who explicitly refers to him or herself in the first person, that is, I. the narrator is a fool putting his nose into the storytelling exercise. ... Hesychasts ($1v(acrai or ilaux4ovres, from avxos, quiet, also called &ï¾µc/mMムlivxoe, Umbilicanimi, and sometimes referred to as Euchites, Massalians or Palamites), a quietistic sect which arose, during the later period of the Byzantine empire, among the monks of the Greek church, especially at Mount Athos, then at the...


Verse fable

Main article: Fable

The fable is an ancient and near-ubiquitous literary genre, often (though not invariably) set in verse form. It is a brief, succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson (a "moral"). Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns; Ignacy Krasicki, for example, in his Fables and Parables, used 13-syllable lines in rhyming couplets. Image File history File links Ignacy_Krasicki_1. ... Image File history File links Ignacy_Krasicki_1. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Ignacy Krasicki. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ...


Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop (mid-6th century BCE), Vishnu Sarma (ca. 200 BCE), Phaedrus (15 BCE–50 CE), Marie de France (12th century), Biernat of Lublin (1465?–after 1529), Jean de La Fontaine (1621–95), Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), Ivan Krylov (1769–1844) and Ambrose Bierce (1842–1914). All of Aesop's translators and successors have owed a fundamental debt to that semi-legendary fabulist. In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... // Anacreon (c. ... Vishnu Sarma was the author of the anthropomorphic political treatise called Panchatantra. ... // Jia Yi (200 - 168 BCE) Sima Xiangru (179-117 BCE), Western Han Sima Qian (145 - ? BCE) Approximate time of Tiruvalluvar (300 - 100 BCE), writing in Tamil Compilation of the Pathinenmaelkanakku (Eighteen Major Anthology Series) of early Tamil poetry. ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ... // Lucretius (94 - 49 BCE) Catullus (84 -54 BCE) Virgil (Oct. ... // Columella (4-70), Cadiz? Persius (34-62), Etruscan Quintilian (35-95) Lucan (Nov. ... Marie de France from an illuminated manuscript Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ... 1180 to 1210 - Nibelunglied The Tale of Igors Campaign in Old East Slavic, dated near the end of the century Categories: | | ... Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, 1465? – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist and physician. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Иван Андреевич Крылов in Russian) (February 13, 1769 - November 21, 1844) was a famous Russian fabulist. ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – 1914?) was an American editorialist, journalist, short-story writer and satirist, today best known for his Devils Dictionary. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ...


Prose poetry

Main article: Prose poetry

Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that demonstrates attributes of both prose and poetry. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story (aka the "short short story," "flash fiction"). Most critics argue that it qualifies as poetry because of its conciseness, use of metaphor, and special attention to language. // Prose poetry is usually considered a form of poetry written in prose that breaks some of the normal rules associated with prose discourse, for heightened imagery or emotional effect, among other purposes. ... Download high resolution version (1414x1200, 256 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1414x1200, 256 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... // Prose poetry is usually considered a form of poetry written in prose that breaks some of the normal rules associated with prose discourse, for heightened imagery or emotional effect, among other purposes. ... Microfiction is very short fiction, usually around 300 words long. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... // Flash fiction is fiction characterized by its extreme brevity, as measured by its length in words. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic, prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France, where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé. Aloysius Bertrand was the writing pseudonym of Louis-Jacques-Napoléon Bertrand (born April 20, 1807 in Ceva (Piedmont, Italy); died April 29, 1841 in Paris). ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ...


The genre has subsequently found notable exemplars:

Since the late 1980s especially, prose poetry has gained increasing popularity, with entire journals devoted solely to that genre. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Sherwood Anderson in 1933. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Robert Bly (born December 23, 1926 in Madison, Minnesota) is a poet, author, and leader of the Mythopoetic Mens Movement in the United States. ... Francis Jean Gaston Alfred Ponge (March 27, 1899 - August 6, 1988) was a French essayist and poet. ... Eugenio Montale Eugenio Montale (October 12, 1896, Genoa – September 12, 1981, Milan) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and traslator, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. ... Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Ungaretti. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bolesław Prus Bolesław Prus (pronounced: [bɔlεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander Głowacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... Young Zbigniew Herbert Herberts family Zbigniew Herbert (29 October 1924 in Lwów - 28 July 1998 in Warsaw) was an influential Polish poet, essayist and moralist. ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ... Mário Cesariny de Vasconcelos also known as Mário Cesariny (b. ... Eugénio de Andrade, pseudonym of José Fontinhas (Póvoa de Atalaia, Fundão, 19 January 1923–Oporto, 13 June 2005), was a Portuguese poet. ... Al Berto was the pseudonym used by the Portuguese poet Alberto Raposo Pidwell Tavares (January 11, 1948, Coimbra - June 13, 1997, Lisbon). ... Alexandre ONeill Alexandre Manuel Vahia de Castro O’Neill de Bulhões (December 19, 1924 - August 21, 1986) was a Portuguese surrealist autodidact poet of Irish origin. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... António Lobo Antunes (born September 1, 1942) is a Portuguese novelist. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Ángel Crespo was born in 1926 and died in 1995. ... Tomas Tranströmer (b. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Glossary of poetry terms. ... Below is the glossary of poetry terminology. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries in poetry. ... This page indexes the individual year in poetry, the decade in poetry and the century in poetry pages. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Heath, Malcolm (ed). Aristotle's Poetics. London, England: Penguin Books, (1997), ISBN 0140446362.
  2. ^ See, for example, Immanauel Kant (J.H. Bernhard, Trans). Critique of Judgment. Dover (2005).
  3. ^ Dylan Thomas. Quite Early One Morning. New York, New York: New Direction Books, reset edition (1968), ISBN 0811202089.
  4. ^ Many scholars, particularly those researching the Homeric tradition and the oral epics of the Balkans, suggest that early writing shows clear traces of older oral poetic traditions, including the use of repeated phrases as building blocks in larger poetic units. A rhythmic and repetitious form would make a long story easier to remember and retell, before writing was available as an aide-memoire.
  5. ^ For one recent summary discussion, see Frederick Ahl and Hannah M. Roisman. The Odyssey Re-Formed. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, (1996), at 1–26, ISBN 0801483352. Others suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. See, for example, Jack Goody. The Interface Between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, (1987), at 98, ISBN 0521337941.
  6. ^ N.K. Sanders (Trans.). The Epic of Gilgamesh. London, England: Penguin Books, revised edition (1972), at 7–8.
  7. ^ See, e.g., Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. The Message, Sugar Hill, (1982).
  8. ^ Abolqasem Ferdowsi (Dick Davis, Trans.). Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. New York, New York: Viking, (2006), ISBN 0-670-03485-1.
  9. ^ For example, in the Arabic world, much diplomacy was carried out through poetic form in the 16th century. See Natalie Zemon Davis. Trickster's Travels. Hill & Wang, (2006), ISBN 0809094355.
  10. ^ Examples of political invective include libel poetry and the classical epigrams of Martial and Catullus.
  11. ^ In ancient Greece, medical and scholarly works were often written in metrical form. A millennium and a half later, many of Avicenna's medical texts were written in verse.
  12. ^ Władysław Tatarkiewicz, "The Concept of Poetry," Dialectics and Humanism, vol. II, no. 2 (spring 1975), p. 13.
  13. ^ Heath (ed), Aristotle's Poetics, 1997.
  14. ^ Ibn Rushd wrote a commentary on the Aristotle's Poetics, replacing the original examples with passages from Arabic poets. See, for example, W. F. Bogges. 'Hermannus Alemannus' Latin Anthology of Arabic Poetry,' Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1968, Volume 88, 657–70, and Charles Burnett, 'Learned Knowledge of Arabic Poetry, Rhymed Prose, and Didactic Verse from Petrus Alfonsi to Petrarch', in Poetry and Philosophy in the Middle Ages: A Festschrift for Peter Dronke. Brill Academic Publishers, (2001), ISBN 90-04-11964-7.
  15. ^ See, for example, Paul F Grendler. The Universities of the Italian Renaissance. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, (2004), ISBN 0-8018-8055-6 (for example, page 239) for the prominence of Aristotle and the Poetics on the Renaissance curriculum.
  16. ^ Immanuel Kant (J.H. Bernard, Trans.). Critique of Judgment at 131, for example, argues that the nature of poetry as a self-consciously abstract and beautiful form raises it to the highest level among the verbal arts, with tone or music following it, and only after that the more logical and narrative prose.
  17. ^ Christensen, A., Crisafulli-Jones, L., Galigani, G. and Johnson, A. (Eds). The Challenge of Keats. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi, (2000).
  18. ^ See, for example, Dylan Thomas's discussion of the poet as creator in Quite Early One Morning. New York, New York: New Directions Press, (1967).
  19. ^ The title of "Ars Poetica" alludes to Horace's commentary of the same title. The poem sets out a range of dicta for what poetry ought to be, before concluding with its classic lines.[1]
  20. ^ See, for example, Walton Liz and Christopher MacGowen (Eds.). Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams. New York, New York: New Directions Publications, (1988), or the works of Odysseus Elytis.
  21. ^ See, for example, T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land, in T. S. Eliot. The Waste Land and Other Poems. London, England: Faber & Faber, (1940)."
  22. ^ See, Roland Barthes essay "Death of the Author" in Image-Music-Text. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, (1978).
  23. ^ Robert Pinsky, The Sounds of Poetry at 52.
  24. ^ See, for example, Julia Schülter. Rhythmic Grammar, Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, (2005).
  25. ^ See Yip. Tone. (2002), which includes a number of maps showing the distribution of tonal languages.
  26. ^ Howell D. Chickering. Beowulf: a Dual-language Edition. Garden City, New York: Anchor (1977), ISBN 0385062133.
  27. ^ See, for example, John Lazarus and W. H. Drew (Trans.). Thirukkural. Asian Educational Services (2001), ISBN 81-206-0400-8. (Original in Tamil with English translation).
  28. ^ See, for example, Marianne Moore. Idiosyncrasy and Technique. Berkeley, California: University of California, (1958), or, for examples, William Carlos Williams. The Broken Span. Norfolk, Connecticut: New Directions, (1941).
  29. ^ Robinson Jeffers. Selected Poems. New York, New York: Vintage, (1965).
  30. ^ Paul Fussell. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. McGraw Hill, (1965, rev. 1979), ISBN 0-07-553606-4.
  31. ^ Christine Brooke-Rose. A ZBC of Ezra Pound. Faber and Faber, (1971), ISBN 0-571-09135-0.
  32. ^ Robert Pinsky. The Sounds of Poetry. New York, New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, (1998), 11–24, ISBN 0374526176.
  33. ^ Robert Pinsky, The Sounds of Poetry.
  34. ^ John Thompson, The Founding of English Meter.
  35. ^ See, for example, "Yertle the Turtle" in Dr. Seuss. Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories. New York: Random House, (1958), lines from "Yurtle the Turtle" are scanned in the discussion of anapestic tetrameter.
  36. ^ Robert Pinsky, The Sounds of Poetry at 66.
  37. ^ Vladimir Nabokov. Notes on Prosody. New York, New York: The Bollingen Foundation, (1964), ISBN 0691017603.
  38. ^ Nabokov. Notes on Prosody.
  39. ^ Two versions of Paradise Lost are freely available on-line from Project Gutenberg, Project Gutenberg text version 1 and Project Gutenberg text version 2.
  40. ^ The original text, as translated by Samuel Butler, is available at Wikisource.[2]
  41. ^ The full text is available online both in Russian[3] and as translated into English by Charles Johnston.[4] Please see the pages on Eugene Onegin and on Notes on Prosody and the references on those pages for discussion of the problems of translation and of the differences between Russian and English iambic tetrameter.
  42. ^ The full text of "The Raven" is available at Wikisource[5].
  43. ^ The full text of "The Hunting of the Snark" is available at Wikisource.[6]
  44. ^ The full text of Don Juan is available on-line.[7]
  45. ^ See the Text of the play in French as well as an English translation, Phaedra, available at Project Gutenberg.
  46. ^ Rhyme, alliteration, assonance or consonance can also carry a meaning separate from the repetitive sound patterns created. For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic, and Christopher Marlowe used interlocking alliteration and consonance of "th", "f" and "s" sounds to force a lisp on a character he wanted to paint as effeminate. See, for example, the opening speech in Tamburlaine the Great available online at Project Gutenberg.
  47. ^ For a good discussion of hard and soft rhyme see Robert Pinsky's introduction to Dante Alighieri, Robert Pinsky (Trans.). The Inferno of Dante: A New Verse Translation. New York, New York: Farar Straus & Giroux, (1994), ISBN 0374176744; the Pinsky translation includes many demonstrations of the use of soft rhyme.
  48. ^ Dante (1994).
  49. ^ See the introduction to Burton Raffel. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York, New York: Signet Books, (1984), ISBN 0451628233.
  50. ^ Maria Rosa Menocal. The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, (2003), ISBN 0812213246. Irish poetry also employed rhyme relatively early, and may have influenced the development of rhyme in other European languages.
  51. ^ Indeed, in translating the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Edward FitzGerald sought to retain the scheme in English. The original text is available from the Gutenberg Porject on-line for free.etext #246
  52. ^ Works by Petrarch at Project Gutenberg
  53. ^ The Divine Comedy at wikisource.
  54. ^ See Robert Pinsky's discussion of the difficulties of replicating terza rima in English in Robert Pinsky (trans). The Inferno of Dante: A New Verse Translation. (1994).
  55. ^ For examples of different uses of visual space in modern poetry, see E. E. Cummings works or C.J. Moore's poetic translation of the Fables of LaFontaine, which usees color and page placement to complement the illustrations of Marc Chagall. Marc Chagall (illust) and C.J. Moore (trans.). Fables of La Fontaine. The New Press, (1977), ISBN 1565844041.
  56. ^ A good pre-modernist example of concrete poetry is the poem about the mouse's tale in the shape of a long tail in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, available in Wikisource. [8]
  57. ^ See, for example, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge for a well-known example of symbolism and metaphor used in poetry. The albatross that is killed by the mariner is a traditional symbol of good luck, and its death takes on metaphorical implications.
  58. ^ See The Poetics of Aristotle, available at Project Gutenberg. at 22.
  59. ^ Aesop's Fables, repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about 500 B.C., are perhaps the richest single source of allegorical poetry through the ages. Other notables examples include the Roman de la Rose, a 13th-century French poem, William Langland's Piers Ploughman in the 14th century, and Jean de la Fontaine's Fables (influenced by Aesop's) in the 17th century (available in French on wikisource).[9].
  60. ^ See Act III, Scene II in Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, available at Wikisource.[10]
  61. ^ Arthur Quiller-Couch (Ed). Oxford Book of English Verse. Oxford University Press, (1900). Note that the relative prominence of a poet or a set of works is often measured by reference to the Oxford Book of English Verse or the Norton Anthology of Poetry, with many people counting poems or pages allocated to a given poet or subject.
  62. ^ E.g., "Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night" in Dylan Thomas. In Country Sleep and Other Poems. New York, New York: New Directions Publications, (1952).
  63. ^ "Villanelle", in W. H. Auden. Collected Poems. New York, New York: Random House, (1945).
  64. ^ "One Art", in Elizabeth Bishop. Geography III. New York, New York, Farar, Straus & Giroux, (1976).
  65. ^ The extant Odes of Pindar as translated by Ernest Myers are freely available on-line from Gutenberg.
  66. ^ In particular, the translations of Horace's odes by John Dryden were influential in establishing the form in English, though Dryden utilizes rhyme in his translations where Horace did not.
  67. ^ For a general discussion of genre theory on the internet, see Daniel Chandler's Introduction to Genre Theory[11].
  68. ^ See, for example, Northrup Frye. Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, (1957).
  69. ^ Jacques Derrida, Beverly Bie Brahic (Trans.). Geneses, Genealogies, Genres, And Genius: The Secrets of the Archive. New York, New York: Columbia University Press(2006), ISBN 0231139780.
  70. ^ Hatto, A. T.. Traditions of Heroic and Epic Poetry, Vol. I: The Traditions, Maney Publishing. 
  71. ^ Shakespeare parodied such analysis in Hamlet, describing the genres as consisting of "tragedy, comedy, history, pastoral, pastoral-comical, historical-pastoral, tragical-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral..."
  72. ^ See Press Release from the Nobel Committee, [12], accessed January 20, 2008.
  73. ^ A. Berriedale Keith, Sanskrit Drama, Motilal Banarsidass Publ (1998).
  74. ^ A. Berriedale Keith at 57-58.
  75. ^ William Dolby, Early Chinese Plays and Theatre, in Colin Mackerras, Chinese Theatre" , University of Hawaii Press (1983) at 17.

DJ Grandmaster Flash was one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... This article describes the paraphrase of the Holy Bible. ... Libel is a verse genre primarily of the Renaissance, descended from the tradition of invective in classical Greek and Roman poetry. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz (April 3, 1886, Warsaw – April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and author of works in ethics. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 - 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Ars Poetica is a term meaning The Art of Poetry or On the Nature of Poetry. Early examples of Ars Poetica by Aristotle and Horace have survived and have since spawned many other poems that bear the same name. ... Allusion is a figure of speech, reference/representation of/to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Odysseus Elytis Odysseas Elytis was the pseudonym of Odysseas Alepoudelis (November 2, 1911–March 18, 1996), a Greek poet. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Death of the Author (1967) is an essay by the French literary critic Roland Barthes that was first published in the American journal Aspen. ... Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator who served in the post of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (known popularly as the Poet Laureate of the United States) from 1997 to 2000. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... Christine Frances Evelyn Brooke-Rose (born January 16, 1923) is a British writer and literary critic, known principally for her later, experimental novels. ... A ZBC of Ezra Pound (ISBN 0-571-091350) is a book by Christine Brooke-Rose published by Faber and Faber in 1971. ... Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator who served in the post of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (known popularly as the Poet Laureate of the United States) from 1997 to 2000. ... Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator who served in the post of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (known popularly as the Poet Laureate of the United States) from 1997 to 2000. ... Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line. ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The book Notes on Prosody by bi-lingual author Vladimir Nabokov compares differences in iambic verse in the English and Russian languages, and highlights the effect of relative word length in the two languages on rhythm. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... An anonymous portrait, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... Burton Raffel is a translator, a poet and a teacher. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Edward Marlborough FitzGerald (March 31, 1809–June 14, 1883) was an English writer, best known as the poet of the English translation of Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Cummings in 1953 Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), popularly known as E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... Alice in Wonderland redirects here. ... One of a set of engraved metal plate illustrations by Gustave Doré: the Mariner up on the mast in a storm. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... This article is about the bird family. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... Page from a 14th century Psalter, showing drolleries on the right margin and a plowman at the bottom. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch (November 21, 1863 - May 12, 1944) was a British writer, who published under the pen name of Q. Born in Cornwall, he was educated at Newton Abbot College, at Clifton College, and Trinity College, Oxford and later became a lecturer there. ... Do not go gentle into that good night, a villanelle composed in 1951, is considered to be among the finest works by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953). ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ...

References

Poetry Portal
Look up poetry in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Poetry. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Anthologies

This is a list of anthologies of poetry. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... The New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250 – 1950 is a poetry anthology edited by Helen Gardner, and published in New York and London in 1972 by the Oxford University Press with ISBN 0198121369, as a replacement for the Quiller-Couch Oxford Book of English Verse. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Donald Hall (born September 20, 1928) is an American poet and the U.S. Poet Laureate. ... New Poets of England and America was a poetry anthology edited by Donald Hall, Robert Pack and Louis Simpson, and published in 1957 by Meridian Books. ... Philip Arthur Larkin, CH, CBE, FRSL, (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and jazz critic. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... James Laughlin (October 30, 1914 - November 12, 1997) was an American poet, publisher, and man of letters. ... An independent publisher for 70 years, New Directions was founded when president and publisher James Laughlin issued the first New Directions anthology in 1936. ... Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch (November 21, 1863 - May 12, 1944) was a British writer, who published under the pen name of Q. Born in Cornwall, he was educated at Newton Abbot College, at Clifton College, and Trinity College, Oxford and later became a lecturer there. ... A 1907 engraving of Yeats. ...

Scansion and Form

  • Alfred Corn. The Poem's Heartbeat: A Manual of Prosody. London, England: Storyline Press (1997), ISBN 1885266405.
  • Paul Fussell. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. New York, New York: Random House (1965).
  • John Hollander. Rhyme's Reason (3rd ed). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press (2001).
  • James McAuley. Versification, A Short Introduction. Michigan State University Press (1983), ISBN B0007DTS8K
  • Robert Pinsky. The Sounds of Poetry (1998).

Paul Fussell (born 1924, Pasadena, California) is a cultural historian and a professor emeritus of English literature of the University of Pennsylvania. ... John Hollander (born October 29, 1929) is an American poet and literary critic. ... Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator who served in the post of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (known popularly as the Poet Laureate of the United States) from 1997 to 2000. ...

Critical and historical works

  • Cleanth Brooks. The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry. New York, New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, (1947).
  • William K. Wimsatt, Jr. & Cleanth Brooks. Literary Criticism: A Short History. New York, New York: Vintage Books, (1957).
  • T. S. Eliot. The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London, England: Methuen Publishing, Ltd., (1920).
  • George Gascoigne. Certayne Notes of Instruction Concerning the Making of English Verse or Ryme[13].
  • Ezra Pound. ABC of Reading. London, England: Faber, (1951).
  • Władysław Tatarkiewicz. "The Concept of Poetry," translated by Christopher Kasparek, Dialectics and Humanism: the Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. II, no. 2 (spring 1975), pp. 13–24.
  • John Thompson. The Founding of English Meter. New York, New York: Columbia University Press (1961).

Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 - 1994) was an influential American literary critic and professor. ... Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 - 1994) was an influential American literary critic and professor. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... Władysław Tatarkiewicz Władysław Tatarkiewicz (April 3, 1886, Warsaw – April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and author of works in ethics. ... Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a writer and a translator from Polish into English. ...

Linguistics and language

  • Zhiming Bao. The structure of tone. New York, New York: Oxford University Press (1999) ISBN 0-19-511880-4.
  • Morio Kono. "Perception and Psychology of Rhythm" in Accent, Intonation, Rhythm and Pause. (1997).
  • Moria Yip. Tone. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2002) ISBN 0-521-77314-8 (hbk), ISBN 0-521-77445-4 (pbk).

Other Works

  • Alex Preminger, Terry V.F. Brogan and Frank J. Warnke (Eds). The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (3rd Ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02123-6.

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