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Encyclopedia > Podophyllotoxin
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Podophyllin is a drug obtained from the rhizome of the American Mayapple (‘’Podophyllum peltatum’’), an herbaceous perennial belonging to the natural order Berberidaceae, indigenous in woods in Canada and the United States. The plant is about 1 ft. high, bearing two peltate, deeply-divided leaves, which are about 5 in. in diameter, and bear in the axil a solitary, stalked, white flower, about the size and shape of the garden anemone, with six or more petals and twice as many hypogynous stamens. The fruit is ripe in July, and is an oval, yellowish, fleshy berry, containing twelve or more seeds, each surrounded by a pulpy outer coat or aril. The rhizome, as met with in commerce, occurs in cylindrical pieces 2 or 3 in. long and about 4 in. in diameter, of a chocolate or purplish-brown color, smooth, and slightly enlarged where the juncture of the leafy stem is indicated by a circular scar on the upper and a few broken rootlets on the under side. The odor is heavy and disagreeable, and the taste acrid and bitter. Ginger rhizome In botany, a rhizome is a usually-underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The axil is the space or angle between a primary stalk or branch and a smaller branch or leaf coming off from the primary branch. ... Species About 120; see text Anemone (Anemone) (from the Gr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...

Podophyllin is a resinous powder obtained by precipitating an alcoholic tincture of the rhizome by means of water acidulated with hydrochloric acid. It varies in color from grayish to bright yellow or greenish-brown, the first-named being the purest. The powder is soluble in alcohol and strong solutions of alkalis, such as ammonia. Its composition is somewhat complex. There are certainly at least two resins in the powder (which is known officially as Podophylli resina), one of them being soluble and the other insoluble in ether. Each of these contains an active substance, which can be obtained in crystalline form, and is known as podophyllotoxin. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and boiling water. Jump to: navigation, search The chemical substance hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. ... For the battery, see alkaline battery The word alkali can mean:- In chemistry, an alkali is a specific type of base, formed as a carbonate, hydroxide or other ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Insect trapped in resin. ...

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Alkalis decompose it into picro-podophyllic acid and picro-podophyllin, minute traces of both of which occur in a free state in the rhizome. The acid is inert, but picro-podophyllin is the active principle. It is a crystalline body, soluble only in concentrated alcohol. Hence the inutility of the pharmacopeial tinctura podophylli, which cannot be diluted before administration. The properties of podophyllin resin vary with the reaction of the tissue with which it is in contact; where this is acid the drug is inert, the picro-podophyllin being precipitated. The resin does not affect the unbroken skin, but may be absorbed from a raw surface, and will then cause purging. When taken internally it is both a secretory and an excretory cholagogue, but so irritant and powerful that its use in cases of jaundice is generally undesirable. Its value, however, in certain cases of constipation of hepatic origin is undeniable. It is largely used in patent medicines, usually as an auxiliary to aloes. The best method of prescribing podophyllin is in pill form. In toxic doses podophyllin causes intense enteritis, with all its characteristic symptoms, and severe depression, which may end in death. The treatment is symptomatic, there being no specific antidote. Jump to: navigation, search Cholagogue is a substance which is added to the bile canaliculi in the alimentary canal during glyco-respiration. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jaundice, also known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ... Jump to: navigation, search Constipation is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or other animal) experiences hard feces that is difficult to eliminate; it may be extremely painful, and in extreme cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Species See Species Flower bud of Aloe Vera Leaf close up Aloe is a genus of succulent, flowering plants in the family Asphodelaceae and contains about 400 different species. ... Enteritis is the inflammation of the small intestine (inflammation of the large intestine is termed colitis). ... Jump to: navigation, search Clinical depression is a health condition of depression with mental and physical components reaching criteria generally accepted by clinicians. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom may loosely be said to be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see...

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Jump to: navigation, search Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Bioprospecting for Podophyllotoxin (1667 words)
Podophyllotoxin is a natural lignan that is currently being used as a precursor to semi-synthetic anti-cancer drugs etoposide, teniposide, and etopophos.
In addition, podophyllotoxin is also the precursor to a new derivative CPH 82 that is being tested for rheumatoid arthritis in Europe and other derivatives for the treatment of psoriasis and malaria (Leander and Rosen 1988; Lerndal and Svensson 2000).
Podophyllotoxin preparations are also on the market for dermatological use to treat genital warts (Beutner 1996) and recently, immune-stimulatory activities of podophyllotoxin have been reported (Pugh et al.
Patent 5300500 (6053 words)
The present invention relates to novel 4.beta.-amino podophyllotoxin analog compounds useful in the treatment of tumors, to methods of synthesis of the compounds, and to methods of treating tumors with pharmaceutical preparations containing the compounds.
Also disclosed are methods of synthesizing the 4.beta.-amino podophyllotoxin analogs corresponding to structures (a) and (b), and methods of their use in treating tumors, as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing the compounds for use in tumor treatment.
In the treatment method of the invention, a podophyllotoxin analog of the type described above is suspended in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and administered in a pharmaceutically effective amount to reduce tumor growth in a mammalian subject.
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