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Encyclopedia > Podolia
Historical arms of Podilia
Historical arms of Podilia

The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. (Ukrainian: Поділля, Podillia; Russian: Russian: Подолье, Podol’e; Polish: Podole; Romanian: Podolia; Turkish: Podolya) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 179 KB) Coat of Arms of the land of Podolia made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 179 KB) Coat of Arms of the land of Podolia made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle File links The following pages on the English... Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’ or Хмельниччина, Khmelnychchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Vinnytsia Oblast (Ukrainian: ) is an oblast of Ukraine. ...

Contents


Geography

Podilia lies south of Volhynia, southwest of the Kiev Region, northeast of Moldova across the Dniester River, and east of Galicia across the Zbruch River, a tributary of the Dniester . Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: Київська область, Kyivs’ka oblast’ or Київщина, Kyivshchyna) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is an historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... The Dniester (Polish Dniestr, Ukrainian Дністер (Dnister), Romanian Nistru, Russian Днестр (Dnestr), Yiddish‫נעסטער ‬ (nester), Serbian (Dnjester) and during antiquity was called Tyras in Latin) is a river in Eastern Europe. ...


It has an area of about 40,000 km², extending for 320 km from northwest to southeast on the left bank of the Dniester. In the same direction run two ranges of relatively low hills separated by the Southern Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights. A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ...


Two large rivers, with numerous tributaries, drain the region: the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Moldova and is navigable throughout its length, and the Southern Bug, which flows almost parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, valley, interrupted in several places by rapids. The Dniester forms an important channel for trade in the areas of Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Zhvanets and other Podolian river-ports.


In Podolia, "black earth" (chernozem) soil predominates, making it a very fertile agricultural area. Marshes occur only beside the Bug. A moderate climate predominates, with average temperatures at Kamianets-Podilskyi of 9 °C (-4 °C in January, 20 °C in July). Chernozem, or Black Earth (from Russian: ), is a kind of soil. ... General view of the fortress. ...


Russian-ruled Podolia in 1906 had an estimated population of 3,543,700, consisting chiefly of Ukrainians. Significant minorities included Poles and Jews, as well as 50,000 Romanians, some Germans, and a few Armenians. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The chief towns include Kamianets-Podilskyi, the traditional capital, Balta, Bratslav, Haisyn, Letychiv, Lityn, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia, Olhopil, Khmelnytskyi, Vinnytsia, and Yampil. General view of the fortress. ... Balta is a small town (pop. ... Bratslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish: Bracław; Yiddish: ברעסאָבֿ /Breslov/) is a town in the Nemyriv raion of the Vinnytsya Oblast of Ukraine, on the river Southern Bug. ... Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , Khmelnytskyi; Russian: Khmelnitsky; Polish: Chmielnicki) is a city in Ukraine in the region of Podillya. ... Vinnytsia, or Vinnytsya (Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a city in central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Pivdennyi Buh River, approximately 270 km west of Ukraines capital, Kiev. ...


Podolia is known for its cherries, mulberries, melons, gourds, and cucumbers. Species Several, including: Prunus apetala Prunus avium(Wild Cherry) Prunus campanulata Prunus canescens Prunus cerasus(Sour Cherry) Prunus concinna Prunus conradinae Prunus dielsiana Prunus emarginata(Bitter Cherry) Prunus fruticosa Prunus incisa Prunus litigiosa Prunus mahaleb(Saint Lucie Cherry) Prunus maximowiczii Prunus nipponica Prunus pensylvanica(Pin Cherry) Prunus pilosiuscula Prunus rufa... Species See text Mulberry (Morus) is a genus of 10–16 species of deciduous trees native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and North America, with the majority of the species native to Asia. ... Binomial name Cucumis melo L. The melon is the fruit and plant of a typically vine-like (climber and trailer) herb that was first cultivated more than 4000 years ago (~ 2000 BC) in Persia and Africa. ... A gourd is a hollow, dried shell of a fruit in the Cucurbitaceae family of plants. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. The cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant Cucumis sativus, which belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, as do melons and squash. ...


History

Medieval fortress, today known as the "Turkish Fortress" in Kamianets-Podilskyi.
Medieval fortress, today known as the "Turkish Fortress" in Kamianets-Podilskyi.

The country has had human inhabitants since at least the beginning of the Neolithic period. Herodotus mentions it as the seat of the Graeco-Scythian Alazones and possibly Scythian Neuri. Subsequently the Dacians and the Getae arrived. The Romans left traces of their rule in Trajan’s Wall, which stretches through the modern districts of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia and Khmelnytskyi. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... General view of the fortress. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Greeks (Hellenes) are an ethnic group found in the southern Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe and are speakers of the Greek language. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... The Getae was the name by which the pre-Roman ancient writers reffered to the tribes that will become the later Dacians. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


During the Great Migration Period, many nationalities passed through this territory or settled within it for some time, leaving numerous traces in archaeological remains. Nestor in the Primary Chronicle mentions four apparently Slavic tribes: the Buzhans and Dulebes along the Bug River, and the Tivertsi and Ulichs along the Dniester. The Avars conquered these peoples in the 7th century. Prince Oleg of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory known as the Ponizie, or "lowlands." These lowlands later became a part of the Ruthenian principalities of Volhynia, Kiev, and Galicia. In the 13th century, the Mongols plundered Ponizie; a hundred years afterwards Algirdas (Olgierd), prince of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, freed it from their rule, annexing it to his own territories under the name of Podolia, which has the same meaning as Ponizie. Polish colonisation began in the 14th century. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Nestor (c. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from around 850 to 1110. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Buzhans or (more correct) Buzhane (Russian: ,Ukrainian: ) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs. ... The Dulebs (Dulebes, Russian: ) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західний Буг, Zakhidnyi Buh), flows from central Ukraine to the west, forming part of the boundary between that nation and Poland, passes along the Polish-Belarusian... Tivertsi, a. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... The Dniester (Polish Dniestr, Ukrainian Дністер (Dnister), Romanian Nistru, Russian Днестр (Dnestr), Yiddish‫נעסטער ‬ (nester), Serbian (Dnjester) and during antiquity was called Tyras in Latin) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia, supposedly of proto-Mongolian Turkic stock, who migrated from eastern Asia into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... Motto: Oblast Municipality Municipal government City council (Київська Міська рада) Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko Mayor-elect Leonid Chernovetsky Area 800 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 2,660,401 100% 3,299/km² Founded City rights around 5th century 1487 Latitude Longitude Area code +380 44 Car plates AA (before 2004: КА,КВ,КЕ,КН,КІ) Sister cities Athens, Brussels... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Motto: Oblast Municipality Municipal government City council (Київська Міська рада) Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko Mayor-elect Leonid Chernovetsky Area 800 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 2,660,401 100% 3,299/km² Founded City rights around 5th century 1487 Latitude Longitude Area code +380 44 Car plates AA (before 2004: КА,КВ,КЕ,КН,КІ) Sister cities Athens, Brussels... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is an historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China. ... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas the Great (Vitovt) in 1430, Podolia became part of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, with the exception of its eastern part, the Province of Bratslav, which remained in Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569. Apart from an Ottoman occupation (1672 - 1699), the Poles retained Podolia until the partitions of their country in 1772 and 1793, when the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and Imperial Russia annexed the western and eastern parts respectively. Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting The castle in Trakai. ... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Bratslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish: BracÅ‚aw; Yiddish: ברעסאָבֿ /Breslov/) is a town in the Nemyriv raion of the Vinnytsya Oblast of Ukraine, on the river Southern Bug. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


From 1793-1917, part of the region was the Podolia Governorate (Russian: Подольская губерния [Podol’skaja gubernija]; Ukrainian: Подільська губернія [Podil’s’ka hubernija]) in southwestern Russia bordering with Austria across the Zbruch River and with Bessarabia across the Dniester. Its area was 36,910 km². 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish... The Dniester (Polish Dniestr, Ukrainian Дністер (Dnister), Romanian Nistru, Russian Днестр (Dnestr), Yiddish‫נעסטער ‬ (nester), Serbian (Dnjester) and during antiquity was called Tyras in Latin) is a river in Eastern Europe. ...


The Austrian Habsburgs took control of western Podolia (sometimes also called "Southern Podolia") in 1772 in the first partition of Poland by the Russian, Prussian and Austrian Empires. At this time, the Emperor Joseph II toured the area, was impressed by the fertility of the soil, and was optimistic about its future prospects. Poland disappeared as a state in a third partition in 1795 but the Polish gentry continued to maintain local control in both eastern and western Podolia over a serf population which was primarily ethnically Ukrainian. The Ternopil (Tarnopol) region of western Podolia was briefly taken by Russia in 1809 but reverted to Austrian rule in 1815. Within the Austrian Empire, western Podolia was part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria which, in 1867 with the formation of Austria-Hungary, became an ethnic-Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown. Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Motto: Oblast Ternopil Oblast Mayor Bogdan Evgenovich Levkiv Area 59 kм² Population  - city  - density 221,300 (2004) 3,831 /km² Founded 1540 Latitude Longitude Area code +380 352 Car plates  ?? sister cities Municipal Website Ternopil (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown Austrian Emperor, formerly Crown Holy Roman Emperor The Austrian Empire is the name of Austria during the time from 1804 - 1867. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is an historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Poles (Polish: Polacy) are a people inhabiting the country of Poland (in Central Europe) and a number of other states in the world, where they form a significant Polish diaspora. ...

Medieval fortress in Letychiv.
Medieval fortress in Letychiv.

At the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Austrian Podolia witnessed a large-scale emigration of its peasant population to western Canada. Image File history File links Letichev. ... Image File history File links Letichev. ...


With the collapse of Austria-Hungary following World War I in November 1918, western Podolia was included in the Western Ukrainian People's Republic, but came under Polish control in 1919 which was confirmed in the Poland–Ukrainian People's Republic agreement in April 1920. Podolia was briefly occupied in 1920 by Soviets during the course of the Polish-Soviet War. After the Peace of Riga the Polish control was recognized by the USSR. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Західно Українська Народна Республика, Zakhidno Ukrayinska Narodna Respublyka or ЗУНР, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ...


In Poland from 1921 to 1939, Podolia was part of the Tarnopol Voivodship. Tarnopol Voivodship A voivodship of Poland 1920-1939 Capital: Tarnopol Main cities: Brody, Brzezany, Buczacz, Czortków, Zloczów Area: 16,500 km² Population: Totals 1,600,406 Poles 789,114 (49. ...


In 1939 after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and the Soviet invasion of 17 September 1939, the area became part of Soviet Ukraine. Many local inhabitants were deported to concentration camps. Following German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, most of Podolia was occupied by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The area of Podolia between the Southern Bug below Vinnytsia and the Dniester was occupied by Axis Romania as part of Transnistria. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Reichskommissariat Ukraine was a Nazi German administrative district, under the civilian occupation of conquered territories of central and eastern Ukraine during World War II. Adolf Hitler,always sense hate to Jew-Bolshevism,with heavy hate also to Untermenschen Slavs. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Transnistria (disambiguation). ...


In 1944 the Podolia again fell to the Soviets and in 1945, when Poland’s eastern border was formally realigned along the Curzon line, the whole of Podolia remained in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Most remaining Poles and Jews fled or were expelled to the People's Republic of Poland. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ...


Reference

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Podolia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1031 words)
The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast.
Podolia is known for its cherries, mulberries, melons, gourds, and cucumbers.
Podolia was briefly occupied in 1920 by Soviets during the course of the Polish-Soviet War.
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