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Encyclopedia > Podestà
The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria

Podestà is the name given to a high official in many Italian cities, during the later middle ages. Download high resolution version (509x678, 94 KB)The Palazzo del Podestà (or Palace of the Podestà) in Florence, Italy. ... Download high resolution version (509x678, 94 KB)The Palazzo del Podestà (or Palace of the Podestà) in Florence, Italy. ... Florence - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Palazzo della Signoria Original name of the Palazzo Vecchio, before the government of the Republic of Florence was moved to the Uffizi under Cosimo I de Medici. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The term derives from the Latin word potestas, meaning power. Podests, or rectors, were first appointed by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick Barbarossa when in about 1158 he began to assert the rights which his Imperial position gave him over the cities of northern Italy. The business of the podestà was to enforce these rights. From the first, their activities were very unpopular, and their often arbitrary behaviour was a factor in bringing about the formation of the Lombard League and the rising against Frederick in 1167. Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Holy Roman Empire ( German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) ( Italian: Sacro Romano Impero) ( Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium) ( Czech: Svatá říše římská) ( French: Saint Empire Romain Germanique) ( Polish: Święte Cesarstwo Rzymskie Narodu Niemieckiego) ( Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk) was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Events January 11 - Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia End of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan, also the beginning of his cloistered rule, which will last to his death in 1192. ... The Lombard League was an alliance formed on December 1, 1167 between 26 (later 30) cities of North Italy, including Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Milan, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi, and Parma. ... Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight...


Although the emperors' experiment was short-lived, the podests soon became important and common in northern Italy, making their appearance in most communes around the year 1200, with an essential difference. These officials were now appointed by the citizens or by the citizens' representatives. The podests exercised the supreme power in the city, both in peace and war, and in foreign and domestic matters alike; but their term of office lasted only about a year. Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ...


In order to avoid the intense strife so common in Italian civic life, it soon became the custom to hire a stranger to fill this position. A similarity could be drawn to modern CEOs. Venetians were in special demand for this purpose during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. This was probably due to their lesser concern (at the time) than other Italians in the affairs of the mainland. Afterwards, in a few cases, the term of office was extended to cover a period of years, or even a lifetime. They were confined in a luxury palace to keep them from being influenced by any of the local families. The architectural arrangement of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, built starting in 1297, evokes the uneasy relation of the commune with the podestà, who in Siena's case was a disinterested nobleman at the head of the judiciary. It provided a self-contained lodging round its own interior court for the podestà, separate but housed within the Palazzo Pubblico where the councillors and their committee of nine habitually met (Woo). Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Venice is known for its waterways and gondolas Gondola. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


During the later part of the twelfth and the whole of the thirteenth century most Italian cities were governed by a podestà. Concerning Rome, with a history of civic violence, Gregorovius says that "in 1205 the pope [Innocent III] changed the form of the civic government; the executive power lying henceforward in the hand of a single senator or podest, who, directly or indirectly, was appointed by the pope." In Florence after 1180, the chief authority was transferred from the consuls to the podest, and Milan and other cities were also ruled by these officials. There were, moreover, podests in some of the cities of Provence. Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ... Ferdinand Gregorovius (January 19, 1821–May 1, 1891) was a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Rome. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Deaths July 13 Hubert Walter Archbishop of Canterbury... Innocent III, né Lotario de Conti ( 1161–June 16, 1216), was Pope from January 8, 1198 until his death. ... Florence - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... This is about the Italian city of Milan. ... Provence is a former province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Frances border with Italy. ...


Gradually the podests became more despotic and more corrupt: the sale of public offices at Ferrara was a matter of public record, as Jakob Burckhardt noted: "At the new year 1502 the majority of the officials bought their places at prezzi salati ("pungent prices"); public servants of the most various kinds, custom-house officers, bailiffs (massari), notaries, podesta, judges, and even governors of provincial towns are quoted by name." Sometimes a special official was appointed to hear complaints against them. In the thirteenth century in Florence, in Orvieto (1251) and some other cities a capitano del popolo (literally, "captain of the people") was chosen to look after the interests of the lower classes. (To this day, the heads of government of the little independent republic of San Marino are still called "Capitani".) In other ways the power of the podests was reduced—they were confined more and more to judicial functions until they disappeared early in the sixteenth century. Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... Ferrara, a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Jakob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 - August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture. ... The site of Orvieto is an Etruscan acropolis. ... The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The officials sent by the Italian republics to administer the affairs of dependent cities were also sometimes called podests. Into the 20th century the cities of Trento and Trieste gave the name of podest to their chief magistrate. Fascism tried to revive the term by calling the lord mayors of Italian cities, podestà—a senate elected position. This use was abandoned after World War II and today Italian mayors are again called sindaco. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A view of Trento from Castello del Buonconsiglio. ... Location within Italy Trieste ( Latin Tergeste, Slovenian and Croatian Trst, German and Friulian Triest) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region and Trieste province, population 211,184 (2001). ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The example of Italy in the matter of podests was sometimes followed by cities and republics in northern Europe in the middle ages, notably by such as had trade relations with Italy. The officers elected sometimes bore the title of podesta or podestat. Thus in East Friesland there were podests identical in name and functions with those of the Italian republics; sometimes each province had one, sometimes the federal diet elected a podest-general for the whole country, the term of office being for a limited period or for life1. Northern Europe is a name for the northern part of the European continent. ... Ostfriesland (literally East Frisia) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ...


See also Gonfaloniere. Compare Doges of Genoa and Doges of Venice. A Gonfaloniere is a government post in medieval and renaissance Florence. ... Genoa ( Italy) was technically a communal republic in the early Middle Ages, but in actuality it was an oligarchy ruled by a small group of merchant families, from whom were selected the Doges of Genoa. ... For some thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice was the Doge (Duke). ...


References

1 J.L. Motley, Dutch Republic, i. 44, ed. 1903.


External link

  • Janet Hongyan Woo, "Tension in Siena : Site Selection and Room Arrangement of Piazza Pubblico" (http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~hwu/aessaysiena.htm)

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