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Encyclopedia > Pocahontas
A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simone van de Passe. The original English caption (not visible here) reads "Matoaks als Rebecka daughter to the mighty Prince Powhatan Emperour of Attanoughkomouck als virginia converted and baptized in the Christian faith, and wife to the wor.ff Mr. Joh Rolff."The inscription under the portrait reads "Aetatis suae 21 A. 1616", Latin for "at the age of 21 in the year 1616".
A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simone van de Passe.
The original English caption (not visible here) reads "Matoaks als Rebecka daughter to the mighty Prince Powhatan Emperour of Attanoughkomouck als virginia converted and baptized in the Christian faith, and wife to the wor.ff Mr. Joh Rolff."[1]
The inscription under the portrait reads "Aetatis suae 21 A. 1616", Latin for "at the age of 21 in the year 1616".

Pocahontas (c. 1595 – bur. March 21, 1617[2]) was a Native American woman who married an Englishman, John Rolfe, and became a celebrity in London in the last year of her life. She was a daughter of Wahunsenacawh (also known as Chief or Emperor Powhatan), who ruled an area encompassing almost all of the neighboring tribes in the Tidewater region of Virginia (called Tenakomakah at the time). Her formal names were Matoaka (or Matoika) and Amonute[3]; Pocahontas was a childhood nickname referring to her frolicsome nature (in the Powhatan language it meant "little wanton", according to William Strachey[4]). After her baptism, she went by the name Rebecca, becoming Rebecca Rolfe on her marriage. Download high resolution version (594x770, 214 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (594x770, 214 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the Virginia colonist. ... Chief Powhatan (detail of map published by John Smith (1612) Chief Powhatan (c. ... The Tidewater region of Virginia is the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia, centered on Hampton Roads. ... The Powhatan language, also known as Virginia Algonquian is an extinct language spoken by the Powhatan people of tidewater Virginia in the late 16th and early 17th century. ... William Strachey (1572-1621) was an English writer and barrister, whose writings are among the primary sources for the history the English colonization of North America, and as one of the only narratives describing Powhatan society. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Little is known about Pocahontas' early childhood. She was born in modern day Chesterfield County, Virginia. She was the daughter of Powhatan by one of his many wives and was brought up in his household; her mother was sent away after giving birth to her, as was traditional with Powhatan's wives.[5] Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ...


Relationship with John Smith

Illustration of Pocahontas saving Smith's life.
Illustration of Pocahontas saving Smith's life.

In April 1607, when the English colonists arrived in Virginia and began building settlements, Pocahontas was about 10 to 12 years old,[6] and her father was the leader of the Powhatan Confederacy. One of the leading colonists, John Smith, was captured by a group of Powhatan hunters and brought to Werowocomoco, one of the chief villages of the Powhatan Empire. According to Smith, he was laid across a stone and was about to be executed, when Pocahontas threw herself across his body[7]: "at the minute of my execution, she hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine; and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown" .[8] The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ... Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 Captain/Sir John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... Chief Powhatan in a longhouse at Werowocomoco (detail of John Smith map, 1612) Werowocomoco was the chief village of the Powhatan Confederacy of the Native American tribes, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first English-Native encounters during the establishment...


John Smith's version of events is the only source, and since the 1860s, skepticism has increasingly been expressed about its veracity. One reason for such doubt is that despite having published two earlier books about Virginia, Smith's earliest surviving account of his rescue by Pocahontas dates from 1616, nearly 10 years later, in a letter entreating Queen Anne to treat Pocahontas with dignity.[8] The time gap in publishing his story raises the possibility that Smith may have exaggerated or invented the event to enhance Pocahontas' image; however, in a recent book, J.A.O. Lemay points out that Smith's earlier writing was primarily geographical and ethnographic in nature and did not dwell on his personal experience; hence there was no reason for him to write down the story until this point.[9] Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ...

A Pocahontas statue was erected in Jamestown, Virginia in 1922
A Pocahontas statue was erected in Jamestown, Virginia in 1922

Some experts have suggested that, although Smith believed he had been rescued, he had in fact been involved in a ritual intended to symbolize his death and rebirth as a member of the tribe.[10][11] However, in Love and Hate in Jamestown, David A. Price notes that this is only guesswork, since little is known of Powhatan rituals, and there is no evidence for any similar rituals among other North American tribes.[12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x1127, 115 KB) Summary The statue, by William Ordway Partridge, was erected in Jamestown, Virginia in 1922 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x1127, 115 KB) Summary The statue, by William Ordway Partridge, was erected in Jamestown, Virginia in 1922 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ...


Whatever really happened, this encounter initiated a friendly relationship with Smith and the Jamestown colony, and Pocahontas would often come to the settlement and play games with the boys there.[13] During a time when the colonists were starving, "ever once in four or five days, Pocahontas with her attendants brought him [Smith] so much provision that saved many of their lives that else for all this had starved with hunger."[14] As the colonists expanded further, however, some of the Native Americans felt that their lands were threatened, and conflicts arose again. At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ...


In 1608, Pocahontas is said to have saved Smith a second time. Smith and some other colonists were invited to Werowocomoco by Chief Powhatan on friendly terms, but Pocahontas came to the hut where the English were staying and warned them that Powhatan was planning to kill them. Due to this warning, the English stayed on their guard, and the attack never came.[15][16]


An injury from a gunpowder explosion forced Smith to return to England in 1609 for medical care. The English told the natives that Smith was dead; he had been captured by a French pirate, the pirate ship had been wrecked on the Brittany coast, and it had gone down with all hands.[17] Pocahontas believed Smith was dead until she arrived in England several years later, the wife of John Rolfe.[18]


According to William Strachey, Pocahontas married a Powhatan warrior called Kocoum at some point before 1612; nothing more is known about this marriage.[19]


There is no suggestion in any of the historical records that Smith and Pocahontas were lovers. This romantic version of the story appears only in fictionalized versions of their relationship.


Capture

In March 1613, Pocahontas was residing at Passapatanzy, a village of the Patawomecks, a Native American tribe that did some trading with Powhatans. They lived in present-day Stafford County on the Potomac River near Fredericksburg, about 65 miles (105 km) from Werowocomoco. Smith writes in his Generall Historie that she had been in the care of the Patawomec chief, Japazaws (or Japazeus), since 1611 or 1612. The Patawomeck is a tribe of American Indians based in Stafford County, Virginia, along the Potomac River (Patawomeck is another spelling of Potomac). ... Stafford County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ...


When two English colonists began trading with the Patawomec, they discovered Pocahontas' presence. With the help of Japazaws, they tricked Pocahontas into captivity. Their purpose, as they explained in a letter, was to ransom her for some English prisoners held by Chief Powhatan, along with various weapons and tools that the Powhatans had stolen.[20] Powhatan returned the prisoners, but failed to satisfy the colonists with the amount of weapons and tools he returned, and a long standoff ensued.


During the year-long wait, Pocahontas was kept at Henricus, in modern-day Chesterfield County. Little is known about her life there although colonist Ralph Hamor wrote that she received "extraordinary courteous usage."[21] An English minister, Alexander Whitaker, taught her about Christianity and helped to improve her English. After she was baptized, her name was changed to Rebecca.[22] The Citie of Henricus was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. ... Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... Alexander Whitaker (1585-1616) was a Christian theologian, who settled in Virginia Colony in 1611, and established two churches near the Jamestown colony. ...


In March 1614, the standoff built to a violent confrontation between hundreds of English and Powhatan men on the Pamunkey River. At the Powhatan town of Matchcot, the English encountered a group that included some of the senior Powhatan leaders (but not Chief Powhatan himself, who was away). The English permitted Pocahontas to talk to her countrymen; however, according to the deputy governor, Thomas Dale, Pocahontas rebuked her absent father for valuing her "less than old swords, pieces, or axes" and told them that she preferred to live with the English.[23] The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 90 mi (145 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Sir Thomas Dale (d. ...


Marriage to John Rolfe

John Gadsby Chapman, The Baptism of Pocahontas (1840)
John Gadsby Chapman, The Baptism of Pocahontas (1840)

During her stay in Henricus, Pocahontas met John Rolfe, who fell in love with her. Rolfe, whose English-born wife had died, had successfully cultivated a new strain of tobacco in Virginia and spent much of his time there tending to his crop. He was a pious man who agonized over the potential moral repercussions of marrying a heathen. In a long letter to the governor requesting permission to wed her, he expressed both his love for her and his belief that he would be saving her soul. He claimed he was not motivated by Image File history File links Baptism_of_Pocahontas. ... Image File history File links Baptism_of_Pocahontas. ... Baptism of Pocahontas by John G. Chapman, 1840. ... This article is about the Virginia colonist. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...

"the unbridled desire of carnal affection, but for the good of this plantation, for the honor of our country, for the Glory of God, for my own salvation… namely Pocahontas, to whom my hearty and best thoughts are, and have been a long time so entangled, and enthralled in so intricate a labyrinth that I was even a-wearied to unwind myself thereout."[24]

Pocahontas's feelings about Rolfe and the marriage are unknown.


They were married on April 5, 1614. Pocahontas was christened Lady Rebecca. For a few years after the marriage, the couple lived together at Rolfe's plantation, Varina Farms, which was located across the James River from the new community of Henricus. They had a child, Thomas Rolfe, born on January 30, 1615. is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Varina (Va-ry-nah) is a former town and current magisterial district in easternmost portion of Henrico County, Virginia, USA. It was named for Varina Farms, a plantation on the James River about 35 miles upstream from the Jamestown Settlement in the Virginia Colony, and across the river from Sir... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... The Citie of Henricus was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around Jamestown Settlement, Virginia. ... Thomas Rolfe (January 30, 1615 - c. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ...


Their marriage was unsuccessful in winning the English captives back, but it did create a climate of peace between the Jamestown colonists and Powhatan's tribes for several years; in 1615, Ralph Hamor wrote that ever since the wedding "we have had friendly commerce and trade not only with Powhatan but also with his subjects round about us".[25]


Journey to England and death

The Virginia Colony's sponsors found it difficult to lure new colonists and investors to Jamestown. They used Pocahontas as an enticement and as evidence to convince people in Europe that the New World's natives could be tamed, and the colony made safe.[26] In 1616, the Rolfes traveled to England, arriving at the port of Plymouth on the 12th of June[27] and then journeying to London by coach in June 1616. They were accompanied by a group of around eleven other Powhatan natives including Tomocomo, a holy man.[28] John Smith was living in London at the time, and in Plymouth, Pocahontas learned that he was still alive.[29] Smith did not meet Pocahontas at this point, but he wrote a letter to Queen Anne urging that Pocahontas be treated with respect as a royal visitor, because if she were treated badly, her "present love to us and Christianity might turn to… scorn and fury", and England might lose the chance to "rightly have a Kingdom by her means".[8] This article is about the city in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Uttamatomakkin, known as Tomocomo for short, was a Powhatan native priest who accompanied Pocahontas on her visit to London in 1616. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ...


Pocahontas was entertained at various society gatherings. There is no evidence that she was formally presented to King James' court, but on January 5, 1617 she and Tomocomo were brought before the King at the Banqueting House in Whitehall Palace at a performance of Ben Jonson's masque The Vision of Delight. According to Smith, King James was so unprepossessing that neither of the Natives realized whom they had met until it was explained to them afterward.[29] James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Banqueting House, Whitehall, London The Banqueting House at Whitehall is a famous London building, formerly part of the Palace of Whitehall, designed by architect Inigo Jones in 1619, and completed in 1622, with assistance from John Webb. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... The Vision of Delight was a Jacobean era masque written by Ben Jonson. ...

A photograph of the "Sedgeford Portrait," said to represent Pocahontas and her son.[1]
A photograph of the "Sedgeford Portrait," said to represent Pocahontas and her son.[1]

Pocahontas and Rolfe lived in the suburb of Brentford for some time. In early 1617, Smith visited them at a social gathering. According to Smith, when Pocahontas saw him "without any words, she turned about, obscured her face, as not seeming well contented" and was left alone for two or three hours. Later, they spoke more; Smith's record of what she said to him is fragmentary and enigmatic. She reminded him of the "courtesies she had done" and that "you did promise Powhatan what was yours would be his, and he the like to you". She then discomfited him by calling him "father", explaining that Smith had called Powhatan "father" when a stranger in Virginia, "and by the same reason so must I do you". Smith did not accept this form of address, since Pocahontas outranked him as "a King's daughter". Pocahontas then, "with a well-set countenance", said[29] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Brentford is a suburb in the London Borough of Hounslow at the confluence of the River Thames and the River Brent in West London, situated approximately 8 miles (12. ...

Were you not afraid to come into my father's country and caused fear in him and all his people (but me) and fear you here I should call you 'father'? I tell you then I will, and you shall call me child, and so I will be for ever and ever your countryman.

Finally, she said the natives had thought Smith dead but that her father had told Tomocomo to seek him "because your countrymen will lie much".[29] Uttamatomakkin, known as Tomocomo for short, was a Powhatan native priest who accompanied Pocahontas on her visit to London in 1616. ...

The statue of Pocahontas in St George's church
The statue of Pocahontas in St George's church

In March 1617, Rolfe and Pocahontas boarded a ship to return to Virginia. However, the ship had only gone as far as Gravesend on the River Thames when Pocahontas became ill. The nature of the illness is unknown, but since she had been described as sensitive to London's smoky air, pneumonia or tuberculosis are likely, although smallpox has also been suggested.[30] She was taken ashore and died. According to Rolfe, she died saying "all must die, but tis enough that her child liveth."[31] Her funeral took place on March 21, 1617 in the parish of Saint George's, Gravesend. The site of her grave is unknown, but her memory is recorded in Gravesend with a life-size bronze statue at St George's Church. [32] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 151 KB) Summary Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 151 KB) Summary Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Gravesend is a town in northwest Kent, England, on the south bank of the Thames, opposite Tilbury in Essex. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Gravesend is a town in northwest Kent, England, on the south bank of the Thames, opposite Tilbury in Essex. ...


Descendants

Pocahontas and Rolfe had one child, Thomas Rolfe, who was born at Varina Farms in 1615 before his parents left for England. Through this son Pocahontas has many living descendants. Many First Families of Virginia trace their roots to Pocahontas and Chief Powhatan, including such notable individuals as Edith Wilson, wife of Woodrow Wilson; George Wythe Randolph; Admiral Richard Byrd; Virginia Governor Harry Flood Byrd; fashion-designer and socialite Pauline de Rothschild; former First-Lady Nancy Reagan; and astronomer and mathematician Percival Lowell. Thomas Rolfe (January 30, 1615 - c. ... First Families of Virginia is a hereditary society composed of individuals who have proved their descent from one of the original Virginia colonists from England who primarily settled at Jamestown and along the James River and other navigable waters in the Virginia Colony during the 17th century. ... White House portrait Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (October 15, 1872–December 28, 1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... George W. Randolph George Wythe Randolph (March 10, 1818 – April 3, 1867) was a lawyer and the Secretary of War for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War Randolph was born at Monticello in Charlottesville, Virginia, to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. ... Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was a pioneering American polar explorer and famous aviator. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pauline de Rothschild (née Pauline Potter, Paris, France, December 31, 1908 - Santa Barbara, California, 1976) was a fashion icon and tastemaker who also was known as a writer, a fashion designer, and a translator of both Elizabethan poetry and the plays of Christopher Fry. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Percival Lowell (March 13, 1855 – November 12, 1916) was an author, mathematician, and esteemed astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars, founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, and formed the beginning of the work and theories that led to the discovery of Pluto 14 years after...


Title and status

Pocahontas was the daughter of Wahunsunacock or Wahunsenacawh (spellings vary), chief or leader of the Native American confederation which is now known as the Powhatan. Wahunsunacock referred to himself as 'Powhatan', and thus is commonly known in English as Chief Powhatan, yet 'Powhatan' was not a personal name, but a title. As John Smith explained in A Map of Virginia, "Their chiefe ruler is called Powhatan, and taketh his name of the principall place of dwelling called Powhatan." This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the Algonquian tribe. ... Chief Powhatan (detail of map published by John Smith (1612) Chief Powhatan (c. ...


However, although the young Pocahontas was a favorite of her powerful father—his "delight and darling" according to one of the colonists[33]—it is not certain that her society regarded her to have a high social rank. This is because Powhatan society was structured differently from that of Europe. While women could inherit power in Powhatan society, Pocahontas herself could not have done so, because the inheritance of power was matrilineal. In A Map of Virginia John Smith explains:

His [Powhatan's] kingdome descendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath 3 namely Opitchapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh; and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, then to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister; but never to the heires of the males.

Because of this, Pocahontas would not have inherited his power under any circumstances. Furthermore, her mother's status was probably lowly. In his Relation of Virginia (1609), Henry Spelman explains that Powhatan had many wives and always sent them away after they had given birth to their first child, so that they resumed their commoner status.[34] It is not certain whether Pocahontas' status was regarded as equal only to her mother's.


Regardless of the exact nature of Pocahontas' status among the Powhatan, it is clear that many English people regarded her as a princess in the European sense. One example of a contemporary English view is the 1616 engraving of Pocahontas. The inscription to which reads "MATOAKA ALS REBECCA FILIA POTENTISS : PRINC : POWHATANI IMP:VIRGINIÆ". This translates as: "Matoaka, alias Rebecca, daughter of (filia) the most powerful (potentiss[imi]) prince (princ[eps] of the Powhatan Empire (imp[erii]) of Virginia." Thus, at least some contemporary English recognised Wahunsunacock as ruler of an empire, and presumably accorded what they considered as appropriate status to Pocahontas (Matoaka). This is supported by Captain John Smith's 1616 letter of recommendation to Queen Anne (King James' wife) concerning Pocahontas, which refers to "Powhatan their chief King".[8] Samuel Purchas recalled Pocahontas in London, saying that she impressed those she met because she "carried her selfe as the daughter of a king"[35] and when he met her in London, Smith referred to her deferentially as a "Kings daughter".[36] A more ambivalent English view of Wahunsunacock's status can be seen in the description of him as a "barbarous prince" by Lord Carew on 20 June 1616 (as reported by Charles Dudley Warner in his essay on Pocahontas[37]). Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Samuel Purchas (1575?-1626), was an English travel writer, a near-contemporary of Richard Hakluyt. ... George Carew (29 May 1555-27 March 1629), Baron Carew of Clopton and Earl of Totnes, served in the Irish wars under Queen Elizabeth I and became President of Munster. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 - October 20, 1900), American essayist and novelist, was born of Puritan ancestry, in Plainfield, Massachusetts. ...


There is no evidence that Pocahontas was formally presented to King James and his court, but she was introduced to him at a masque, at which the letter-writer John Chamberlain recorded that she was "well placed"—that is, given a good seat that suited her status.[38] Furthermore, Purchas recorded that the Bishop of London "entertained her with festival state and pomp beyond what I have seen in his greate hospitalitie afforded to other ladies".[35] Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Posthumous legend

An 18th century portrait by William Sheppard, based on the engraved image by Simon van de Passe, but with European features
An 18th century portrait by William Sheppard, based on the engraved image by Simon van de Passe, but with European features
A 19th century depiction
A 19th century depiction


After her death, increasingly fanciful and romanticized representations of Pocahontas were produced. The only contemporary portrait of Pocahontas is Simon Van de Passe's copperplate engraving of 1616. In this portrait, her Native American facial structure is clear, despite her European clothing. Later portraits often 'Europeanized' her appearance. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (403x608, 55 KB)Public domain image from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (403x608, 55 KB)Public domain image from http://www. ...


Subsequent images and reworkings of Pocahontas' story presented her as an emblem of the potential of Native Americans to be assimilated into European society. For example, the United States Capitol prominently displays an 1840 painting by John Gadsby Chapman, The Baptism of Pocahontas, in the Rotunda. A government pamphlet was circulated, entitled The Picture of the Baptism of Pocahontas, explaining the characters in the painting, congratulating the Jamestown settlers for introducing Christianity to the "heathen savages", and thus showing that the settlers did not simply "exterminate the ancient proprietors of the soil, and usurp their possessions". The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Baptism of Pocahontas by John G. Chapman, 1840. ...


In another development, Pocahontas' story was romanticized so that her 'rescue' of Smith begins a love story between the two. Although there had been earlier examples, the first writer to tell such a story at length was John Davis in his Travels in the United States of America (1803).[39] Because Pocahontas' well-documented marriage to Rolfe did not fit this interpretation, at least one author, John R. Musick, retold the story to "clarify" the relationship between the three.[citation needed] In Musick's account, Rolfe is a back-stabbing liar who, seeing the opportunity to marry "royalty," tells the "Indian princess" Pocahontas that her true love, Smith, is dead. She then reluctantly agrees to marry Rolfe. After the two begin preparations to leave England, Pocahontas encounters Smith, still alive. Overcome by emotion and recollections, she dies of a broken heart three days later.


More recently, Pocahontas has been seen less as an image of idealized assimilation, and more as an image of the perceived superiority of traditional Native American values over western ones. The Walt Disney Company's 1995 animated feature Pocahontas presents a highly-romanticized and fictional view of a love affair between Pocahontas and John Smith, but in this version, Pocahontas teaches Smith the value of respect for nature. The sequel, Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World, loosely depicts her journey to England. In Terrence Malick's film The New World, an attempt at greater historical accuracy, Pocahontas (Q'Orianka Kilcher) and Smith (Colin Farrell) are still depicted as lovers. See Pocahontas (film) for a list of films about the story. Disney redirects here. ... Pocahontas is the thirty-third animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Terrence Terry Malick (born November 30, 1943, in Ottawa, Illinois) is an American film director. ... The New World is a 2005 Academy Award-nominated drama / romance film directed by Terrence Malick. ... Kilcher in The New World, 2005 QOrianka Waira Qoiana Kilcher (born February 11, 1990) is an American singer and actress. ... Colin James Farrell (born May 31, 1976) is an Irish actor who has appeared in several high-profile Hollywood films including Daredevil, Miami Vice, Minority Report, Phone Booth, Alexander, In Bruges. ... There are a number of movies with the title Pocahontas: Pocahontas and John Smith - a 1924 film directed by Bryan Foy Captain John Smith and Pocahontas - a 1953 American production directed by Lew Landers Pocahontas - a 1995 animated feature from Walt Disney Pictures Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World...


Namesakes

Several places and landmarks take their name from Pocahontas.

In Henrico County, Virginia, where Pocahontas and John Rolfe lived together at the Varina Farms Plantation, a middle school has been named after each of them. Pocahontas Middle School and John Rolfe Middle School thus reunite the historic couple in the local educational system—Henrico being one of 5 remaining original shires that date to the early 17th century of the Virginia Colony. Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) (AAR reporting marks NW), a US class I railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... The Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) (AAR reporting marks NW), a US class I railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... The Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) (AAR reporting marks NW), a US class I railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... The Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) (AAR reporting marks NW), a US class I railroad, was formed by more than 200 railroad mergers between 1838 and 1982. ... Pocahontas is a town in Tazewell County, Virginia, named for the Algonquian Indian woman Pocahontas. ... Pocahontas County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Pocahontas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Iowa. ... Indian Queens - used to be located on the old A30, 10 miles from Bodmin, 7 from Newquay, 6 from St. ... Chesterfield County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... The Appomattox River at Matoaca, Virginia The Appomattox River is a tributary of the James River, approximately 137 mi (220 km), in central and eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... Matoaca High School is an American secondary school in Chesterfield County, Virginia. ... Matoaka is a town located in Mercer County, West Virginia. ... The Mercer County Courthouse in Princeton in 2007 Mercer County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Pocahontas is a city located in Pocahontas County, Iowa. ... Pocahontas County is the name of several counties in the United States: Pocahontas County, Iowa Pocahontas County, West Virginia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Pocahontas is a city located in Randolph County, Arkansas, along the Black River. ... Randolph County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Pocahontas is a village located in Bond County, Illinois. ... Bond County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... Po-ca-hon-tas, or The Gentle Savage (subtitled An Original Aboriginal Erratic Operatic Semi-civilized and Demi-savage Extravaganza) is a two-act musical burlesque by John Brougham. ... John Brougham (May 9, 1814 - June 7, 1880), was an Irish actor and dramatist. ... Fort Pocahontas in Charles City County, Virginia was an earthen fort on the north bank of the James River at Wilsons Wharf, which served as a Union supply depot during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1619 Seat Charles City Area  - Total  - Water 529 km² (204 mi²) 56 km² (21 mi²) 10. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... USN redirects here. ... USS Pocahontas has been the name of more than one ship of the United States Navy, honoring Pocahontas, the Algonquin Indian daughter of Powhatan and wife of American colonist and Virginia tobacco grower John Rolfe: USS Pocahontas, a screw steamer purchased by the Navy at Boston 20 March 1855; commissioned... Henrico County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ...


Notes

Works cited

  • Argall, Samuel. Letter to Nicholas Hawes. June 1613. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. p. 754.
  • Bulla, Clyde Robert. 'Little Nantaquas'. In "Pocahontas and The Strangers", ed Scholastic inc., 730 Broadway, New York, NY 10003. 1971. p. 156.
  • Dale, Thomas. Letter to 'D.M.' 1614. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. p. 843–844.
  • Dale, Thomas. Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood. 3 June 1616. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. p. 878.
  • Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
  • Hamor, Ralph. A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia. 1615. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. p. 804.
  • Herford, C.H. and Percy Simpson, eds. Ben Jonson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925–1952).
  • Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000. 114, 174.
  • Lemay, J.A. Leo. Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 1992, p. 25.
  • Price, David A. Love and Hate in Jamestown. New York: Vintage, 2003.
  • Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes. 1625. Repr. Glasgow: James MacLehose, 1905–1907. vol. 19, p. 118.
  • Rolfe, John. Letter to Thomas Dale. 1614. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. p. 851.
  • Rolfe, John. Letter to Edwin Sandys. June 8, 1617. Repr. in The Records of the Virginia Company of London, ed. Susan Myra Kingsbuy. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1906–1935. Vol. 3, p. 71.
  • Smith, John. A True Relation of such Occurrences and Accidents of Noate as hath Hapned in Virginia. 1608. Repr. in The Complete Works of John Smith (1580–1631). Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Chapel Hill: University Press of Virginia, 1983. Vol. 1, pp. 27–97.
  • Smith, John. A Map of Virginia. 1612. Repr. in The Complete Works of John Smith (1580–1631). Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Chapel Hill: University Press of Virginia, 1983. Vol. 1, pp. 305–363.
  • Smith, John. Letter to Queen Anne. 1616. Repr. as 'John Smith's Letter to Queen Anne regarding Pocahontas'. Caleb Johnson's Mayflower Web Pages. 1997. Accessed 23 April, 2006.
  • Smith, John. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. 1624. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. pp. 198–199, 259.
  • Spelman, Henry. A Relation of Virginia. 1609. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. pp. 488–489.
  • Strachey, William. The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Brittania. c1612. Repr. Boston: Elibron Classics, 2001.
  • Symonds, William. The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia. 1612. Repr. in The Complete Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986. Vol. 1, pp. 251–252
  • Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge UP, 1994.
  • Warner, Charles Dudley. Captain John Smith, 1881. Repr. in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text, accessed 4 July, 2006

is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 - October 20, 1900), American essayist and novelist, was born of Puritan ancestry, in Plainfield, Massachusetts. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Citations

  1. ^ 1616 engravingg of Pocahontas by Simon van de Passe also John Sith. KUED,University of Utah. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  2. ^ The Story of Princess Pocahontas (PDF). Pocahontas and St. Georges Church was called worship pocahontas. page 4. St. George's Church, Gravesend. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. “(Photograph of entry in the Gravesend St. George composite parish register)”
  3. ^ Price, Love and Hate, p. 66.
  4. ^ Strachey, Historie, p. 111
  5. ^ Price, love and hate. p. 154.
  6. ^ Smith, True Relation, p. 93.
  7. ^ Smith, Generall Historie.
  8. ^ a b c d Smith. Letter to Queen Anne.
  9. ^ Lemay, in Birchfield, Did Pocahontas, p. 25.
  10. ^ Gleach, Powhatan's World, pp. 118–121.
  11. ^ Kupperman, Indians and English, pp. 114, 174.
  12. ^ Price, pp. 243–244
  13. ^ Strachey, Historie, p. 65
  14. ^ Smith, General History, p. 152.
  15. ^ Symonds, Proceedings, pp. 251–252
  16. ^ Smith, Generall Historie, pp. 198–199, 259.
  17. ^ Donald Culross Peattie, America's First Great Lady, Reader's Digest April 1947 pg. 94.
  18. ^ Smith, Generall Historie, 261.
  19. ^ Strachey, Historie, p. 54.
  20. ^ Argall, Letter to Nicholas Hawes. p. 754.
  21. ^ Hamor, True Discourse, p. 804.
  22. ^ http://www.dhr.state.va.us/hiway_markers/marker.cfm?mid=3334 Pocahontas Highway Marker
  23. ^ Dale, Letter to 'D.M.', p. 843–844.
  24. ^ Rolfe. Letter to Thomas Dale. p. 851.
  25. ^ Hamor. True Discourse. p. 809.
  26. ^ Price, Love and Hate. p. 163.
  27. ^ The Family Magazine - Page 90 (1837)
  28. ^ Dale. Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood. p. 878.
  29. ^ a b c d Smith, General History. p. 261.
  30. ^ Price, Love and Hate. p. 182.
  31. ^ Rolfe. Letter to Edwin Sandys. p. 71.
  32. ^ Virginia Indians Festival: reports and pictures.
  33. ^ Hamor, True Discourse. p. 802.
  34. ^ Spelman, Relation. 1609.
  35. ^ a b Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus. Vol. 19 p. 118.
  36. ^ Smith, Generall Historie, p. 261.
  37. ^ Warner, Captain John Smith, 1881. Repr. in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text, accessed 4 July 2006.
  38. ^ Qtd. in Herford and Simpson, eds. Ben Jonson, vol. 10, 568–569.
  39. ^ Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (Cambridge UP, 1994), pp. 35, 41.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and Her World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1970. ISBN 0-7091-2188-1
  • Neill, Rev. Edward D. Pocahontas and Her Companions. Albany: Joel Munsell, 1869.
  • Price, David A. Love and Hate in Jamestown. Alfred A. Knopf, 2003 ISBN 0-375-41541-6
  • Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8061-2280-3
  • Sandall, Roger. 2001 The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays ISBN 0-8133-3863-8
  • Townsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004. ISBN 0-8090-7738-8
  • Warner Charles Dudley, Captain John Smith, 1881. Repr. in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text, accessed 4 July, 2006
  • Warner Charles Dudley, The Story of Pocahontas, Repr. in The Story of Pocahontas Project Gutenberg Text, accessed 4 July, 2006
  • Woodward, Grace Steele. Pocahontas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969. ISBN 0-8061-0835-5 or ISBN 0-8061-1642-0

Roger Sandall is an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. ... Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 - October 20, 1900), American essayist and novelist, was born of Puritan ancestry, in Plainfield, Massachusetts. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 - October 20, 1900), American essayist and novelist, was born of Puritan ancestry, in Plainfield, Massachusetts. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
SPECTRUM Biographies - Pocahontas (525 words)
Pocahontas was most likely born in Werawocomoco (what is now Wicomico, Gloucester County, Virginia) on the north side of the Pamaunkee (York) River, around the year 1595.
Pocahontas was received with royal honor by the king and queen.
Pocahontas was buried in the chapel of the parish church in Gravesend, England.
Pocahontas (2039 words)
Pocahontas died at the age of 22 and, barely fluent in English, never wrote or told her own story.
Pocahontas was allowed relative freedom within the settlement, and she began to enjoy her role in the relations between the colony and her people.
Pocahontas was finally sent ashore where she was reunited with two of her brothers, whom she told that she was treated well and that she was in love with the Englishman John Rolfe and wanted to marry him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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