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Encyclopedia > Poale Zion

Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning "Workers of Zion") was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish workers circles founded in various Russian cities about the turn of the century after the Bund rejected Zionism in 1901. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page...

Contents


Formation

Poale Zion came into existence in the United States in 1903. In 1906 a formal Poale Zion party was formed in Poltava, Ukraine under the leadership of Ber Borochov, and other groups were soon formed elsewhere in Europe, particularly in Poland. The key features of its ideology were acceptance of the Marxist view of history with the addition of the role of nationalism, which Borochov believed could not be ignored as a factor in historical development. A Jewish proletariat would come into being in the land of Israel, according to Poale Zion, and would then take part in the class struggle. Poltava (Ukrainian: Полта́ва) is a city and oblast center in Poltava Oblast in central Ukraine with some 313,400 inhabitants (2004). ... Ber Borochov, c. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate...


In 1906, party branches were formed in Austria, Palestine and other countries. In Ottoman Palestine, Poale Zion founded the Hashomer guard organization that guarded settlements, and took up the ideology of "conquest of labor" (Kibbush Ha'avoda) and Avoda Ivrit ("Hebrew labor"). Poale Zion set up employment offices, kitchens and health services for members. These eventually evolved into the institutions of labor Zionism in Israel. During World War I, Poale Zion was instrumental in recruiting members to the Jewish Legion. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Hashomer - (Hebrew) (The Guard) - Jewish defense organization in Palestine organized 1909, ceased to operate after founding of the Haganah in 1920. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... This article is about the British Army battalions known as the Jewish Legion or Zion Mule Corps, which fought in World War I against the Ottoman Empire. ...


In Poland and other central and eastern European countries, Poale Zion functioned until World War II, when most members who did not migrate to Palestine ultimately perished in the Holocaust. In the USA, Poalei Tzion founded the Hechalutz movement, the Yiddishe Arbeiters Farband, and Habonim Dror. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Selection at the Auschwitz ramp in 1944, where the German Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation, such as those of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. ... The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל) The semel is symbolic of many things: the grain in its center symbolizes labor, the figure in its center shows the importance of people to the movement. ...


Split

Poale Zion eventually split into Left and Right factions in 1920, following a similar division that occurred in the Second International and at least partially resulting from some activists' concern with the ongoing chaos and violence occurring in Bolshevik-controlled Russia. The right wing (also known as Rightist Poale Zion, Poale Zion Right, or simply Poale Zion,) was non-Marxist, favored a more moderate Socialist program and strongly affiliated itself with the Second International, essentially becoming a social-democratic party. Since their immigration to Palestine in 1906 and 1907, the major leaders of Poale Zion had been David Ben-Gurion, who joined a local Poalei Tziyon group in 1904 as a student at the University of Warsaw, and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, a close friend of Borochov's and early member of the Poltava group. After the split the two Benim ("the Bens") continued to control and direct Poale Zion Right in Palestine, eventually merging it with other movements to form larger constituencies. The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: דָּוִד בֶּן גּוּרִיּוֹן) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ... Warsaw University (Polish Uniwersytet Warszawski) - the biggest and one of the most prestigious universities in Poland. ... Yitzhak Ben-Zvi Yitzhak Ben--Zvi (November 24, 1884, Poltava, Ukraine - April 23, 1963, Jerusalem, Israel) was a historian, Labor Zionist leader, and the second Israeli president (1952 - 1963). ...


The left wing (also known as Leftist Poale Zion or Poale Zion Left,) did not consider the Second International radical enough and some went so far as to accuse members who associated with it to have betrayed Borochov's revolutionary principles (ironically, Borochov had begun to modify his ideology as early as 1914 , and publicly identifed as a social-democrat the year before his death). Poale Zion Left, which supported the Bolshevik revolution, continued to be strongly sympathetic to Marxism and Communism, and repeatedly lobbied the Soviet Union for membership in the Communist International. Their attempts were unsuccessful, as the Soviets (particularly non-Zionist Jewish members) continued to be suspicious of Zionism's nationalist tendencies, and several also held personal grudges against the group's members. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ...


The Poale Zion Left in Russia participated in the Bolshevik revolution (in some cases, activists formed "Borochov Brigades" in the Red Army) and remained legal until 1928 when it was liquidated by the NKVD. Most other Zionist organizations had been closed down in 1919, and it seems likely that Poale Zion Left was allowed to continue to operate because it had been an officially recognized "Communistic" party. Many members of Poale Zion Left ultimately joined the Communist Party, leading to a sharp loss of membership in Russia. The left faction enjoyed more success and popularity in Britain and Poland until World War II. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del (help· info))(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ...


For a brief period following the war, both factions of Poale Zion were reported as legal and "functioning" political parties in Poland, but it is unclear how viable they continued to be. As part of the large-scale ban on Jewish political parties in post-war Poland by the Communist leadership, both Poale Zion groups were disbanded in February, 1950.


Legacy

The Holocaust-era Jewish resistance group ┼╗OB was formed from a coalition including Hashomer Hatzair, Dror, Bnei Akiva, the Jewish Bund, various Jewish Communist groups, and both factions of Poale Zion. The Å»ydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Å»OB, Polish for the Jewish Fighting Organization; called in Yiddish יידישע קאמף ארגאניזאציע) - a World War II resistance movement, which was supposedly instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Å»ZW fighters from second Jewish resistance organisation claim otherwise). ... Hashomer Hatzair (or Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair) (Hebrew: The Young Guard or Guardian [that is] Young) is a Zionist-socialist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia (now in Poland) and was also the name of the groups political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British... The Habonim Dror Emblem (known as its Semel / סמל) The semel is symbolic of many things: the grain in its center symbolizes labor, the figure in its center shows the importance of people to the movement. ... Bnei Akivas emblem (semel) Bnei Akiva is the worlds largest youth movement of Religious Zionism and the largest Jewish youth movement in parts of the world, such as Israel and England. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


Several notable Jewish resistance fighters during the Holocaust, particularly those involved in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, were members of Poale Zion. They include: Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Commanders Jürgen Stroop Mordechai Anielewicz Strength 2,054, including 821 Waffen SS 40,000 civilians, 750-1,000 fighting Casualties 300 KIA, official reports acknowledge 16 KIA and 85 wounded about 13,000 killed, almost all of the rest sent to extermination...

  • Adolf Berman, Warsaw ZOB fighter; Secretary of Zegota. (Poale Zion Left)
  • Hersz Berlinksi, member of Warsaw ZOB Command (Poale Zion Left)
  • Yochanan Morgenstern, member of Warsaw ZOB Command (Poale Zion Right)
  • Emmanuel Ringelblum, member of Warsaw ZOB; chronicler of the Warsaw Ghetto. (Poale Zion Left)

Additionally, several well-known Zionist leaders and politicians were members of Poale Zion, including Ben-Gurion, Ben-Zvi, kibbutz leader Yitzhak Tabenkin and Jewish Agency Executive member Shlomo Kaplansky. Adolf Berman was a Polish Jewish intellectual, and a prominant member of Zegota, the resitence movement at Poland whose aim was to save Jews. ... Żegota (read: [ʒε:gɔta], also spelled Zhegota, Zegota) was the codename for the Council to Aid the Jews (Rada Pomocy Żydom), an underground organisation in German occupied Poland from 1942 to 1945. ... Emanuel Ringelblum (1900-1944) was a Polish-Jewish historian, politician and social worker, known for his Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyn and the so-called Ringelblums Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto. ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ...


After the war in Palestine, Ben-Gurion incorporated Poale Zion Right into the Achdut Ha'avoda party, which eventually became Mapai and Achdut Avoda-Poalei Tziyon. Poale Zion Left was eventually merged with Hashomer Hatzair and other left-wing parties to form Mapam, which later gave rise to the modern Meretz and Yachad parties. Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ... Hashomer Hatzair (or Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair) (Hebrew: The Young Guard or Guardian [that is] Young) is a Zionist-socialist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia (now in Poland) and was also the name of the groups political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British... Mapam - United Workers Party (in Hebrew: מפם - מפלגת פועלים מאוחדת Mifleget Poalim Meuhedet) was initially a Marxist-Zionist party. ... Meretz (מרצ, Hebrew: vitality, energy) was an Israeli political party, considered to be on the left and secular. ... This is an article about the Israeli political party. ...


Source

  • Zionism and Israel Information Center by permission.

External links

  • A brief history of Labor and Socialist Zionism
  • Poale Zion
  • The National Question and Class Struggle - Ber Borochov 1905
  • Poalei Tziyon - Our Platform -1906 Sets out the essential of Borochovian Marxist Zionism.
  • The Economic Development of the Jewish People - Ber Borochov 1916
  • Poalei Tziyon Peace Manifesto - 1917
  • Eretz Yisrael in our program and tactics, Ber Borochov, 1917
  • Description of Poale Zion split- 1935
  • More detail on the split- 1937
  • Diapositive Dictionary: Parties and political organizations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ber Borochov: REMINISCENCES (0 words)
The Poale Zion idea, the concept of organic unity between socialism and Zionism, had already attained a quite respectable age.
The name "Poale Zion" was first adopted by a club in Minsk in 1899, under the leadership of A. Litwin (the now well known American Jewish writer), Berger, and Rubentchik, after the same group had denied the value of the class struggle in the Galut.
A socialist club with the name "Poale Zion" was formed in Odessa in 1902 under the influence of Yekaterinoslav and Poltava.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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