FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Pneumothorax" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax
Classification & external resources
Chest X-ray of Left-sided Tension Pneumothorax
ICD-10 J93., S27.0
ICD-9 512, 860
DiseasesDB 10195
MedlinePlus 000087
eMedicine emerg/469 
MeSH D011030
Left-sided pneumothorax (on the right side of the image) on CT scan of the chest. A chest tube is in place--side of chest, the lumen (black) can be seen adjacent to the pleural cavity (black) and ribs (white). The heart can be seen in the centre.

In medicine (pulmonology), a pneumothorax, or collapsed lung, is a potential medical emergency caused by accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity, occurring as a result of disease or injury.[1] Collapsed Lung are a Harlow-based hip hop group most famous for the song Eat My Goal. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x838, 82 KB) Left tension pneumothorax. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // S00-T14 - Injury (S00-S09) head (S00) Superficial injury of head (S01) Open wound of head (S02) Fracture of skull and facial bones (S03) Dislocation, sprain and strain of joints and ligaments of head (S04) Injury of cranial nerves (S05) Injury of eye and orbit (S06) Intracranial injury (S07) Crushing... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 114 KB) Pneumothorax CXR, http://clinicalcases. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 114 KB) Pneumothorax CXR, http://clinicalcases. ... It has been suggested that Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy, X-ray tomography be merged into this article or section. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ...

Contents

Aetiology

It can result from:

Pneumothoraces are divided into tension and non-tension pneumathoraces. A tension pneumothorax is a medical emergency as air accumulates in the pleural space with each breath. The increase in intrathoracic pressure results in massive shifts of the mediastinum away from the affected lung compressing intrathoracic vessels. A non-tension pneumothorax by contrast is a less severe pathology because there is no ongoing accumulation of air and hence no increasing pressure on the organs within the chest. Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between an air space inside or beside the body and the surrounding gas or liquid. ... Left-sided pneumothorax (on the right side of the image) on CT scan of the chest. ... Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue characterized by disproportionately long limbs, long thin fingers, a relatively tall stature, and a predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities, specifically those affecting the heart valves and aorta. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Catamenial Pneumothorax is a condition of collapsed lung occurring in conjunction with menstrual periods (catamenial refers to menstruation), believed to be caused primarily by endometriosis of the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lung)[1]. // Classification Catamenial Pneumothorax is the most common form of thoracic endometriosis syndrome, which also includes catamenial... A tension pneumothorax is a life threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of rupture. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...


The accumulation of blood in the thoracic cavity (hemothorax) exacerbates the problem, creating a pneumohemothorax. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax — Blood in the chest cavity). ...


Signs and symptoms

Sudden shortness of breath, cyanosis (turning blue) and pain felt in the chest and/or back are the main symptoms. In penetrating chest wounds, the sound of air flowing through the puncture hole may indicate pneumothorax, hence the term "sucking" chest wound. The flopping sound of the punctured lung is also occasionally heard. Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...


If untreated, hypoxia may lead to loss of consciousness and coma. In addition, shifting of the mediastinum away from the site of the injury can obstruct the superior and inferior vena cava resulting in reduced cardiac preload and decreased cardiac output. Untreated, a severe pneumothorax can lead to death within several minutes. Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... Superior vena cava - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Heart during ventricular diastole. ... Cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular a ventricle in a minute. ...


Spontaneous pneumothoraces are reported in young people with a tall stature. As men are generally taller than women, there is a preponderance among males. The reason for this association, while unknown, is hypothesized to be the presence of subtle abnormalities in connective tissue. Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ...


Pneumothorax can also occur as part of medical procedures, such as the insertion of a central venous catheter (an intravenous catheter) in the subclavian vein or jugular vein. While rare, it is considered a serious complication and needs immediate treatment. Other causes include mechanical ventilation, emphysema and rarely other lung diseases (pneumonia). In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC or central venous line) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest or groin, this is inserted by a physician when the patient needs more intensive cardiovascular monitoring, for assessment of fluid status, and for increased viability of intravenous... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Diagnosis

The absence of audible breath sounds through a stethoscope can indicate that the lung is not unfolded in the pleural cavity. This accompanied by hyperresonance (higher pitched sounds than normal) to percussion of the chest wall is suggestive of the diagnosis. If the signs and symptoms are doubtful, an X-ray of the chest can be performed, but in severe hypoxia, emergency treatment has to be administered first. Stethoscope The stethoscope (Greek στηθοσκόπιο, of στήθος, stéthos - chest and σκοπή, skopé - examination) is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening, to internal sounds in a human or animal body. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ...


In a supine chest X-ray the deep sulcus sign is diagnostic[2], which is characterized by a low lateral costophrenic angle on the affected side.[3] In layman's terms, the place where rib and diaphragm meet appears lower on an X-ray with a deep sulcus sign and suggests the diagnosis of pneumothorax. The supine position is a position of the body; lying down with the face up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down. ... In radiology, the deep sulcus sign on an x-ray in an indication of a pneumothorax. ... The human rib cage. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ...


Differential Diagnosis

When presented with this clinical picture, other possible causes include:

  • Acute Myocardial Infarction: presents with shortness of breath and chest pain, though MI chest pain is characteristically crushing, central and radiating to the jaw, left arm or stomach. Whilst not a lung condition, patients having an MI often happen to also have lung disease.
  • Emphysema: here, delicate functional lung tissue is lost and replaced with air spaces, giving shortness of breath, and decreased air entry and increased resonance on examination. However, it is usually a chronic condition, and signs are diffuse (not localised as in pneumothorax).

Careful history taking and examination and a chest x-ray will allow accurate diagnosis.


Pathophysiology

The lungs are located inside the chest cavity, which is a hollow space. Air is drawn into the lungs by the diaphragm (a powerful abdominal muscle). The pleural cavity is the region between the chest wall and the lungs. If air enters the pleural cavity, either from the outside (open pneumothorax) or from the lung (closed pneumothorax), the lung collapses and it becomes mechanically impossible for the injured person to breathe, even with an open airway. If a piece of tissue forms a one-way valve that allows air to enter the pleural cavity from the lung but not to escape, overpressure can build up with every breath; this is known as tension pneumothorax. It may lead to severe shortness of breath as well as circulatory collapse, both life-threatening conditions. This condition requires urgent intervention. The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... A tension pneumothorax is a life threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of rupture. ...


First Aid

Chest wound

Penetrating wounds require immediate coverage with an occlusive dressing, field dressing, or pressure bandage made air-tight with petroleum jelly or clean plastic sheeting. The sterile inside of plastic bandage packaging is good for this purpose; however any airtight material, even the cellophane of a cigarette pack, can be used. A small opening, known as a flutter valve, needs to be left open, so the air can escape while the lung reinflates. Any patient with a penetrating chest wound must be closely watched at all times and may develop a tension pneumothorax or other immediately life-threatening respiratory emergency at any moment. They cannot be left alone. An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma dressing used in first aid. ... A field dressing is a kind of bandage intended to be carried by soldiers for immediate use in case of (typically gunshot) wounds. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


Blast injury or tension

If the air in the pleural cavity is due to a tear in the lung tissue (in the case of a blast injury or tension pneumothorax), it needs to be released. A thin needle can be used for this purpose, to relieve the pressure and allow the lung to reinflate. A tension pneumothorax is a life threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of rupture. ...


Pre-hospital care

Many paramedics can perform needle thoracocentesis to relieve intrathoracic pressure. Intubation may be required, even of a conscious patient, if the situation deteriorates. Advanced medical care and immediate evacuation are strongly indicated. A Paramedic is a specialized health care professional who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital (out-of-hospital) environment for the purpose of stabilizing and transporting the patient to an appropriate medical facility, usually by ambulance. ... Thoracentesis (also known as thoracocentesis or pleural tap) is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


An untreated pneumothorax is an absolute contraindication of evacuation or transportation by flight. In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risks involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ...


Clinical treatment

Small pneumothoraces often are managed with no treatment other than repeat observation via Chest X-rays, but most patients admitted will have oxygen administered since this has been shown to speed resolution of the pneumothorax. [4] In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Pneumothoraces which are too small to require tube thoracostomy and too large to leave untreated, have been aspirated with a needle to remove the pressure, although this technique is usually reserved for tension pneumothoraces


Larger pneumothoraces may require tube thoracostomy, also known as chest tube placement. A tube is inserted into the chest wall outside the lung and air is extracted using a simple one way valve or vacuum and a water valve device, depending on severity. This allows the lung to re-expand within the chest cavity. This process can be extremely painful. The pneumothorax is followed up with repeated X-rays. If the air pocket has become small enough, the vacuum drain can be clamped temporarily or removed. A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


In case of penetrating wounds, these require attention, but generally only after the airway has been secured and a chest drain inserted. Supportive therapy may include mechanical ventilation. A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ...


Recurrent pneumothorax may require further corrective and/or preventive measures such as pleurodesis. If the pneumothorax is the result of bullae, then bullectomy (the removal or stapling of bullae or other faults in the lung) is preferred. Chemical pleurodesis is the injection of a chemical irritant that triggers an inflammatory reaction, leading to adhesion of the lung to the parietal pleura. Substances used for pleurodesis include talc, blood, tetracycline and bleomycin. Mechanical pleurodesis does not use chemicals. The surgeon "roughs" up the inside chest wall ("parietal pleura") so the lung attaches to the wall with scar tissue. This can also include a "parietal" pleurectomy, which is the removal of the "parietal" pleura; "parietal" pleura is the serous membrane lining the inner surface of the thoracic cage and facing the "visceral" pleura, which lies all over the lung surface. Both operations can be performed using keyhole surgery to minimise discomfort to the patient. Pleurodesis is the artificial obliteration of the pleural space. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Bleomycin is an anti-cancer agent. ...


Spontaneous Pneumothorax

Spontaneous Pneumothorax can be classified as primary spontaneous pneumothorax and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. In primary spontaneous pneumothorax, it is usually characterized by a rupture of a bleb in the lung while secondary spontaneous pneumothorax mostly occurs due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A bleb is a large blister filled with serous fluid. ...


Primary spontaneous pneumothorax

A primary spontaneous pneumothorax may occur without either trauma to the chest or any kind of blast injury. This type of pneumothorax is caused when a bleb (an imperfection in the lining of the lung) bursts causing the lung to deflate. If a patient suffers two or more instances of a spontaneous pneumothorax, surgeons often recommend a bullectomy and pleurectomy. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is most evident to people without any previous history of lung disease and in tall, thin men whose age is between 20 to 40 years old. But it can often occur in teenagers and young adults. A bleb is a large blister filled with serous fluid. ...


Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax

A known lung disease is present in secondary spontaneous pneumothorax[5]. The most common cause is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are several diseases that may lead to spontaneous pneumothorax:

  • COPD
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pneumonia
  • Asthma
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Lung cancer
  • Interstitial lung disease

History

Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of Rene Laennec, first recognised pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture in 1819[6]. Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (April 24, 1774 – 1838) was a French physician born in Provence. ... René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec (February 17, 1781- August 13, 1826), French physician; inventor of the stethoscope. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Prior to the advent of anti tuberculous medications, iatrogenic pneumothoraces were intentionally given to tuberculosis patients in an effort to collapse a lobe, or entire lung around a cavitating lesion. This was known as 'resting the lung' .


References

  1. ^ The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. KMLE American Heritage Medical Dictionary definition of pneumothorax.
  2. ^ Kong A (2003). "The deep sulcus sign". Radiology 228 (2): 415-6. DOI:10.1148/radiol.2282020524. PMID 12893899. 
  3. ^ Gordon R (1980). "The deep sulcus sign". Radiology 136 (1): 25-7. PMID 7384513. 
  4. ^ Andrew K Chang, MD. eMedicine.com: Pneumothorax, Iatrogenic, Spontaneous and Pneumomediastinum.
  5. ^ http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35772
  6. ^ Laennec RTH. Traite de l'auscultation mediate et des maladies des poumons et du coeur. Part II. Paris, 1819.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A tension pneumothorax is a life threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a one-way valve at the point of rupture. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma dressing used in first aid. ... A field dressing is a kind of bandage intended to be carried by soldiers for immediate use in case of (typically gunshot) wounds. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax — Blood in the chest cavity). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pneumothorax (448 words)
Pneumothorax is the collection of air or gas in the space around the lungs.
Pneumothorax may result from chest trauma, excess pressure on the lungs, or a lung disease such as COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, or whooping cough.
There is no known way to prevent pneumothorax, but you can decrease your risk by not smoking.
Pneumothorax- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (701 words)
Pneumothorax is a collection of air or gas in the pleural space of the lung, causing the lung to collapse.
Pneumothorax may be the result of an open chest wound that permits the entrance of air, the rupture of an emphysematous vesicle on the surface of the lung, a severe bout of coughing, or it may occur spontaneously without evident cause.
There may be no symptoms if the pneumothorax is small (a small amount of air in the pleural space) or there may be shortness of breath if a large amount of air is in that space.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m