FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pneumonitis

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung. The term is almost always used to refer specifically to infections of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or other parasites, but it is sometimes also used to denote lung injury caused by physical or chemical irritants. The latter type of injury is sometimes referred to as a pneumonitis to differentiate it from infectious pneumonia. The remainder of this article uses pneumonia in the infectious sense. Pneumonia may occur in patients of all age groups, but young children and the elderly, as well as immunocompromised and immune-deficient patients, are especially at risk. Antimicrobial drugs are often used to treat pneumonia. Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...

Contents


Features

Symptoms of pneumonia commonly include shortness of breath; cough with greenish or yellow sputum; a high fever (which may be accompanied with sweating, chills and rigors [shaking]); sharp or stabbing chest pain, worsened by deep breaths or coughs; and rapid, shallow breathing (painful quick breathing). Less commonly, there may be hemoptysis (coughing up blood), headache (including migraine headache) excessive sweating and clammy skin, loss of appetite, excessive fatigue, and cyanosis. Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... A sputum sample is the name given to the mucus that is coughed up from the lungs. ... Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of serious conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). // Causes Cardiopulmonary Important cardiovascular and... Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia) is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek όρεξη = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...


Pneumonia can progress to sepsis ("blood poisoning") and acute respiratory distress syndrome if untreated. These are the main causes of death in patients with untreated pneumonia. Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung, leading to impaired gas exchange and inflammation. ...


Diagnosis

To diagnose pneumonia, doctors rely on the patient's clinical history, findings on physical examination, and confirmatory testing. These often include chest X-rays, blood studies and sputum cultures. In a community setting (general practice), no investigations are routinely required or arranged for mild cases of pneumonia. The history and examination alone are sufficient for the doctor to decide whether to start antibiotics. Medical history can either refer to the History of medicine personal (case) medical history: anamnesis medical history of a family: Family history (medicine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In medicine, physical examination, or clinical examination, is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease . ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ...


In nosocomial pneumonia (pneumonia that was acquired while the patient was in hospital for something else) and in immunocompromised patients, a clear diagnosis of pneumonia can be difficult; thus, a chest CT scan and/or other tests are often required to differentiate possible causes (e.g. pulmonary embolism). CT scanning may also be useful when the symptoms and physical examination suggest several possible causes for the complaints (e.g. vasculitis, sarcoidosis, lung cancer). CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels. ... The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. ...


Physical examination

Apart from the history, the physical examination is an essential part of the doctor's overall assessment of the patient. Important features to note include whether the patient is breathless, able to speak in full sentences, uses accessory muscles of respiration, or has signs of reduced oxygenation (for example, blue, cyanotic lips, or unexplained mental confusion). If this overall assessment is poor, admission to hospital is usually advised, whatever else the examination reveals. Medical history can either refer to the History of medicine personal (case) medical history: anamnesis medical history of a family: Family history (medicine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...


The pulse rate, repiratory rate and temperature are measured. Feeling for the expansion movements of the chest wall (palpation) and tapping the chest wall (percussion) to find resonant and dull areas may provide clue to the underlying disease process affecting the patient's lungs. Finally, auscultation with a stethoscope allows the doctor to listen for any areas of the lung which have reduced air flow, crackles (crepitus or 'rhonchi') or the crunch-sound (pleural rub) of pleurisy. In medicine, a persons pulse is the throbbing of a persons arteries as an effect of their heart beat, which can be felt at the wrist and other places. ... Percussion is a method used by a doctor to find out about the changes in the thorax or abdomen. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Stethoscope The stethoscope (Greek: stethos, chest and skopeein, to examine) is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, i. ... Crepitus is a medical term to describe the sound and sensation created when two rough surfaces in the human body come into contact - for example, in osteoarthritis (where the cartilage around joints has eroded away, and joints grind against one another), or when the ends of two broken bones rub... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ...

Pneumonia. Chest x-ray showing increased shadowing in right lung (left side of image). (Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention.)
Pneumonia. Chest x-ray showing increased shadowing in right lung (left side of image). (Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Image File history File links Pneumonia. ... Image File history File links Pneumonia. ...

Chest X-rays, sputum culture and other tests

The history and clinical examination often provide the doctor with a good idea of how likely it is that a given patient has pneumonia, and what alternative conditions may need to be considered. Depending on the setting, the severity of the patient's condition, the certainty of the diagnosis, and local conventions of medical practice, the doctor may consider laboratory testing and/or imaging studies to confirm the clinical impressions. These include cultures of sputum and blood, a chest X-ray, and serological tests.

  • Sputum microbiological culture. Should the doctor have any specific concerns about the diagnosis, or should the patient fail to recover on the first antibiotic given, culture of the patient's sputum is normally requested. However, because it generally takes at least 2 days for a full analysis, sputum cultures are usually used only to retrospectively confirm the infection's sensitivity to the antibiotic already started. The possibility of tuberculosis should be considered with any cough that has been present for a long time, or which fails to respond to standard antibiotics. Special testing for tuberculosis needs to be specifically requested of the laboratory, as the bacterium that causes tuberculosis cannot identified with the normal culturing process.
In the inpatient, hospital setting, a sample of blood is often routinely cultured to detect infection in the bloodstream (blood culture).
  • Chest X-ray. Some consider an increase in opacity in one or more lung fields on an X-ray — indicating consolidation in that region — to be the "gold standard" diagnostic finding. However, in community settings, radiologic studies can often take up to a fortnight to be interpreted and sent to the treating physician. Chest X-rays are therefore only used by doctors practising in the community to investigate patients who are failing to respond to treatment. This is very different from the approach taken in the emergency room of a hospital, where the X-ray film is available for immediate viewing and therefore usually forms part of the initial investigations.
  • Supportive diagnostic tests usually include a full blood count; this may show a raised white cell count (neutrophilia), indicating the presence of an infection or inflammation (in some immunocompromised patients, however, the white cell count may appear deceptively normal). Renal function may have deteriorated if there is sepsis. There may be hyponatremia (low sodium levels), often due to secretion of antidiuretic hormone by lung tissue; this is thought to be more frequent in tuberculosis and Legionaires' disease.
  • Specific serological assays for atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma, Legionella and Chlamydia) are also available.

A sputum sample is the name given to the mucus that is coughed up from the lungs. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Blood culture is microbiological culture of blood. ... Chest X-ray A chest X-ray is a radiological film obtained by X-ray taken of the thorax which is used to diagnose problems with that area. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... A gold standard is the best test to determine whether something exists or not. ... Chest X-ray Radiology traditionally was the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of X-rays emitted by X-ray machines or other such radiation devices for the purpose of obtaining visual information as part of medical imaging. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... Neutrophilia (or neutrophil leukocytosis) is a condition where a person has a high number of neutrophil granulocytes in their blood. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Legionellosis is an infection caused by species of the bacterium Legionella, most notably . ... Serology is a medical blood test to detect the presence of antibodies against a microorganism. ...

Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of pneumonia includes: Differential diagnosis is the process by which a physician utiltizes the scientific method and the skills acquired in medical school, internship, and residency to take a history, examine the patient, and do the appropriate testing to determine the nature and extent of a disease process in a patient. ...

Atelectasis is defined as collapse of a part of the lung or the whole lung, where the alveoli are deflated, as distinct from pulmonary consolidation. ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...

Classification

There are several different classification schemes: microbiological, radiological, age-related, anatomical, point of acquiring infection. Generally, the following types are used:

  • lobar - an infection that involves, and is limited to, a single lobe of a lung (generally due to Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • multilobar - pneumonia that involves more than one lobe
  • community-acquired - pneumonia in a patient who is not or has not recently been in the hospital
  • hospital-acquired or nosocomial - pneumonia in a patient in a hospital (or recently discharged)
  • ventilator-associated - pneumonia following intubation and mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours
  • "walking" - outdated term, pneumonia in a patient who is still able to walk, a mild pneumonia, usually due to mycoplasma
  • pneumococcal - pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae.
  • atypical - pneumonia due to either Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, or Legionella.

The main classification used in medical journals is that between the point of infection: community-acquired and hospital-acquired. Furthermore, infections in the immunocompromised, as well as aspiration pneumonia, are usually treated as separate disease entities as they have other causal agents, as well as a different clinical course. The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ... Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ... Binomial name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae is a obligate intracellular bacterium. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella londiniensis Legionella... A medical journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of medicine. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of pneumonia that develop when gastric contents, saliva or nasal secretions are aspirated into the bronchial tree. ...


Aetiology

Many different infective agents can cause pneumonia. Of these, the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia (the most common form of pneumonia overall) is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ...


The more common infective causes of pneumonia include:

Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, 1884 Staphylococcus aureus (which is occasionally given the nickname golden staph) is a bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause illnesses ranging from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and abscesses, to... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes) is responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Robert Pfeiffer during the influenza pandemic. ... Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, and clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaceae. ... Species P. fluorescens P. putida etc. ... Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus. ... Binomial name Neisseria meningitidis Albrecht & Ghon, 1901 Neisseria meningitidis, also simply known as meningococcus is a gram-negative bacterium best known for its role in meningitis. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Binomial name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae is a obligate intracellular bacterium. ... Binomial name Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium, in the class Mollicutes. ... Legionellosis is an infection caused by species of the bacterium Legionella, most notably . ... Negatively stained flu virions. ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... The Herpes simplex virus infection (common names: herpes, cold sores) is a common, contagious, incurable, and in some cases sexually transmitted disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus. ... Binomial name Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis jiroveci, also known by its former name Pneumocystis carinii, is a fungus (earlier classified as a protozoa) that causes pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). ... Trinomial name Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a pathogenic bacteria in the genus Mycobacteria. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV), is a genus of Herpes viruses; in humans the species is known as Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ...

Types of pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia

Epidemiology

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious illness. It is the fourth most common cause of death in the UK, and sixth in the USA. 85% of cases of CAP are caused by the typical bacterial pathogens, namely, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The remaining 15% are caused by atypical pathogens, namely Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella species. Unusual aerobic gram-negative bacilli (for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter) rarely cause CAP. Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Robert Pfeiffer during the influenza pandemic. ... Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus. ... Binomial name Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium, in the class Mollicutes. ... Binomial name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae is a obligate intracellular bacterium. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella londiniensis Legionella... Species P. fluorescens P. putida etc. ... Acinetobacter is a genus of Proteobacteria. ... Enterobacter is a genus of common gram-negative aerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. ...


Clinical features

Typical symptoms include cough, purulent sputum production, shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain, fevers and chills. On examination, one notes rapid respiratory rate and heart rate and signs of pulmonary consolidation. In the elderly, symptoms and signs are sometimes vague and non-specific. They may include headache, malaise, diarrhea, confusion, falling, and decreased appetite. Diagnosis is confirmed by physical examination and chest x-ray. In general, patients who present with symptoms consistent with CAP, without extrapulmonary findings on history, physical examination or in laboratory tests have a CAP caused by a typical pathogen. Patients who have pneumonia plus extrapulmonary physical findings or laboratory features (such as elevations in liver function test results) have an atypical pneumonia.


Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia, also called nosocomial pneumonia, is a lung infection acquired after hospitalization for another illness or procedure. It is considered a separate clinical entity from CAP because the causes, microbiology, treatment and prognosis are different. Up to 5% of patients admitted to an hospital for other causes subsequently develop a pneumonia. Hospitalized patients have a variety of risk factors for pneumonia, including mechanical ventilation, prolonged malnutrition, underlying cardiac and pulmonary diseases, achlorhydria and immune disorders. Additionally, pathogens thrive in hospitals that could not survive in other environments. These pathogens include resistant aerobic gram-negative rods, such as Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Serratia, resistant gram positive cocci, such as MRSA. Because of risk factors, underlying morbidity and resistant bacteria, hospital-acquired pneumonia tends to be more deadly than its community counterpart. Species P. fluorescens P. putida etc. ... Enterobacter is a genus of common gram-negative aerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium, a human pathogen of the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) is a specific strain of the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin since 1947, and later to methicillin and related anti-staphylococcal drugs (such as flucloxacillin). ...


Ideal therapy is based on determination of the aetiological agent and its relevant antibiotic sensitivity; however, a specific pathogen is identified in only 50% of patients even with extensive evaluation. Empiric treatment is usually started before laboratory microbiological reports are available as treatment should not be delayed in any patient due to the seriousness of the disease.


Antibiotics used for hospital-acquired pneumonia include aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and vancomycin. Multiple antibiotics are administered in combination in order to cover all the possible organisms effectively and rapidly, before the infectious agent can be known. Antibiotic choice varies from hospital to hospital as the likely pathogens and resistance patterns vary from place to place. Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Vancomycin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. ...


Other pneumonias

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an atypical form of pneumonia. ... Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia which is caused by a microorganism called Pneumocystis carinii (It has been proposed that the organism be renamed Pneumocystis jiroveci). ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... A toxin, in a scientific context, is a biologically produced substance that causes injury to the health of a living thing on contact or absorption, typically by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes and receptors. ... An airplane spreading pesticide. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ...

Pathophysiology

The vast majority of pneumonias are infectious diseases; whether a patient is prone to develop pneumonia depends not only the presence of pathogens but equally on the patient's immune system and other factors. Most pneumonias are not epidemic, although infection with influenza virus can be so defined. In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... A pathogen literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... The immune system is the organ system that protects an organism from outside biological influences. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ...


Breathing problems, as often present in patients after a stroke, in Parkinson's disease, hospitalisation or surgery and mechanical ventilation can all increase the likelihood of pneumonia. Similarly, inability to clear sputum (as in cystic fibrosis) or retention of sputum (as in bronchiectasis) can lead to pneumonia. A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... ventilation balloon In medicine, mechanical ventilation is a method to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. ...


After splenectomy (removal of the spleen), a patient is more prone to pneumonia due to the spleen's role in developing immunity against the polysaccharides on pneumococcus bacteria. The procedure of splenectomy involves removal of the spleen by operative means. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and also in holding a reservoir of blood. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ...


Therapy

Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for pneumonia of bacterial origin. They are not effective in viral pulmonary infections, but are sometimes used due to frequent concommitant bacterial superinfection. The antibiotics that are used depend on the nature of the pneumonia, the microbes known to typically cause pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status of the patient. In the United Kingdom, Amoxicillin is used as first-line therapy in the vast majority of patients who acquired pneumonia in the community, sometimes with added clarithromycin. In North America, where the "atypical" forms of community-acquired pneumonia are becoming more common, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and the fluoroquinolones have displaced the penicillin-related drugs as first-line therapy. In hospitalized patients and immune deficient patients, local guidelines generally determine which combination of (generally intravenous) antibiotics is used. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Azithromycin is the first macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Patients who have significantly compromised respiratory function due to pneumonia may require supplemental oxygen. Severely affected patients may require artificial ventilation as a life-saving measure while their immune system fights off the infective cause with the help of antibiotics and other drugs. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ...


In cases of viral (interstitial) pneumonia where influenza A or B are thought to be causative agents, patients who are seen within 48 hours of symptom onset may be treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir. There is no known efficacious treatment for pneumonia caused by SARS coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, or parainfluenza virus; treatment is largely supportive. Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug, a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an atypical form of pneumonia. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species see text Hantavirus is one of the four genera of the family Bunyaviridae. ...


Complications

Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... An abscess is a collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity, most commonly the pleural space surrounding the lungs. ... Pleural effusion is a medical condition where fluid accumulates in the pleural cavity which surrounds the lungs, making it hard to breathe. ... ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung, leading to impaired gas exchange and inflammation. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... In medicine (pulmonology), a pneumothorax or collapsed lung is a medical emergency that can result from a penetrating chest wound or barotrauma to the lungs. ...

Prognosis and mortality

The clinical state of the patient at time of presentation is a strong predictor of the clinical course. Many clinicians use the Pneumonia Severity Score to calculate whether a patient requires admission to hospital, based on the severity of symptoms, underlying disease and age[1]. In the United States, mortality from pneumococcal pneumonia is 1 in 20. In cases where the disease progresses to blood poisoning (bacteremia), 2 of 10 die. When the disease affects the brain (meningitis), 3 of 10 die.[2] Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ... Inferior view of a brain with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. ...


Prevention

Vaccination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for adults older than 65, patients with chronic disease and in patients with known immune compromise (includes AIDS, Nephrotic syndrome and Asplenia).[3][4]. Pneumoccocal pneumonia kills more Americans than all other diseases combined that could be partially prevented by vaccination[5]. Vaccination is a term coined by Edward Jenner for the process of administering live, albeit weakened, microbes to patients, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... This is a vaccine used for Pneumonia, it is usually used for people 65 and older ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV positive and people living with AIDS. The Red Ribbon was created by singer/songwriter Paul Jabara AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections... Asplenia refers to the absence (a-) of normal spleen function and is associated with some risks. ...


These same groups should also have annual Flu vaccination and so avoid secondary bacterial infections after influenza infection. The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable Influenza virus. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ...


Epidemiology

Pneumonia is mainly a disease of young children and the elderly. Young adults rarely get the disease. It occurs more often during winter and spring than during summer and autumn.


History of pneumonia

Before the advent of antibiotics, pneumonia was often fatal. When penicillin was discovered in the 20th century, it was the first causal therapy. Most community-acquired strains of S. pneumoniae are still penicillin-sensitive. According to The Acorn Newspaper (Conejo Valley, Southern California), pneumonia was the leading cause of death in the United States in 1904. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Penicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conejo Valley is a region spanning both Southeastern Ventura County and Northwestern Los Angeles County in Southern California. ... Southern California Los Angeles, rush hour on the Harbor Freeway San Diego Southern California, sometimes abbreviated SoCal, is an informal name for the southern one-third of the state of California. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


See also

Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of pneumonia that develop when gastric contents, saliva or nasal secretions are aspirated into the bronchial tree. ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. ... Parasitic pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by parasites. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ...

References

  1. Halm EA, Teirstein AS. Management of community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:2039-45. PMID 12490686.

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (466 words)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation in the lungs caused by exposure to an allergen (foreign substance), usually organic dust.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually an occupational disease in which exposure to organic dusts, fungus, or molds leads to acute lung disease.
The chronic form of this disease may lead to pulmonary fibrosis (a scarring of the lung tissue that is often not reversible).
Radiation Pneumonitis: A Possible Lymphocyte-mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction -- Roberts et al. 118 (9): 696 -- ... (2930 words)
pneumonitis was this accompanied by an increase in the gallium
pneumonitis was not confined to the field of irradiation.
Bilateral radiation pneumonitis, a complication of the radiotherapy of bronchogenic carcinoma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m