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Encyclopedia > Pneumonia
PNEUMONIA
Infectious pneumonias
Pneumonias caused by infectious or noninfectious agents
Noninfectious pneumonia
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Pneumonia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 J12., J13., J14., J15., J16., J17., J18., P23.
ICD-9 480-486, 770.0
DiseasesDB 10166
eMedicine topic list
MeSH C08.381.677

Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the lung.[1] Frequently, it is described as lung parenchyma/alveolar inflammation and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid. (The alveoli are microscopic air-filled sacs in the lungs responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere.) Pneumonia can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs. Its cause may also be officially described as idiopathic—that is, unknown—when infectious causes have been excluded. Pneumonia is an illness which can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. ... Image File history File links Streptococcus_pneumoniae. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. ... Parasitic pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by parasites. ... Atypical pneumonia is a term used to describe a disease caused by one or a combination of the following organisms: Legionella pneumophila Causes a severe form of pneumonia with a relatively high mortality rate. ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs (pneumonia). ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or Nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted within 48-72 hours of being admitted in hospital. ... Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) refers to pneumonia which occurs in people who have required mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube for at least 48 hours. ... SARS redirects here. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ... Lipid pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when lipids enter the bronchial tree. ... Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which a certain type of white blood cell called an eosinophil accumulates in the lung. ... Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), is an inflammation of the bronchioles and surrounding tissue in the lungs. ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // P00-P96 - Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P04) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal factors and by complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery (P00) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal conditions that may be unrelated to present pregnancy (P01) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal complications of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. ... Detailed drawing of the alveoli from Grays Anatomy, 1918 - Schematic longitudinal section of a primary lobule of the lung (anatomical unit); r. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Air redirects here. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... In medicine, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is a term used for a type of diffuse lung disease; diffuse lung disease is also known as interstitial lung disease. ...


Typical symptoms associated with pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics. Pneumonia is a common illness which occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among the elderly and people who are chronically and terminally ill. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. The prognosis depends on the type of pneumonia, the appropriate treatment, any complications, and the person's underlying health. In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ...

Contents

Symptoms

Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, keeping oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. The alveolus on the left is normal, while the alveolus on the right is full of fluid from pneumonia.

People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum, or phlegm and a high fever that may be accompanied by shaking chills. Shortness of breath is also common, as is pleuritic chest pain, a sharp or stabbing pain, either felt or worse during deep breaths or coughs. People with pneumonia may cough up blood, experience headaches, or develop sweaty and clammy skin. Other possible symptoms are loss of appetite, fatigue, blueness of the skin, nausea, vomiting, mood swings, and joint pains or muscle aches. Less common forms of pneumonia can cause other symptoms; for instance, pneumonia caused by Legionella may cause abdominal pain and diarrhea, while pneumonia caused by tuberculosis or Pneumocystis may cause only weight loss and night sweats. In elderly people manifestations of pneumonia may not be typical. They may develop a new or worsening confusion or may experience unsteadiness, leading to falls. Infants with pneumonia may have many of the symptoms above, but in many cases they are simply sleepy or have a decreased appetite.[citation needed] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (500x611, 65 KB) Summary Source taken from http://ehp. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (500x611, 65 KB) Summary Source taken from http://ehp. ... Detailed drawing of the alveoli from Grays Anatomy, 1918 - Schematic longitudinal section of a primary lobule of the lung (anatomical unit); r. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... A rigor is an episode of shaking occurring during a high fever. ... Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Pneumocystis jiroveci J.K.Frenkel Pneumocystis jiroveci, sometimes called by its former name Pneumocystis carinii, is a fungus (earlier classified as a protozoa) that causes pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... Sleep hyperhidrosis, more commonly known as the night sweats, is the occurrence of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) during sleep. ...


Diagnosis

To diagnose pneumonia health care providers rely on a patient's symptoms and findings from physical examination. Information from a chest X-ray, blood tests, and sputum cultures may also be helpful. The chest X-ray is typically used for diagnosis in hospitals and some clinics with X-ray facilities. However, in a community setting (general practice), pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and physical examination alone. Diagnosing pneumonia can be difficult in some people, especially those who have other illnesses. Occasionally a chest CT scan or other tests may be needed to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses. The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Frontal chest X-ray. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


Physical examination

Symptoms of pneumonia need immediate medical evaluation. Physical examination by a health care provider may reveal fever or sometimes low body temperature, an increased respiratory rate, low blood pressure, a fast heart rate, or a low oxygen saturation, which is the amount of oxygen in the blood as indicated by either pulse oximetry or blood gas analysis. People who are struggling to breathe, who are confused, or who have cyanosis (blue-tinged skin) require immediate attention. In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Tachypnea is a medical term for breathing which is more rapid than normal. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. ... Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method allowing the monitoring of the oxygenation of a patients blood. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ...

Pneumonia as seen on chest x-ray. A: Normal chest x-ray. B: Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right lung (white area, left side of image).
Pneumonia as seen on chest x-ray. A: Normal chest x-ray. B: Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right lung (white area, left side of image).

Listening to the lungs with a stethoscope (auscultation) can reveal several things. A lack of normal breath sounds, the presence of crackling sounds (rales), or increased loudness of whispered speech (whispered pectoriloquy) can identify areas of the lung that are stiff and full of fluid, called consolidation. The examiner may also feel the way the chest expands (palpation) and tap the chest wall (percussion) to further localize consolidation. The examiner may also palpate for increased vibration of the chest when speaking (tactile fremitus).[2] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (435x729, 60 KB) Summary Combination of two x-rays found on the two websites http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (435x729, 60 KB) Summary Combination of two x-rays found on the two websites http://www. ... Look up stethoscope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. ... Rales,crackles or crepitation, are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises heard on auscultation of the lungs with a stethescope during inhalation. ... Consolidation is a clinical term for solidification into a firm dense mass. ... Look up palpation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Percussion is a method used by a doctor to find out about the changes in the thorax or abdomen. ...


Chest X-rays, sputum cultures, and other tests

An important test for pneumonia in unclear situations is a chest x-ray. Chest x-rays can reveal areas of opacity (seen as white) which represent consolidation. Pneumonia is not always seen on x-rays, either because the disease is only in its initial stages, or because it involves a part of the lung not easily seen by x-ray. In some cases, chest CT (computed tomography) can reveal pneumonia that is not seen on chest x-ray. X-rays can be misleading, because other problems, like lung scarring and congestive heart failure, can mimic pneumonia on x-ray.[3] Chest x-rays are also used to evaluate for complications of pneumonia. (See below.) In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


If antibiotics fail to improve the patient's health, or if the health care provider has concerns about the diagnosis, a culture of the person's sputum may be requested. Sputum cultures generally take at least two to three days, so they are mainly used to confirm that the infection is sensitive to an antibiotic that has already been started. A blood sample may similarly be cultured to look for infection in the blood (blood culture). Any bacteria identified are then tested to see which antibiotics will be most effective. A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... blood culture Blood culture is microbiological culture of blood. ...


A complete blood count may show a high white blood cell count, indicating the presence of an infection or inflammation. In some people with immune system problems, the white blood cell count may appear deceptively normal. Blood tests may be used to evaluate kidney function (important when prescribing certain antibiotics) or to look for low blood sodium. Low blood sodium in pneumonia is thought to be due to extra anti-diuretic hormone produced when the lungs are diseased (SIADH). Specific blood serology tests for other bacteria (Mycoplasma, Legionella and Chlamydophila) and a urine test for Legionella antigen are available. Respiratory secretions can also be tested for the presence of viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... Leukocytosis is an elevation of the white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Flu redirects here. ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ...


Combining findings

One study created a prediction rule that found the five following signs best predicted infiltrates on the chest radiograph of 1134 patients presenting to an emergency room:[4]

  • Temperature > 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C)
  • Pulse > 100 beats/min
  • Crackles
  • Decreased breath sounds
  • Absence of asthma

The probability of an infiltrate in two separate validations was based on the number of findings: Rales,crackles or crepitation, are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises heard on auscultation of the lungs with a stethescope during inhalation. ...

  • 5 findings - 84% to 91% probability
  • 4 findings - 58% to 85%
  • 3 findings - 35% to 51%
  • 2 findings - 14% to 24%
  • 1 findings - 5% to 9%
  • 0 findings - 2% to 3%

A subsequent study[5] comparing four prediction rules to physician judgment found that two rules, the one above[4] and also[6] were more accurate than physician judgment because of the increased specificity of the prediction rules.


Pathophysiology

Upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope. The white spaces are alveoli that contain air. Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope. The alveoli are filled with inflammation and debris.
Upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope. The white spaces are alveoli that contain air. Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope. The alveoli are filled with inflammation and debris.

Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes. When pneumonias are grouped this way, infectious causes are the most common type. ImageMetadata File history File links Pneumonia_alveolus. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pneumonia_alveolus. ... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ...


The symptoms of infectious pneumonia are caused by the invasion of the lungs by microorganisms and by the immune system's response to the infection. Although more than one hundred strains of microorganism can cause pneumonia, only a few are responsible for most cases. The most common causes of pneumonia are viruses and bacteria. Less common causes of infectious pneumonia are fungi and parasites. A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ...


Viruses

Main article: viral pneumonia

Viruses invade cells in order to reproduce. Typically, a virus reaches the lungs when airborne droplets are inhaled through the mouth and nose. Once in the lungs, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and alveoli. This invasion often leads to cell death, either when the virus directly kills the cells, or through a type of cell controlled self-destruction called apoptosis. When the immune system responds to the viral infection, even more lung damage occurs. White blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, activate certain chemical cytokines which allow fluid to leak into the alveoli. This combination of cell destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the normal transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream. Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ...


As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses affect other organs and thus disrupt many body functions. Viruses can also make the body more susceptible to bacterial infections; for which reason bacterial pneumonia often complicates viral pneumonia. This article is about the biological unit. ...


Viral pneumonia is commonly caused by viruses such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and metapneumovirus. Herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of pneumonia except in newborns. People with immune system problems are also at risk of pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV). Negatively stained flu virions. ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ...


Bacteria

Main article: bacterial pneumonia

Bacteria typically enter the lung when airborne droplets are inhaled, but can also reach the lung through the bloodstream when there is an infection in another part of the body. Many bacteria live in parts of the upper respiratory tract, such as the nose, mouth and sinuses, and can easily be inhaled into the alveoli. Once inside, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli through connecting pores. This invasion triggers the immune system to send neutrophils, a type of defensive white blood cell, to the lungs. The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and also release cytokines, causing a general activation of the immune system. This leads to the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and interrupt normal oxygen transportation. Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ...

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, photographed through an electron microscope.
The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, photographed through an electron microscope.

Bacteria often travel from an infected lung into the bloodstream, causing serious or even fatal illness such as septic shock, with low blood pressure and damage to multiple parts of the body including the brain, kidneys, and heart. Bacteria can also travel to the area between the lungs and the chest wall (the pleural cavity) causing a complication called an empyema. Image File history File links Streptococcus_pneumoniae. ... Image File history File links Streptococcus_pneumoniae. ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ...


The most common causes of bacterial pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Gram-positive bacteria and "atypical" bacteria. The terms "Gram-positive" and "Gram-negative" refer to the bacteria's color (purple or red, respectively) when stained using a process called the Gram stain. The term "atypical" is used because atypical bacteria commonly affect healthier people, cause generally less severe pneumonia, and respond to different antibiotics than other bacteria. Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ...


The types of Gram-positive bacteria that cause pneumonia can be found in the nose or mouth of many healthy people. Streptococcus pneumoniae, often called "pneumococcus", is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. Another important Gram-positive cause of pneumonia is Staphylococcus aureus, with Streptococcus agalactiae being an important cause of pneumonia in newborn babies. Gram-negative bacteria cause pneumonia less frequently than gram-positive bacteria. Some of the gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Moraxella catarrhalis. These bacteria often live in the stomach or intestines and may enter the lungs if vomit is inhaled. "Atypical" bacteria which cause pneumonia include Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Binomial name Lehmann and Neumann, 1896 Streptococcus agalactiae also known as Group B Streptococcus is a gram-positive streptococcus characterized by the presence of group B Lancefield antigen. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Binomial name (Schroeter 1886) Trevisan 1887 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus. ... Gut redirects here. ... Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae) is a species of chlamydiae bacteria which infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. ... Binomial name Mycoplasma pneumoniae Somerson et al. ... Binomial name Legionella pneumophila Brenner DJ, Steigerwalt AG, McDade JE 1979 Legionella pneumophila is a thin, pleomorphic, flagellated Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. ...


Fungi

Main article: fungal pneumonia

Fungal pneumonia is uncommon, but it may occur in individuals with immune system problems due to AIDS, immunosuppresive drugs, or other medical problems. The pathophysiology of pneumonia caused by fungi is similar to that of bacterial pneumonia. Fungal pneumonia is most often caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci, and Coccidioides immitis. Histoplasmosis is most common in the Mississippi River basin, and coccidioidomycosis in the southwestern United States. Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. ... In medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune systems ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressants are drugs that are used in immunosuppressive therapy to inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. ... Histoplasmosis, also known as Darlings disease, is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeastlike fungus that can live in both plants and animals. ... Binomial name Pneumocystis jiroveci J.K.Frenkel Pneumocystis jiroveci, sometimes called by its former name Pneumocystis carinii, is a fungus (earlier classified as a protozoa) that causes pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). ... Binomial name Coccidioides immitis G.W. Stiles Sputum culture of Coccidioides immitis on Sabourauds medium, showing white, cottony fungus growth. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Parasites

Main article: parasitic pneumonia

A variety of parasites can affect the lungs. These parasites typically enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed. Once inside, they travel to the lungs, usually through the blood. There, as in other cases of pneumonia, a combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation. One type of white blood cell, the eosinophil, responds vigorously to parasite infection. Eosinophils in the lungs can lead to eosinophilic pneumonia, thus complicating the underlying parasitic pneumonia. The most common parasites causing pneumonia are Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Ascariasis. Parasitic pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by parasites. ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which a certain type of white blood cell called an eosinophil accumulates in the lung. ... Binomial name (Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908) Toxoplasma gondii is a species of parasitic protozoa in the genus Toxoplasma. ... Binomial name Strongyloides stercoralis Bavay, 1876 Strongyloides stercoralis is the scientific name of a human parasitic roundworm causing the disease of strongyloidiasis. ... Binomial name Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 Ascariasis is a human disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. ...


Idiopathic

Main article: idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) are a class as diffuse lung diseases. In some types of IIP, e.g. some types of usual interstitial pneumonia, the cause, indeed, is unknown or idiopathic. In some types of IIP the cause of the pneumonia is known, e.g. desquamative interstitial pneumonia is caused by smoking, and the name is a misnomer. In medicine, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is a term used for a type of diffuse lung disease; diffuse lung disease is also known as interstitial lung disease. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Usual Interstitial Pneumonia, commonly abbreviated UIP, is the name of a histopathological pattern seen in diffuse lung diseases. ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Classification

Pneumonias can be classified in several ways. Pathologists originally classified them according to the anatomic changes that were found in the lungs during autopsies. As more became known about the microorganisms causing pneumonia, a microbiologic classification arose, and with the advent of x-rays, a radiological classification. Another important system of classification is the combined clinical classification, which combines factors such as age, risk factors for certain microorganisms, the presence of underlying lung disease and underlying systemic disease, and whether the person has recently been hospitalized. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ...


Early classification schemes

Initial descriptions of pneumonia focused on the anatomic or pathologic appearance of the lung, either by direct inspection at autopsy or by its appearance under a microscope. A lobar pneumonia is an infection that only involves a single lobe, or section, of a lung. Lobar pneumonia is often due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Multilobar pneumonia involves more than one lobe, and it often causes a more severe illness. Interstitial pneumonia involves the areas in between the alveoli, and it may be called "interstitial pneumonitis." It is more likely to be caused by viruses or by atypical bacteria. Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ...


The discovery of x-rays made it possible to determine the anatomic type of pneumonia without direct examination of the lungs at autopsy and led to the development of a radiological classification. Early investigators distinguished between typical lobar pneumonia and atypical (e.g. Chlamydophila) or viral pneumonia using the location, distribution, and appearance of the opacities they saw on chest x-rays. Certain x-ray findings can be used to help predict the course of illness, although it is not possible to clearly determine the microbiologic cause of a pneumonia with x-rays alone. Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ...


With the advent of modern microbiology, classification based upon the causative microorganism became possible. Determining which microorganism is causing an individual's pneumonia is an important step in deciding treatment type and length. Sputum cultures, blood cultures, tests on respiratory secretions, and specific blood tests are used to determine the microbiologic classification. Because such laboratory testing typically takes several days, microbiologic classification is usually not possible at the time of initial diagnosis.


Combined clinical classification

Traditionally, clinicians have classified pneumonia by clinical characteristics, dividing them into "acute" (less than three weeks duration) and "chronic" pneumonias. This is useful because chronic pneumonias tend to be either non-infectious, or mycobacterial, fungal, or mixed bacterial infections caused by airway obstruction. Acute pneumonias are further divided into the classic bacterial bronchopneumonias (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae), the atypical pneumonias (such as the interstitial pneumonitis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae), and the aspiration pneumonia syndromes. Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Binomial name Mycoplasma pneumoniae Somerson et al. ... Binomial name Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae is a obligate intracellular bacterium. ...


The combined clinical classification, now the most commonly used classification scheme, attempts to identify a person's risk factors when he or she first comes to medical attention. The advantage of this classification scheme over previous systems is that it can help guide the selection of appropriate initial treatments even before the microbiologic cause of the pneumonia is known. There are two broad categories of pneumonia in this scheme: community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. A recently introduced type of healthcare-associated pneumonia (in patients living outside the hospital who have recently been in close contact with the health care system) lies between these two categories.


Community-acquired pneumonia

Main article: Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is infectious pneumonia in a person who has not recently been hospitalized. CAP is the most common type of pneumonia. The most common causes of CAP vary depending on a person's age, but they include Streptococcus pneumoniae, viruses, the atypical bacteria, and Haemophilus influenzae. Overall, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. Gram-negative bacteria cause CAP in certain at-risk populations. CAP is the fourth most common cause of death in the United Kingdom and the sixth in the United States. An outdated term, walking pneumonia, has been used to describe a type of community-acquired pneumonia of less severity (hence the fact that the patient can continue to "walk" rather than require hospitalization). Walking pneumonia is usually caused by a virus or by atypical bacteria. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs (pneumonia). ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs (pneumonia). ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Main article: Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia, also called nosocomial pneumonia, is pneumonia acquired during or after hospitalization for another illness or procedure with onset at least 72 hrs after admission. The causes, microbiology, treatment and prognosis are different from those of community-acquired pneumonia. Up to 5% of patients admitted to a hospital for other causes subsequently develop pneumonia. Hospitalized patients may have many risk factors for pneumonia, including mechanical ventilation, prolonged malnutrition, underlying heart and lung diseases, decreased amounts of stomach acid, and immune disturbances. Additionally, the microorganisms a person is exposed to in a hospital are often different from those at home . Hospital-acquired microorganisms may include resistant bacteria such as MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Serratia. Because individuals with hospital-acquired pneumonia usually have underlying illnesses and are exposed to more dangerous bacteria, it tends to be more deadly than community-acquired pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a subset of hospital-acquired pneumonia. VAP is pneumonia which occurs after at least 48 hours of intubation and mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or Nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted within 48-72 hours of being admitted in hospital. ... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... MRSA redirects here. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Species etc. ... Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium, a human pathogen of the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) refers to pneumonia which occurs in people who have required mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube for at least 48 hours. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ...


Other types of pneumonia

SARS is a highly contagious and deadly type of pneumonia which first occurred in 2002 after initial outbreaks in China. SARS is caused by the SARS coronavirus, a previously unknown pathogen. New cases of SARS have not been seen since June 2003.
BOOP is caused by inflammation of the small airways of the lungs. It is also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis (COP).
Eosinophilic pneumonia is invasion of the lung by eosinophils, a particular kind of white blood cell. Eosinophilic pneumonia often occurs in response to infection with a parasite or after exposure to certain types of environmental factors.
Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis) is caused by chemical toxins such as pesticides, which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact. When the toxic substance is an oil, the pneumonia may be called lipoid pneumonia.
Aspiration pneumonia (or aspiration pneumonitis) is caused by aspirating foreign objects which are usually oral or gastric contents, either while eating, or after reflux or vomiting which results in bronchopneumonia. The resulting lung inflammation is not an infection but can contribute to one, since the material aspirated may contain anaerobic bacteria or other unusual causes of pneumonia. Aspiration is a leading cause of death among hospital and nursing home patients, since they often cannot adequately protect their airways and may have otherwise impaired defenses.

SARS redirects here. ... See also: Progress of the SARS outbreak and Severe acute respiratory syndrome. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), is an inflammation of the bronchioles and surrounding tissue in the lungs. ... Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which a certain type of white blood cell called an eosinophil accumulates in the lung. ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus, ingested gasoline or other petroleum distillates, ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides, gasses from electroplating, or other irritants. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ... In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Rest home for seniors in Český Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ...

Treatment

Most cases of pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization. Typically, oral antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care are sufficient for complete resolution. However, people with pneumonia who are having trouble breathing, people with other medical problems, and the elderly may need more advanced treatment. If the symptoms get worse, the pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, or complications occur, the person will often have to be hospitalized. Home Care, AKA. domiciliary care, is health care provided in the patients home by healthcare professionals (often referred to as home health care or formal care; in the United States, it is known as skilled care) or by family and friends (also known as caregivers, primary caregiver, or voluntary...


Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial pneumonia. In contrast, antibiotics are not useful for viral pneumonia, although they sometimes are used to treat or prevent bacterial infections that can occur in lungs damaged by a viral pneumonia. The antibiotic choice depends on the nature of the pneumonia, the most common microorganisms causing pneumonia in the local geographic area, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual. Treatment for pneumonia should ideally be based on the causative microorganism and its known antibiotic sensitivity. However, a specific cause for pneumonia is identified in only 50% of people, even after extensive evaluation. Because treatment should generally not be delayed in any person with a serious pneumonia, empiric treatment is usually started well before laboratory reports are available. In the United Kingdom, amoxicillin is the antibiotic selected for most patients with community-acquired pneumonia, sometimes with added clarithromycin; patients allergic to penicillins are given erythromycin instead of amoxicillin. In North America, where the "atypical" forms of community-acquired pneumonia are becoming more common, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and the fluoroquinolones have displaced amoxicillin as first-line treatment. The duration of treatment has traditionally been seven to ten days, but there is increasing evidence that shorter courses (as short as three days) are sufficient.[7][8][9] Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Antibiotic sensitivity is the microbial susceptibility of microorganisms such as bacteria to antibiotics. ... Empiric therapy is a medical term referring to the initiation of treatment prior to determination of a firm diagnosis. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... North American redirects here. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ...


Antibiotics for hospital-acquired pneumonia include vancomycin, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. These antibiotics are usually given intravenously. Multiple antibiotics may be administered in combination in an attempt to treat all of the possible causative microorganisms. Antibiotic choices vary from hospital to hospital because of regional differences in the most likely microorganisms, and because of differences in the microorganisms' abilities to resist various antibiotic treatments. Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen. Extremely sick individuals may require intensive care treatment, often including intubation and artificial ventilation. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ...


Viral pneumonia caused by influenza A may be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while viral pneumonia caused by influenza A or B may be treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir. These treatments are beneficial only if they are started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Many strains of H5N1 influenza A, also known as avian influenza or "bird flu," have shown resistance to rimantadine and amantadine. There are no known effective treatments for viral pneumonias caused by the SARS coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, or parainfluenza virus. Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Sars may refer to any of the following: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, commonly abbreviated as SARS Michael Sars, a Norwegian biologist, father of Georg Sars Georg Sars, a Norwegian biologist, son of Michael Sars Special Administrative Regions, commonly abbreviated as SARs Sars, Perm Krai, an urban settlement in Perm Krai... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of singled strand, RNA viruses. ...


Complications

Sometimes pneumonia can lead to additional complications. Complications are more frequently associated with bacterial pneumonia than with viral pneumonia. The most important complications include: Complication, in medicine, is a unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a medical treatment. ...


Respiratory and circulatory failure

Because pneumonia affects the lungs, often people with pneumonia have difficulty breathing, and it may not be possible for them to breathe well enough to stay alive without support. Non-invasive breathing assistance may be helpful, such as with a bi-level positive airway pressure machine. In other cases, placement of an endotracheal tube (breathing tube) may be necessary, and a ventilator may be used to help the person breathe. Diagram of an endotracheal tube (10) that has been inserted into the airway of a patient. ... Ambulance ventilation equipment A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ...


Pneumonia can also cause respiratory failure by triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which results from a combination of infection and inflammatory response. The lungs quickly fill with fluid and become very stiff. This stiffness, combined with severe difficulties extracting oxygen due to the alveolar fluid, create a need for mechanical ventilation. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ...

Pleural effusion. Chest x-ray showing a pleural effusion. The A arrow indicates "fluid layering" in the right chest. The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung. The volume of useful lung is reduced because of the collection of fluid around the lung.
Pleural effusion. Chest x-ray showing a pleural effusion. The A arrow indicates "fluid layering" in the right chest. The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung. The volume of useful lung is reduced because of the collection of fluid around the lung.

Sepsis and septic shock are potential complications of pneumonia. Sepsis occurs when microorganisms enter the bloodstream and the immune system responds by secreting cytokines. Sepsis most often occurs with bacterial pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause. Individuals with sepsis or septic shock need hospitalization in an intensive care unit. They often require intravenous fluids and medications to help keep their blood pressure from dropping too low. Sepsis can cause liver, kidney, and heart damage, among other problems, and it often causes death. ImageMetadata File history File links Pleural_effusion. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Pleural_effusion. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... ICU room An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU) is a specialised department in a hospital that provides intensive care medicine. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess

Occasionally, microorganisms infecting the lung will cause fluid (a pleural effusion) to build up in the space that surrounds the lung (the pleural cavity). If the microorganisms themselves are present in the pleural cavity, the fluid collection is called an empyema. When pleural fluid is present in a person with pneumonia, the fluid can often be collected with a needle (thoracentesis) and examined. Depending on the results of this examination, complete drainage of the fluid may be necessary, often requiring a chest tube. In severe cases of empyema, surgery may be needed. If the fluid is not drained, the infection may persist, because antibiotics do not penetrate well into the pleural cavity. Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... Thoracentesis (also known as thoracocentesis or pleural tap) is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Decortication Decortication is a medical procedure. ...


Rarely, bacteria in the lung will form a pocket of infected fluid called an abscess. Lung abscesses can usually be seen with a chest x-ray or chest CT scan. Abscesses typically occur in aspiration pneumonia and often contain several types of bacteria. Antibiotics are usually adequate to treat a lung abscess, but sometimes the abscess must be drained by a surgeon or radiologist. For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Interventional Radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes IVR) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. ...


Prognosis and mortality

With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia can be cleared within two to four weeks.[10] Viral pneumonia may last longer, and mycoplasmal pneumonia may take four to six weeks to resolve completely.[10] In cases where the pneumonia progresses to blood poisoning (bacteremia), just over 20% of sufferers will die.[11] Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ...


The death rate (or mortality) also depends on the underlying cause of the pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma, for instance, is associated with little mortality. However, about half of the people who develop methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia while on a ventilator will die.[12] In regions of the world without advanced health care systems, pneumonia is even deadlier. Limited access to clinics and hospitals, limited access to x-rays, limited antibiotic choices, and inability to treat underlying conditions inevitably leads to higher rates of death from pneumonia. MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ...


Clinical prediction rules

Clinical prediction rules have been developed to more objectively prognosticate outcomes in pneumonia. These rules can be helpful in deciding whether or not to hospitalize the person.

pneumonia severity index: The pneumonia severity index represents a method by which one can categorize ones community acquired pneumonia into a scoring system that helps predict morbidity and mortality. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into pneumonia. ...

Prevention

There are several ways to prevent infectious pneumonia. Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as AIDS) can decrease a person's risk of pneumonia. Smoking cessation is important not only because it helps to limit lung damage, but also because cigarette smoke interferes with many of the body's natural defenses against pneumonia. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ...


Research shows that there are several ways to prevent pneumonia in newborn infants. Testing pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus and Chlamydia trachomatis, and then giving antibiotic treatment if needed, reduces pneumonia in infants. Suctioning the mouth and throat of infants with meconium-stained amniotic fluid decreases the rate of aspiration pneumonia. This article is about the concept. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that can cause serious illness and sometimes death, especially in newborn infants and the elderly. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Meconium from 12-hour-old newborn — the babys third bowel movement. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes which holds a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ...


Vaccination is important for preventing pneumonia in both children and adults. Vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the first year of life have greatly reduced their role in pneumonia in children. Vaccinating children against Streptococcus pneumoniae has also led to a decreased incidence of these infections in adults because many adults acquire infections from children. A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae is also available for adults. In the U.S., it is currently recommended for all healthy individuals older than 65 and any adults with emphysema, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis of the liver, alcoholism, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, or those who do not have a spleen. A repeat vaccination may also be required after five or ten years.[15] A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a vaccine used to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumonia and septicaemia. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Asplenia refers to the absence (a-) of normal spleen function and is associated with some risks. ...


Influenza vaccines should be given yearly to the same individuals who receive vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, health care workers, nursing home residents, and pregnant women should receive the vaccine.[16] When an influenza outbreak is occurring, medications such as amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir can help prevent influenza.[17][18] Flu redirects here. ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ...


Epidemiology

Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world. It is a major cause of death among all age groups. In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million deaths a year worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia[19] and WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.[20] Mortality from pneumonia generally decreases with age until late adulthood. Elderly individuals, however, are at particular risk for pneumonia and associated mortality. WHO redirects here. ...


More cases of pneumonia occur during the winter months than during other times of the year. Pneumonia occurs more commonly in males than females, and more often in Blacks than Caucasians. Individuals with underlying illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, tobacco smoking, alcoholism, or immune system problems are at increased risk for pneumonia.[21] These individuals are also more likely to have repeated episodes of pneumonia. People who are hospitalized for any reason are also at high risk for pneumonia. The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


History

Hippocrates, the ancient Greek physician known as the "father of medicine."
Hippocrates, the ancient Greek physician known as the "father of medicine."

The symptoms of pneumonia were described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC–370 BC): 1881 Young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places Assumming PD due to age. ... 1881 Young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places Assumming PD due to age. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...

Peripneumonia, and pleuritic affections, are to be thus observed: If the fever be acute, and if there be pains on either side, or in both, and if expiration be if cough be present, and the sputa expectorated be of a blond or livid color, or likewise thin, frothy, and florid, or having any other character different from the common... When pneumonia is at its height, the case is beyond remedy if he is not purged, and it is bad if he has dyspnoea, and urine that is thin and acrid, and if sweats come out about the neck and head, for such sweats are bad, as proceeding from the suffocation, rales, and the violence of the disease which is obtaining the upper hand.[22]

However, Hippocrates referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients." He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas. Maimonides (1138–1204 AD) observed "The basic symptoms which occur in pneumonia and which are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking [pleuritic] pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse and cough."[23] This clinical description is quite similar to those found in modern textbooks, and it reflected the extent of medical knowledge through the Middle Ages into the 19th century. Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Bacteria were first seen in the airways of individuals who died from pneumonia by Edwin Klebs in 1875.[24] Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed by Carl Friedländer[25] and Albert Fränkel[26] in 1882 and 1884, respectively. Friedländer's initial work introduced the Gram stain, a fundamental laboratory test still used to identify and categorize bacteria. Christian Gram's paper describing the procedure in 1884 helped differentiate the two different bacteria and showed that pneumonia could be caused by more than one microorganism.[27] Edwin Klebs (1834–1913) was a German pathologist. ... Carl Friedländer (1847-1887) was a German pathologist and microbiologist who helped discover the bacterial cause of pneumonia in 1882. ... Albert Fränkel (born March 10, 1848, Frankfort/Oder, died July 6, 1916, Berlin) was a German physician. ... Gram-positive anthrax bacteria (purple rods) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. ... Professor Hans Christian Gram Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 - November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist. ...


Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine," appreciated the morbidity and mortality of pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918. However, several key developments in the 1900s improved the outcome for those with pneumonia. With the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics, modern surgical techniques, and intensive care in the twentieth century, mortality from pneumonia dropped precipitously in the developed world. Vaccination of infants against Haemophilus influenzae type b began in 1988 and led to a dramatic decline in cases shortly thereafter.[28] Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults began in 1977 and in children began in 2000, resulting in a similar decline.[29] Sir William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ...


See also

In alphabetical order, this is a list of people who died of pneumonia. ... Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Stedman's Medical Dictionary, "pneumonia". Accessed on: November 24, 2007.
  2. ^ Metlay JP, Kapoor WN, Fine MJ. Does this patient have community-acquired pneumonia? Diagnosing pneumonia by history and physical examination. JAMA 1997; 278:1440. PMID 9356004
  3. ^ Syrjala H, Broas M, Suramo I, et al. High resolution computed tomography for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 27:358-363 PMID 9709887
  4. ^ a b Heckerling PS, Tape TG, Wigton RS, et al (1990). "Clinical prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates". Ann. Intern. Med. 113 (9): 664-70. PMID 2221647. 
  5. ^ Emerman CL, Dawson N, Speroff T, et al (1991). "Comparison of physician judgment and decision aids for ordering chest radiographs for pneumonia in outpatients". Annals of emergency medicine 20 (11): 1215-9. PMID 1952308. 
  6. ^ Gennis P, Gallagher J, Falvo C, Baker S, Than W (1989). "Clinical criteria for the detection of pneumonia in adults: guidelines for ordering chest roentgenograms in the emergency department". The Journal of emergency medicine 7 (3): 263-8. PMID 2745948. 
  7. ^ Pakistan Multicentre Amoxycillin Short Course Therapy (MASCOT) pneumonia study group (2002). "Clinical efficacy of 3 days versus 5 days of oral amoxicillin for treatment of childhood pneumonia: a multicentre double-blind trial". Lancet 360: 835–41. PMID 12243918. 
  8. ^ Agarwal G, Awasthi S, Kabra SK, Kaul A, Singhi S, Walter SD; ISCAP Study Group. (2004). "Three day versus five day treatment with amoxicillin for non-severe pneumonia in young children: a multicentre randomised controlled trial". BMJ 328: 791–4. PMID 15070633. 
  9. ^ el Moussaoui R, de Borgie CA, van den Broek P, Hustinx WN, Bresser P, van den Berk GE, Poley JW, van den Berg B, Krouwels FH, Bonten MJ, Weenink C, Bossuyt PM, Speelman P, Opmeer BC, Prins JM. (2006). "Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study". BMJ 332: 1355–58. PMID 16763247. 
  10. ^ a b Pneumonia, Bacterial - emedicine.com, specifically, "The chest radiograph usually clears within 4 weeks in patients younger than 50 years without underlying pulmonary disease". Symptoms are often resolved within 1-2 weeks.]
  11. ^ Mufson, MA; RJ Stanek (1999-07-26). "Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in one American City: a 20-year longitudinal study, 1978-1997". Am J Med 107 (1A): 34S-43S. Department of Medicine, Marshall University School of Medicine. PMID 10451007. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. 
  12. ^ Combes A, Luyt CE, Fagon JY, Wollf M, Trouillet JL, Gibert C, Chastre J; PNEUMA Trial Group. Impact of methicillin resistance on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Oct 1;170(7):786-92. PMID 15242840
  13. ^ Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, Hanusa BH, Weissfeld LA, Singer DE, Coley CM, Marrie TJ, Kapoor WN. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243–250. PMID 8995086
  14. ^ Lim WS, van der Eerden MM, Laing R, et al (2003). "Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study". Thorax 58 (5): 377-82. PMID 12728155. 
  15. ^ Butler JC, Breiman RF, Campbell JF, Lipman HB, Broome CV, Facklam RR. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine efficacy: an evaluation of current recommendations. JAMA 1993;270:1826–1831. PMID 8411526
  16. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1999;48(RR-4):1–28. PMID 10366138.
  17. ^ Jefferson T, Deeks JJ, Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Rudin M. Amantadine and rimantadine for preventing and treating influenza A in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD001169. PMID 15266442
  18. ^ Hayden FG, Atmar RL, Schilling M, Johnson C, Poretz D, Paar D, Huson L, Ward P, Mills RG. Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1336–1343 PMID 10536125
  19. ^ Garenne M, Ronsmans C, Campbell H. The magnitude of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years in developing countries. World Health Stat Q 1992;45:180. PMID 1462653
  20. ^ WHO (1999). "Pneumococcal vaccines. WHO position paper". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 74 (23): 177–83. PMID 10437429. 
  21. ^ Almirall J, Bolibar I, Balanzo X, Gonzalez CA. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: A population-based case-control study. Eur Respir J. 1999;13:349. PMID 10065680
  22. ^ Hippocrates On Acute Diseases wikisource link
  23. ^ Maimonides, Fusul Musa ("Pirkei Moshe").
  24. ^ Klebs E. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der pathogenen Schistomyceten. VII Die Monadinen. Arch. exptl. Pathol. Parmakol. 1875 Dec 10;4(5/6):40–488.
  25. ^ Friedländer C. Über die Schizomyceten bei der acuten fibrösen Pneumonie. Virchow's Arch pathol. Anat. u. Physiol. 1882 Feb 4;87(2):319–324.
  26. ^ Fraenkel A. Über die genuine Pneumonie, Verhandlungen des Congress für innere Medicin. Dritter Congress. 1884 April 21;3:17–31.
  27. ^ Gram C. Über die isolierte Färbung der Schizomyceten in Schnitt- und Trocken-präparaten. Fortschr. Med. 1884 March 15;2(6):185–189.
  28. ^ Adams WG, Deaver KA, Cochi SL, et al. Decline of childhood Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the Hib vaccine era. JAMA 1993;269:221-6. PMID 8417239
  29. ^ Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al. Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of pneumococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. New Engl J Med. 2003;348:1737–1746. PMID 12724479

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Pharyngitis (IPA: ) is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... Flu redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... SARS redirects here. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An MRI image showing a congenitally deviated nasal septum A deviated septum commonly occurs when the anterior spine of the maxilla is severed in half. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax - Blood in the chest cavity). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Echovirus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... Pharyngitis (IPA: ) is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... Rhinorrhea, commonly known as a runny nose, is a symptom of the common cold and allergies (hay fever). ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... Complication, in medicine, is a unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a medical treatment. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pneumonia (Bacterial, Viral) Causes, Symptoms and Treatment on MedicineNet.com (922 words)
The "pneumonia vaccine" is given to prevent one specific type of pneumonia--the pneumonia caused by the Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacterium.
Pneumonia caused by Pneumococcus is the most common form of infection occurring outside of a hospital or institutional setting in the U.S. Pneumococcus infection is responsible for over 6,000 deaths per year in the U.S.--the highest number for any vaccine-preventable disease.
Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
Pneumonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5046 words)
Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid.
Pneumonia is a common illness, occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among the elderly and people who are chronically ill. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a subset of hospital-acquired pneumonia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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