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Encyclopedia > Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
British colony
1620 – 1691

Seal of Plymouth Colony of Plymouth An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 596 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 704 pixel, file size: 967 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Seal of Plymouth Colony

Location of Plymouth
Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations
Capital Plymouth
Language(s) English
Religion Puritan, Separatist
Government Monarchy
Legislature General Court
History
 - Established 1620
 - First Thanksgiving 1621
 - Pequot War 1637
 - King Philip's War 1675–1676
 - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688
 - Disestablished 1691

Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth or The Old Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 until 1691. The first settlement was at New Plymouth, a location previously surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 741 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1235 × 1000 pixel, file size: 659 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth County Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Town  134. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The General Court is the shorthand name for the: New Hampshire General Court Massachusetts General Court and formerly the Vermont General Court This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The First Thanksgiving, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Attack King Philips War, sometimes called Metacoms War or Metacoms Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ... The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Statue at kryptonVA, photo Aug 2007 John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth County Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Town  134. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Founded by a group of separatists who later came to be known as the Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony was, along with Jamestown, Virginia, one of the earliest colonies to be founded by the English in North America and the first sizable permanent English settlement in the New England region. Aided by Squanto, a Native American, the colony was able to establish a treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped to ensure the colony's success. The colony played a central role in King Phillip's War, one of the earliest and bloodiest of the Indian Wars. Ultimately, the colony was annexed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the actual historical figure. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... King Philips War was a general Indian uprising in 1675-1676 to resist continued expansion of the English colonies in New England. ... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on...


Plymouth holds a special role in American history. Rather than being entrepreneurs like many of the settlers of Jamestown, the citizens of Plymouth were fleeing religious persecution and searching for a place to worship God as they saw fit. The social and legal systems of the colony were thus closely tied to their religious beliefs. Many of the people and events surrounding Plymouth Colony have become part of American mythology, including the North American tradition known as Thanksgiving and the monument known as Plymouth Rock. Despite the colony's relatively short history, it has become an important symbol of what is now labeled "American". The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... The First Thanksgiving, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ... Plymouth Rock, described by some as the most disappointing landmark in America because of its small size and poor visitor access. ...

Contents

History

Origins

See also: Pilgrims
The village of Scrooby, England circa 1911, home to the Pilgrims until 1607
The village of Scrooby, England circa 1911, home to the Pilgrims until 1607

Plymouth Colony was founded by a group of people who later came to be known as the "Pilgrims". The core group—roughly 40% of the adults and 56% of the family groupings[1]—was part of a congregation of religious separatists led by pastor John Robinson, church elder William Brewster, and William Bradford. While still in the town of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire, England, the congregation began to feel the pressures of religious persecution. During the Hampton Court Conference, King James I had declared the Puritans and Protestant Separatists to be undesirable and, in 1607, the Bishop of York raided the homes and imprisoned several members of the congregation.[2][3] The congregation thus left England and emigrated to the Netherlands, first to Amsterdam and finally to Leiden, in 1609.[4] This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Several notable persons were named William Brewster: William Brewster (Pilgrim) (1567-1644), Pilgrim and Mayflower passenger William Brewster (ornithologist) (1851-1919), ornithologist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bas-relief on Bradford Street in Provincetown depicting the signing of the Mayflower Compact William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected Governor of the Colony for 15 two-year terms. ... A small village in north Nottinghamshire which was the home of William Brewster one of the Pilgrim Fathers who set sail for America in 1620. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... The Hampton Court Conference was a meeting in January 1604, convened at Hampton Court Palace between King James I of England and representatives of the English Puritans. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Leyden redirects here. ...


In Leiden, the congregation found the freedom to worship as it chose, but Dutch society was unfamiliar to these immigrants. Scrooby had been an agricultural community, whereas Leiden was a thriving industrial center, and the pace of life was hard on the Pilgrims. Furthermore, though the community remained close-knit, their children began adopting the Dutch customs and language. The Pilgrims were also still not free from the persecutions of the English Crown; after William Brewster in 1618 published comments highly critical of the King of England and the Anglican Church, English authorities came to Leiden to arrest him. Though Brewster escaped arrest, the events spurred the congregation to move even further from England.[5]


In June 1619, the Pilgrims obtained a land patent from the London Virginia Company, allowing them to settle at the mouth of the Hudson River. They then sought financing through the Merchant Adventurers, a group of Puritan businessmen who viewed colonization as a means of both spreading their religion and making a profit. Upon arriving in America, the Pilgrims began working to repay their debts.[6] Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... The Company of Merchant Adventurers usually refers to the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, founded in 1407 and Londons leading guild of overseas merchants. ...


Using the financing secured from the Merchant Adventurers, the Pilgrims bought provisions and obtained passage on two ships, the Mayflower and the Speedwell. Though they had intended to leave early in 1620, difficulties in dealing with the Merchant Adventurers, including several changes in plans for the voyage and in financing, resulted in a delay of several months. The Pilgrims finally boarded the Speedwell in July 1620 from the Dutch port of Delfshaven.[7] Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882) The Mayflower was the famous ship that transported the Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts (United States), in 1620. ... The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... View of the harbour of Delfshaven as it appears today. ...


Mayflower voyage

See also: List of passengers on the Mayflower

The Mayflower arrived in Southampton, England to rendezvous with the Speedwell and to pick up supplies and additional passengers. Among the passengers to join the group in Southampton were several Pilgrims including William Brewster, who had been in hiding for the better part of a year, and a group of passengers known to the Pilgrims as "The Strangers". This group was largely made up of passengers recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide governance for the colony as well as additional hands to work for the colony's ventures. Among the Strangers were Myles Standish, who would be the colony's military leader, Christopher Martin, who had been designated by the Merchant Adventurers to act as Governor for the duration of the trans-Atlantic trip, and Stephen Hopkins, a veteran of a failed colonial venture that may have been the inspiration for Shakespeare's The Tempest.[8] This is a list of passengers on the Mayflower . ... This page discusses the English city of Southampton. ... Captain Myles Standish Kt. ... Christopher Martin (born c. ... Stephen Hopkins (b. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see The Tempest (disambiguation). ...

"The Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delfthaven in Holland" (1844) by Robert Walter Weir
"The Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delfthaven in Holland" (1844) by Robert Walter Weir

The departure of the Mayflower and Speedwell for America was beset by delays. Further disagreements with the Merchant Adventurers held the departure up in Southampton. A total of 120 passengers, 90 on the Mayflower and 30 on the Speedwell, finally departed on August 15.[9] Leaving Southampton, the Speedwell experienced significant leakage, which required the ships to immediately put in at Dartmouth. After repairs were completed and a further delay ensued awaiting favorable winds, the two ships made it only two hundred miles beyond Land's End before another major leak in the Speedwell forced the expedition to return again to England, this time to the port of Plymouth. The Speedwell was determined to be unseaworthy; some passengers abandoned their attempt to emigrate, while others joined the Mayflower, crowding the already heavily burdened ship. Later, it was speculated that the master of the Speedwell had intentionally sabotaged his ship to avoid having to make the treacherous trans-Atlantic voyage.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The town seen from the River Dart Dartmouth is a town in Devon in the south-west of England. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... Smeatons tower on the Plymouth Hoe Plymouth is a city in the Westcountry of England, situated at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar in the traditional county of Devon. ...


The Mayflower, carrying 102 settlers, left Plymouth on September 6, 1620, without her sister ship the Speedwell, and sailed for the New World with a land patent allowing them to settle specifically at the mouth of the Hudson River. The voyage took almost two months as it was drawn out by strong westerly winds and by the Gulf Stream. Land was sighted on November 9 off the coast of Cape Cod. The Mayflower made an attempt to sail south to the designated landing site at the mouth of the Hudson, but ran into trouble in the region of Pollack Rip, a shallow area of shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. With winter approaching and provisions running dangerously low, the passengers decided to return north and abandon their original landing plans.[11] , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ...


Prior exploration and settlements

Title page of Captain John Smith's 1616 work A Description of New England, the first text to use the name "New Plymouth" to describe the site of the future colony
Title page of Captain John Smith's 1616 work A Description of New England, the first text to use the name "New Plymouth" to describe the site of the future colony

The Pilgrims were not the first people in the area. Besides the Native American tribes native to the area, there had been nearly a century of exploration, fishing, and settlement by Europeans. John Cabot's discovery of Newfoundland in 1497 would lay the foundation for the extensive English claims over the east coast of North America.[12] One of the earliest maps of New England, produced c. 1540 by cartographer Giacomo Gastaldi, erroneously identified Cape Breton with the Narragansett Bay; the resulting map completely omits most of the New England coast.[13] European fishermen had been plying the waters off of the New England coast for much of the 16th and 17th centuries. Image File history File links Descr. ... Image File history File links Descr. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Giacomo Gastaldi (Villafranca c. ... // The term Cape Breton appears in several different things: Cape Breton Island, a Canadian island on the Atlantic Ocean coast Cape Breton Highlands, a mountain range in northern Cape Breton Island. ... Narragansett Bay, shown in pink. ...


Frenchman Samuel de Champlain had explored the area extensively in 1605. He had specifically explored Plymouth Harbor, which he called "Port St. Louis", and made an extensive and detailed map of it and the surrounding lands. Patuxet, the native village upon which the town of Plymouth would soon be built, was shown by Champlain as a thriving settlement. However, in the 15 years before the arrival of the Mayflower, smallpox and other diseases brought by English fisherman to the area had completely wiped out the population.[14] Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Plymouth Harbor is the name of a harbor located in the South Shore region of the state of Massachusetts. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Popham Colony, also known as Fort St. George, was organized by the Plymouth Company (unrelated to Plymouth Colony) and founded in 1607. It was settled on the coast of Maine, and was beset by internal political struggles as well as sickness and weather problems. It was abandoned in 1608.[15] The site of the 1607 Popham Colony in present-day Maine is shown by Po on the map. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Captain John Smith of Jamestown fame had explored the area in 1614, and is credited with naming the region of New England. He named many locations using approximations of Native American words. The future site of the Pilgrim's first settlement was originally named "Accomack" by Smith. In consultation with Prince Charles, son of King James I, Smith changed "Accomack" to New Plymouth. A map published in his 1616 work A Description of New England clearly shows the site of the future Pilgrim settlement as named "New Plimouth" [sic].[16] Statue at kryptonVA, photo Aug 2007 John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... Charles I King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ...


In the Mayflower settlers' first explorations of Cape Cod, they came across evidence that Europeans had previously spent extensive time there. They discovered remains of a European fort and uncovered a grave that contained the remains of both an adult European male and a Native American child.[17]


Landings at Provincetown and Plymouth

The Mayflower anchored at Provincetown Harbor on November 11, 1620. The Pilgrims did not have a patent to settle this area, thus some passengers began to question their right to land; they complained that there was no legal authority to establish a colony. In response to this, a group of colonists, still aboard the ship as it lay off-shore, drafted and ratified the first governing document of the colony, the Mayflower Compact, the intent of which was to establish a means of governing the colony. Though it did little more than confirm that the colony would be governed like any English town, it did serve the purpose of relieving the concerns of many of the settlers.[18] Aerial view of Provincetown Harbor in Provincetown, Massachusetts at the tip of Cape Cod. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This bas-relief depicting the signing of the Mayflower Compact is on Bradford Street in Provincetown directly below the Pilgrim Monument. ...

"Signing of the Mayflower Compact"(c.1900) by Edward Percy Moran

The group remained onboard the ship through the next day, a Sunday, for prayer and worship. The immigrants finally set foot on land at what would become Provincetown on November 13. The first task was to rebuild a shallop, a shallow draft boat that had been built in England and disassembled for transport aboard the Mayflower. It would remain with the Pilgrims while the Mayflower returned to England. On November 15, Captain Myles Standish led a party of sixteen men on an exploratory mission, during which they robbed Native American graves and located a buried cache of Indian corn. The shallop was finished on November 27, and using it, a second expedition was undertaken, under the direction of Mayflower master Christopher Jones. Thirty-four men went but the expedition was beset by bad weather; the only positive result, from their perspective, was that they found the previously discovered cache of corn and raided it to provide for the colony. A third expedition along Cape Cod left on December 6; it resulted in a skirmish with local Native Americans known as the "First Encounter" near modern-day Eastham, Massachusetts. Having failed to secure a proper site for their settlement, and fearing that they had angered the local Native Americans by robbing their corn stores and firing upon them, the Mayflower left Provincetown Harbor and set sail for Plymouth Harbor.[19] “Photograph of a painting signed Percy Moran, showing Myles Standish, William Bradford, William Brewster and John Carver signing the Mayflower Compact in a cabin aboard the Mayflower while other Pilgrims look on. ... “Photograph of a painting signed Percy Moran, showing Myles Standish, William Bradford, William Brewster and John Carver signing the Mayflower Compact in a cabin aboard the Mayflower while other Pilgrims look on. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Provincetown is a town located at the tip of Cape Cod in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pleasure barge is a flat bottomed, slow moving boat used for leisure. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Jones was master of the Mayflower between at least 1609 and 1623 and captained it on the transatlantic voyage that established the Plymouth Colony settlement. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastham is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The colonists dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor on December 17 and spent three days surveying for a settlement site. They rejected several sites, including one on Clark's Island and another at the mouth of the Jones River, in favor of the site of a recently abandoned, Native American settlement named Patuxet. The location was chosen largely for its defensive position; the settlement would be centered on two hills: Cole's Hill, where the village would be built, and Fort Hill, where a defensive cannon would be stationed. Also important in choosing the site, the prior Indian villagers had cleared much of the land, making agriculture relatively easy. Although there are no contemporary accounts to verify the legend, Plymouth Rock is often hailed as the point where the colonists first set foot on their new homeland.[20][21] December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clarks Island is the name of a small island located in Plymouth Bay in the state of Massachusetts. ... Summary The Jones River is a small river running through the South Shore of Massachusetts. ... Plymouth Rock, described by some as the most disappointing landmark in America because of its small size and poor visitor access. ...


First winter

See also: List of Mayflower passengers who died in the winter of 1620-1621
"The Landing of the Pilgrims."(1877) by Henry A. Bacon
"The Landing of the Pilgrims."(1877) by Henry A. Bacon

On December 21, 1620, the first landing party arrived at the site of what would become the settlement of Plymouth. Plans to immediately begin building houses, however, were delayed by inclement weather until December 23. As the building progressed, twenty men always remained ashore for security purposes, while the rest of the work crews returned each night to the Mayflower. Women, children, and the infirm remained on board the Mayflower; many had not left the ship for six months. The first structure, a "common house" of wattle and daub, took two weeks to complete in the harsh New England winter. In the following weeks, the rest of the settlement slowly took shape. The living and working structures were built on the relatively flat top of Cole's Hill, and a wooden platform was constructed to support the cannon that would defend the settlement from nearby Fort Hill. Many of the able-bodied men were too infirm to work, and some died of their illnesses. Thus, only seven residences (of a planned nineteen) and four common houses were constructed during the first winter.[22] Includes month of death, where recorded. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth County Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Town  134. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | Construction ...


By the end of January, enough of the settlement had been built to begin unloading provisions from the Mayflower. In mid-February, after several tense encounters with local Native Americans, the male residents of the settlement organized themselves into military orders; Myles Standish was designated as the commanding officer. By the end of the month, five cannon had been defensively positioned on Fort Hill.[23] John Carver was elected governor to replace Governor Martin. Signing of the Mayflower Compact John Carver, born c. ...


On March 16, 1621, the first formal contact with the Native Americans occurred. A Native American named Samoset, originally from Pemaquid Point in modern Maine, walked boldly into the midst of the settlement and proclaimed, "Welcome, Englishmen!" He had learned some English from fishermen who worked off the coast of Maine and gave them a brief introduction to the region's history and geography. It was during this meeting that the Pilgrims found out that the previous residents of the Native American village, Patuxet, had probably died of smallpox. They also discovered that the supreme leader of the region was a Wampanoag Native American sachem (chief) by the name of Massasoit;[24] and they learned of the existence of Squanto—also known by his full Massachusett name of Tisquantum—a Native American originally from Patuxet. Squanto had spent time in Europe and spoke English quite well. Samoset spent the night in Plymouth and agreed to arrange a meeting with some of Massasoit's men.[25] March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Samoset (born about 1590, died in 1653) was the first Native American Indian to make contact with the Pilgrims. ... Bristol is a town located in Lincoln County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the actual historical figure. ...


Massasoit and Squanto were apprehensive about the Pilgrims. In Massasoit's first contact with the English, several men of his tribe had been killed in an unprovoked attack by English sailors. He also knew of the Pilgrims' theft of the corn stores and grave robbing.[26] Squanto had been abducted in 1614 by the English explorer Thomas Hunt and had spent five years in Europe, first as a slave for a group of Spanish Monks, then in England. He had returned to New England in 1619, acting as a guide to the explorer Ferdinando Gorges. Massasoit and his men had massacred the crew of the ship and had taken in Squanto.[27][28] Thomas Hunt can refer to: Aubrey Thomas Hunt de Vere, an Irish-born poet, critic and essayist an English martyr together with Thomas Sprott in 1600 Category: ... Sir Ferdinando Gorges (1565-1647) was an early English colonial entrepreneur in North America and founder of the Province of Maine in 1622. ...


Samoset returned to Plymouth on March 22 with a delegation from Massasoit that included Squanto; Massasoit himself joined them shortly thereafter. After an exchange of gifts, Massasoit and Governor Martin established a formal treaty of peace. This treaty ensured that each people would not bring harm to the other, that Massasoit would send his allies to make peaceful negotiations with Plymouth, and that they would come to each other's aid in a time of war.[29] is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 5, 1621, after being anchored for almost four months in Plymouth Harbor, the Mayflower set sail for England.[30] Nearly half of the original 102 passengers died during the first winter.[31] As William Bradford wrote, "of these one hundred persons who came over in this first ship together, the greatest half died in the general mortality, and most of them in two or three months' time".[32] Several of the graves on Cole's Hill were uncovered in 1855; their bodies were disinterred and moved to a site near Plymouth Rock.[33] is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Plymouth Harbor is the name of a harbor located in the South Shore region of the state of Massachusetts. ...


"First Thanksgiving"

"The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth" (1914) By Jennie A. Brownscombe
"The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth" (1914) By Jennie A. Brownscombe

The autumn celebration in late 1621 that has become known as "The First Thanksgiving" was not known as such to the Pilgrims. The Pilgrims did recognize a celebration known as a "Thanksgiving", which was a solemn ceremony of praise and thanks to God for a congregation's good fortune. The first such Thanksgiving as the Pilgrims would have called it did not occur until 1623, in response to the good news of the arrival of additional colonists and supplies. That event probably occurred in July and consisted of a full day of prayer and worship and probably very little revelry.[34] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The First Thanksgiving, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ...


The event now commemorated by the United States at the end of November each year is more properly termed a "harvest festival". The festival was probably held in early October 1621 and was celebrated by the 51 surviving Pilgrims, along with Massasoit and 90 of his men. Two contemporary accounts of the event survive: Of Plimoth Plantation by William Bradford as well as Mourt's Relation by Edward Winslow. The celebration lasted three days and featured a feast that included numerous types of waterfowl, wild turkeys and fish procured by the colonists, as well as five deer brought by the Native Americans.[35] In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... Mourts Relation was written primarily by Edward Winslow, although William Bradford appears to have written most of the first section. ...


Early relations with the Native Americans

After the departure of Massasoit and his men, Squanto remained in Plymouth to teach the Pilgrims how to survive in New England, for example using dead fish to fertilize the soil. Shortly after the departure of the Mayflower, Governor Carver suddenly died. William Bradford was elected to replace him and would go on to lead the colony through much of its formative years.[36]


As promised by Massasoit, numerous Native Americans arrived at Plymouth throughout the middle of 1621 with pledges of peace. On July 2, a party of Pilgrims, led by Edward Winslow (who would himself become the chief diplomat of the colony), set out to continue negotiations with the chief. The delegation also included Squanto, who acted as a translator. After traveling for several days, they arrived at Massasoit's capital, the village of Sowams near Narragansett Bay. After meals and an exchange of gifts, Massasoit agreed to an exclusive trading pact with the English, and thus the French, who were also frequent traders in the area, were no longer welcome. Squanto remained behind and traveled the area to establish trading relations with several tribes in the area.[37] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Narragansett Bay, shown in pink. ...


In late July, a boy by the name of John Billington became lost for some time in the woods around the colony. It was reported he was found by the Nauset, the same group of Native Americans on Cape Cod from whom the Pilgrims had stolen corn seed the prior year upon their first explorations. The English organized a party to return Billington to Plymouth. The Pilgrims agreed to reimburse the Nauset for the stolen goods in return for the Billington boy. This negotiation would do much to secure further peace with the Native Americans in the area.[38] The Nauset Indian tribe were the original inhabitants of the Cape Cod peninsula, in Massachusetts. ...


During their dealings with the Nausets over the release of John Billington, the Pilgrims learned of troubles that Massasoit was experiencing. Massasoit, Squanto, and several other Wampanoags had been captured by Corbitant, sachem of the Narragansett tribe. A party of ten men, under the leadership of Myles Standish, set out to find and execute Corbitant. While hunting for Corbitant, they learned that Squanto had escaped and Massasoit was back in power. Several Native Americans had been injured by Standish and his men, and were offered medical attention in Plymouth. Though they had failed to capture Corbitant, the show of force by Standish had garnered respect for the Pilgrims and, as a result, nine of the most powerful sachems in the area, including Massasoit and Corbitant, signed a treaty in September that pledged their loyalty to King James.[39] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ...


In May 1622, a vessel named the Sparrow arrived carrying seven men from the Merchant Adventurers whose purpose was to seek out a site for a new settlement in the area. Two ships followed shortly thereafter carrying sixty settlers, all men. They spent July and August in Plymouth before moving north to settle in modern Weymouth, Massachusetts at a settlement they named Wessagussett.[40] Though short-lived, the settlement of Wessagussett would provide the spark for an event that would dramatically change the political landscape between the local Native American tribes and the English settlers. Responding to reports of a military threat to Wessagussett, Myles Standish organized a militia to defend Wessagussett. However, he found that there had been no attack. He therefore decided on a pre-emptive strike. In an event called "Standish's raid" by historian Nathanial Philbrick, he lured two prominent Massachusett military leaders into a house at Wessagussett under the pretense of sharing a meal and making negotiations. Standish and his men then stabbed and killed the two unsuspecting Native Americans. The local sachem, named Obtakiest, was pursued by Standish and his men but escaped with three English prisoners from Wessagusset, whom he then executed.[41] Within a short time, Wessagussett was disbanded and the survivors were integrated into the town of Plymouth.[40] Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David M. Madden (D) Area  - City  21. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Word quickly spread among the Native American tribes of Standish's attack; many Native Americans abandoned their villages and fled the area. As noted by Philbrick: "Standish's raid had irreparably damaged the human ecology of the region...It was some time before a new equilibrium came to the region."[42] Edward Winslow, in his 1624 memoirs Good News from New England, reports that "they forsook their houses, running to and fro like men distracted, living in swamps and other desert places, and so brought manifold diseases amongst themselves, whereof very many are dead".[43] Now lacking the trade in furs provided by the local tribes, the Pilgrims lost their main source of income for paying off their debts to the Merchant Adventurers. Rather than strengthening their position, Standish's raid had disastrous consequences for the colony, a fact noted by William Bradford, who in a letter to the Merchant Adventurers noted "[W]e had much damaged our trade, for there where we had [the] most skins the Indians are run away from their habitations..."[42] The only positive effect of Standish's raid seemed to be the increased power of the Massasoit-led Wampanoag, the Pilgrims' closest ally in the region.[42]


Growth of Plymouth

Historical populations[40]
Date Population
December,
1620
99
April,
1621
50
November,
1621
85
July,
1623
180
May,
1627
156
January,
1630
almost 300
1643 approx. 2000
1691 approx. 7000

In November 1621, almost exactly one year after the Pilgrims first set foot in New England, a second ship sent by the Merchant Adventurers arrived. Named the Fortune, it arrived with 37 new settlers for Plymouth. However, as the ship had arrived unexpectedly, and also without many supplies, the additional settlers put a strain on the resources of the colony. Among the passengers of the Fortune were several additional members of the original Leiden congregation, including William Brewster's son Jonathan, Edward Winslow's brother John, and Philip de la Noye (the family name was later changed to "Delano") whose descendants would include President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The Fortune also carried a letter from the Merchant Adventurers chastising the colony for failure to return goods with the Mayflower that had been promised in return for their support. The Fortune began its return to England laden with ₤500 worth of goods, more than enough to keep the colonists on schedule for repayment of their debt, however the Fortune was captured by the French before she could deliver her cargo to England, creating an even larger deficit for the colony.[44] For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Lira is the name of the monetary unit of a number of countries, as well as the former currency of Italy, San Marino and the Vatican City. ...


In July 1623, two more ships arrived, carrying 90 new settlers, among them Leideners, including William Bradford's future wife, Alice. Some of the settlers were unprepared for frontier life and returned to England the next year. In September 1623, another ship carrying settlers destined to refound the failed colony at Weymouth arrived and temporarily stayed at Plymouth. In March 1624, a ship bearing a few additional settlers and the first cattle arrived. A 1627 division of cattle lists 156 colonists divided into twelve lots of thirteen colonists each.[45] Another ship also named the Mayflower arrived in August 1629 with 35 additional members of the Leiden congregation. Ships arrived throughout the period between 1629 and 1630 carrying numbers of passengers; though the exact number is unknown, contemporary documents claimed that by January 1630 the colony had almost 300 people. In 1643 the colony had an estimated 600 males fit for military service, implying a total population of about 2000. By 1690, on the eve of the dissolution of the colony, the estimated total population of Plymouth County, the most populous, was 3055 people.[40] It is estimated that the entire population of the colony at the point of its dissolution was around 7000.[46] For comparison it is estimated that between 1630 and 1640, a period known as the Great Migration, over 20,000 settlers had arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony alone, and by 1678 the English population of all of New England was estimated to be in the range of 60,000. Despite the fact that Plymouth was the first colony in the region, by the time of its absorption it was much smaller than Massachusetts Bay Colony.[47] The Great Migration may refer to the Winthrop Fleet of 1630; where in 700 passengers migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in eleven ships. ...


Military History

Myles Standish

Main article: Myles Standish

From the beginning, Myles Standish was the military leader of Plymouth Colony. He organized and led the first party to set foot in New England, an exploratory expedition of Cape Cod upon arrival in Provincetown Harbor. On the third expedition, which he also led, Standish fired the first recorded shot by the Pilgrim settlers, in an event known as the First Encounter. When they finally arrived at Plymouth, it was Standish, with training in military engineering from the University of Leiden, who decided the defensive layout of the settlement. Standish also organized the able-bodied men into military orders in February of the first winter. During the second winter, he helped design and organize the construction of a large palisade wall surrounding the settlement. Standish would lead two early military raids on Indian villages: the unsuccessful raid to find and punish Corbitant for his attempted coup; and the brutal massacre at Wessagussett called "Standish's raid". The former had the desired effect of gaining the respect of the local Indians, the latter only served to frighten and scatter them, resulting in loss of trade and income.[48] Captain Myles Standish Kt. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ...


Pequot War

Main article: Pequot War

The first full scale war in New England was the Pequot War of 1637. The War's roots go back to 1632, when a dispute over control of the Connecticut River Valley near modern Hartford, Connecticut arose between Dutch fur traders and Plymouth officials. Representatives from the Dutch East India Company and Plymouth Colony both had deeds that claimed they had rightfully purchased the land from the Pequot. A sort of land rush occurred as settlers from Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies tried to beat the Dutch in settling the area; the influx of English settlers also threatened the Pequot. Other confederations in the area, including the Narragansett and Mohegan, were the natural enemies of the Pequot, and sided with the English. The event that sparked the start of formal hostilities was the capture of a boat and the murder of its captain, John Oldham, in 1636, an event blamed on allies of the Pequots. In April 1637, a raid on a Pequot village by John Endicott led to a retaliatory raid by Pequot warriors on the town of Wethersfield, Connecticut where some 30 English settlers were killed. This led to a further retaliation, where a raid led by Captain John Underhill and Captain John Mason burned a Pequot village to the ground near modern Mystic, Connecticut, killing 300 Pequots. Plymouth Colony had little to do with the actual fighting in the war.[49] The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. ... The Connecticut River Valley is a long river valley formed by the Connecticut River stretching from The New Hampshire/Quebec border to Long Island Sound on the Connecticut Coast. ... Nickname: Location in Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates: , Country State NECTA Hartford Region Capitol Region Named 1637 Incorporated (city) 1784 Consolidated 1896 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Eddie Perez Area  - City  18. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the trading company. ... The Pequot are a tribal nation of Native Americans who, in the 17th century, inhabited much of what is now Connecticut. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... John Endicott (c. ... Wethersfield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... John Underhill (1609-1672) was an early English colonist in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a soldier in that and other colonies. ... John Mason was the name of two prominent figures in colonial New England prior to 1640. ... A coffeeshop along Main Street in Mystic Mystic is a census-designated place located in New London County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


In the wake of the Pequot War, four of the New England colonies (Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth) formed a defensive compact known as the United Colonies of New England. Edward Winslow, already known for his diplomatic skills, was the chief architect of the United Colonies. His experience in the United Provinces of the Netherlands during the Leiden years would be used in organizing the confederation. John Adams would later consider the United Colonies to be the prototype for the Articles of Confederation, which itself was the first attempt at a national government.[50] A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies. ... The New Haven Colony was an English colonial venture in Connecticut in North America from 1637 to 1662. ... Mercator projection: New England Confederation in yellow The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


King Philip's War

Main article: King Philip's War
Portrait of King Philip, by Paul Revere, illustration from the 1772 edition of Benjamin Church's The Entertaining History of King Philip's War
Portrait of King Philip, by Paul Revere, illustration from the 1772 edition of Benjamin Church's The Entertaining History of King Philip's War

Also known as Metacomet and other variations on that name, King Philip was the younger son of Massasoit, and the heir of Massasoit's position as sachem of the Wampanoag and supreme leader of the Wampanoag. He became sachem upon the sudden death of his older brother Wamsutta, also known as Alexander, in 1662.[51] Attack King Philips War, sometimes called Metacoms War or Metacoms Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... Wamsutta (b. ...


The roots of the war stem from the increasing numbers of English colonists and their demand for land. As more land was purchased from the Native Americans, they were restricted to smaller territories for themselves. Native American leaders such as King Philip resented the loss of land and looked for a means to slow or reverse it.[52] Of specific concern was the founding of the town of Swansea, which was located only a few miles from the Wampanoag capital at Mount Hope. The General Court of Plymouth began using military force to coerce the sale of Wampanoag land to the settlers of the town.[53] Swansea is a town located in Bristol County in southeastern Massachusetts. ... Bristol is a town in Rhode Island and the county seat of Bristol County. ...


The proximate cause of the conflict was the death of a Praying Indian named John Sassamon in 1675. Sassamon had been an advisor and friend to King Philip; however Sassamon's conversion to Christianity had driven the two apart.[53] Accused in the murder of Sassamon were some of Philip's most senior lieutenants. A jury of twelve Englishmen and six Praying Indians found the Native Americans guilty of murder and sentenced them to death.[54] To this day, some debate exists whether or not King Philip's men actually committed the murder.[53] 17th century term refering to Native Americans of New England who converted to Christianity. ... // Early Biography John Sassamon was a Wampanoag Indian born in Massachusetts during the earlier part of the 17th century. ...


Philip had already begun war preparations at his home base near Mount Hope where he started raiding English farms and pillaging their property. In response, Governor Josiah Winslow called out the militia, and they organized and began to move on Philip's position. The war had started.[55] Bristol is a town in Rhode Island and the county seat of Bristol County. ... Josiah Winslow (1629? - 1680) was an American Pilgrim leader. ...


King Philip systematically attacked unarmed women and children. One such attack resulted in the capture of Mary Rowlandson and the murder of her small children. The memoirs of her capture would provide historians with much information on Native American culture during this time period.[56] Historical marker in Princeton, Massachusetts commemorating Mary Rowlandsons release Mary White Rowlandson (1636 – January 5, 1711) was a colonial American woman, who wrote a vivid description of the nearly three months she spent living with Native Americans. ...


The war continued through the rest of 1675 and into the next year. The English were constantly frustrated by the Native American's refusal to meet them in pitched battle. They employed a form of guerilla warfare that confounded the English. Captain Benjamin Church continuously campaigned to enlist the help of friendly Native Americans to help learn how to fight on an even footing with Philip's troops, but he was constantly rebuffed by the Plymouth leadership, who mistrusted all Native Americans, thinking them potential enemies. Eventually, Governor Winslow and Plymouth military commander Major William Bradford (son of the late Governor William Bradford) relented and gave Church permission to organize a combined force of English and Native Americans. After securing the alliance of the Sakonnet, he led his combined force in pursuit of Philip, who had thus far avoided any major battles in the war that bears his name. Throughout July 1676, Church's band would capture hundreds of Native American troops, often without much of a fight, though Philip eluded him. After Church was given permission to grant amnesty to any captured Native Americans who would agree to join the English side, his force grew immensely.[57] Philip was killed by a Pocasset Indian; the war soon ended as an overwhelming English victory.[58] Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Dr. Benjamin Church Benjamin Church (August 24, 1734 - 1776) was the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army July 27, 1775 _ October 17, 1775. ... Major William Bradford (June 16, 1624 - February 20, 1703) was the son of Governor William Bradford, second governor of Plymouth Colony. ... Pocasset may refer to: Pocasset, Massachusetts Pocasset, Oklahoma This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Eight percent of the English adult male population is estimated to have died during the war, a rather large percentage by most standards. The impact on the Native Americans was far higher, however. So many were killed, fled, or shipped off as slaves that the entire Native American population of New England fell by 60–80 percent.[59]


Final years

In 1686, the entire region was reorganized under a single government known as the Dominion of New England; this included the colonies of Plymouth, Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. New York, West Jersey, East Jersey were added in 1688. The President of the Dominion, Edmund Andros, was highly unpopular, and the union did not last. Plymouth Colony revolted, and withdrew from the Dominion in April 1688; the entire union was dissolved during the Glorious Revolution of 1688.[60][61] The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. ... The New Hampshire Colony was the product of several English land grants dating from 1623 to 1680, and for much of its colonial history was subject to the Massachusetts Colony and its leadership in Boston. ... A map of the Province of New York. ... The original provinces of West and East New Jersey are shown in yellow and green respectively. ... The original provinces of West and East New Jersey are shown in yellow and green respectively. ... Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...


The return of self-rule for Plymouth Colony was short-lived, however. A delegation of New Englanders, led by Increase Mather, went to England to negotiate for a return of the colonial charters that had been nullified during the Dominion years. The situation was particularly problematic for Plymouth Colony, as it had existed without a formal charter since its founding. Plymouth did not get their wish for a formal charter; instead a new charter was issued, annexing Plymouth Colony to Massachusetts Bay Colony. The official date of the proclamation ending the existence of Plymouth Colony was October 17, 1691, though it was not put into force until the arrival of the new charter on May 14, 1692, carried by William Phips. The last official meeting of the Plymouth General Court occurred on June 8, 1692.[60][62][63] The Reverend Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 – August 23, 1723) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Federal state of Massachusetts). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


Social life

Religion

John Robinson memorial, placed outside of St. Peter's Church in Leiden
John Robinson memorial, placed outside of St. Peter's Church in Leiden

The most important religious figure in the colony was John Robinson, the original pastor of the Scrooby congregation and religious leader of the separatists throughout the Leiden years. Though he never actually set foot in New England, many of his theological pronouncements shaped the nature and character of the Plymouth church.[64]For example, Robinson stated that women and men have different social roles according to the law of nature, though neither was lesser in the eyes of God. However, Robinson frequently assigned inferior characteristics to the feminine roles. He referred to them as the "weaker vessel".[65]In matters of religious understanding, he proclaimed that it was the man's role to educate and "guide and go before" women.[65]He also noted that women should be "subject" to their husbands.[65]Robinson also dictated the proper methods of child rearing—he prescribed a strict upbringing with a strong emphasis on corporal punishment. He believed that a child's natural inclination towards independence was a manifestation of original sin and should thus be repressed.[66] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


The Pilgrims themselves were a subset of an English religious movement known as Puritanism, which sought to "purify" the Anglican Church of its secular trappings. The movement sought to return the church to a more primitive state and to practice Christianity as was done by the earliest Church Fathers. Puritans believed that the Bible was the only true source of religious teaching and that any additions made to Christianity, especially with regard to church traditions, had no place in Christian practice. The Pilgrims distinguished themselves from the Puritans in that they sought to "separate" themselves from the Anglican Church, rather than reform it from within. It was this desire to worship from outside of the Anglican Communion that led them first to the Netherlands and ultimately to New England.[67] The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...


Each town in Plymouth colony was considered a single church congregation; in later years some of the larger towns split into two or three congregations. While church attendance was mandatory for all residents of the colony, church membership was restricted to those who received God's grace through personal conversion. In Plymouth Colony, it seems that a simple profession of faith was all that was required for acceptance. This was a more liberal doctrine than some other Puritan congregations, such as those of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, where it was common to subject those seeking formal membership to strict and detailed cross-examinations. There was no central governing body for the churches. Each individual congregation was left to determine its own standards of membership, hire its own ministers, and conduct its own business.[68] Profession, in Christian monasticism, is the act of embracing the religious state by the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience according to the rule of a canonically approved religious order; it involves then a triple vow made to God, and binding oneself to the rule of a certain order. ...


The church was undoubtedly the most important social institution in the colony. Not only was the Bible the primary religious document of the society, but it also served as the primary legal document as well.[69] Church attendance was not only mandatory, but membership was socially vital. Education was carried out for almost purely religious purposes. The laws of the colony specifically asked parents to provide for the education of their children, to "at least to be able duly to read the Scriptures" and to understand "the main Grounds and Principles of Christian Religion."[70] It was expected that the male head of the household be responsible for the religious well-being of all its members, children and servants alike.[70]


Most churches utilized two acts to sanction its members: censure and excommunication. Censure was a formal reprimand for behavior that did not conform with accepted religious and social norms, while excommunication involved full removal from church membership. Many perceived social evils, from fornication to public drunkenness, were dealt with through church discipline rather than through civil punishment. Church sanctions seldom held official recognition outside church membership and seldom resulted in civil or criminal proceedings. Nevertheless, such sanctions were a powerful tool of social control.[71] Distinguish from sensor, censer and censor. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


The Pilgrims practiced infant baptism. The public baptism ceremony was usually performed within six months of birth.[72] Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...


Marriage was considered a civil, rather than religious ceremony. Such an arrangement may have been a habit that had developed during the Leiden years, as civil marriage was common in the Netherlands. However, the Pilgrims saw this arrangement as Biblical, there being no evidence from Scripture that a minister should preside over a wedding.[73]


Besides the Puritan theology espoused by their religious leaders, the people of Plymouth Colony had a strong belief in the supernatural. Richard Greenham, a Puritan theologian whose works were known to the Plymouth residents, counseled extensively against turning to magic or wizardry to solve problems. The Pilgrims saw Satan's work in nearly every calamity that befell them; the dark magical arts were very real and present for them. They believed in the presence of malevolent spirits who brought misfortune to people. For example, in 1660, a court inquest into the drowning death of Jeremiah Burroughs determined that a possessed canoe was to blame.[74] While Massachusetts Bay Colony experienced an outbreak of witchcraft scares in the 17th century, there is little evidence that Plymouth was engulfed in anything similar. While witchcraft was listed as a capital crime in the 1636 codification of the laws by the Plymouth General Court, there were no actual convictions of witches in Plymouth Colony. The court records only show two formal accusations of witchcraft. The first, of Goodwife Holmes in 1661, never went to trial. The second, of Mary Ingram in 1677, resulted in trial and acquittal.[75] 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... “Witch” redirects here. ...


Marriage and family life

Edward Winslow and Susanna White, each of who lost their spouses during the harsh winter of 1620–1621, became the first couple to be married in Plymouth. Governor Bradford presided over the civil ceremony.[73] Edward Winslow, 1651, by an anonymous artist Edward Winslow (1595–1655) was an American Pilgrim leader on the Mayflower. ...


Marriage was considered the normal state for all adult residents of the colony. Most men first married in their mid-twenties and women around age 20.[76] Second marriages were not uncommon, and widows and widowers faced social and economic pressures to remarry. On average, most widows and widowers remarried within six months to a year. As most adults who reached marriageable age often lived into their sixties, two-thirds of a person's life was spent married.[77]


Within the confines of marriage, women and men were not considered equal from either a legal or social standpoint. However, it should be noted that, compared to 17th century European norms, women in Plymouth Colony had more extensive legal and social rights. From the perspective of the Church, women were considered equal to men before God. The entire family worshiped together and God's grace was available equally to all professed Christians. Women were, however, expected to take traditionally feminine roles, such as child-rearing and maintaining the household, in Puritan families.[78]


Unlike in Europe, where women had few rights, Plymouth women enjoyed extensive property and legal rights. Widows in Plymouth could not be legally "written out" of her husband's will and were guaranteed a full third of the family's property upon his death. Women were parties to contracts in Plymouth; most notably prenuptial agreements. It was common for brides-to-be (and not, notably, their fathers) to enter into contractual agreements on the consolidation of property upon marriage. In some cases, especially in second marriages, women were given exclusive right to retain control of their property separately from their husbands.[79][78] Women were also known to occasionally sit on juries in Plymouth, a remarkable circumstance in seventeenth century legal practice. Historians James and Patricia Scott Deetz cite a 1678 inquest into the death of Anne Batson's child, where the jury was composed of five women and seven men.[80] A prenuptial agreement or antenuptial agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ...


Family size in the colony was large by modern American standards,[81] though childbirth was often spaced out, with an average of two years between children. Most families averaged five to six children living under the same roof, though it would not be uncommon for one family to have grown children moving out before the mother had finished giving birth. Mortality rates were high for both mother and child; one birth in thirty resulted in the death of the mother, resulting in one in five women dying in childbirth.[82] Infant mortality rates were high, with 12% of children dying before their first birthday. By comparison, the infant mortality rate for the United States in 1995 was 0.76%.[83]


The nuclear family was the most common familial structure in the colony, and while close relatives may have lived nearby, it was expected that upon reaching the age of maturity, older children would move out and establish their own households. In addition to parents and birth children living in the same household, many families took in children from other families or hired indentured servants. Some of the more wealthy families owned slaves.[84] The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually two to seven years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock...


Childhood, adolescence, and education

Children generally remained in the direct care of their mothers until the age of about eight years old, after which time it was not uncommon for the child to be placed in the foster care of another family.[85] There were any number of reasons for a child to be "put-out" in this manner. Some children were placed into households to learn a trade, others to be taught to read and write. It seems that there was, as with almost every decision in the colony, a theological reason for fostering children. It was assumed that a child's own parents would love them too much and would not properly discipline them. By placing a child in the care of another family, there was little danger of a child being spoiled.[86]


Adolescence was not a recognized phase of life in Plymouth colony, and there was not a single rite of passage that marked transition from youth to adulthood. Several important transitions occurred at various ages, but none marked a single "coming of age" event. As early as eight years old, children were expected to begin learning their adult roles in life, by taking on some of the family work or by being placed in foster homes to learn a trade.[85] Most children experienced religious conversion around the age of eight as well, thus becoming church members.[87] Orphaned children were given the right to choose their own guardians at age 14. At 16, males became eligible for military duty and were also considered adults for legal purposes, such as standing trial for crimes. Age 21 was the youngest at which a male could become a freeman, though for practical purposes this occurred sometime in a man's mid-twenties. Though 21 was the assumed age of inheritance as well, the law respected the rights of the deceased to name an earlier age in his will.[88] Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


Actual schools were rare in Plymouth colony. The first true school was not founded until 40 years after the foundation of the colony. The General Court first authorized colony-wide funding for formal public schooling in 1673, but only one town, Plymouth, made use of these funds at that time. By 1683, though, five additional towns had received this funding.[89]


Education of the young was never considered to be the primary domain of schools, even after they had become more common. Most education was carried out by a child's parents or foster parents. While formal apprenticeships were not the norm in Plymouth, it was expected that a foster family would teach the children whatever trades they themselves practiced. The church also played a central role in a child's education.[90] As noted above, the primary purpose of teaching a child to read was so that they could read the Bible for themselves.[91]


Government and laws

Organization

The Book of the General Laws of the Inhabitants of the Jurisdiction of New-Plimouth. Boston: Samuel Green, 1685
The Book of the General Laws of the Inhabitants of the Jurisdiction of New-Plimouth. Boston: Samuel Green, 1685

Plymouth Colony did not have a royal charter authorizing it to form a government. Still, some means of governance was needed; the Mayflower Compact, signed by the 41 able-bodied men aboard the Mayflower upon their arrival in Provincetown Harbor on November 21, 1620, was the colony's first governing document. Formal laws were not codified until 1636. The colony's laws were based on a hybrid of English common law and religious law as laid out in the Bible.[69] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Samuel Green was born in 1266 and is considered to be one of the founding fathers of Taxidermy. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The colony offered nearly all adult males potential citizenship in the colony. Full citizens, or "freemen," were accorded full rights and privileges in areas such as voting and holding office. To be considered a freeman, adult males had to be sponsored by an existing freeman and accepted by the General Court. Later restrictions established a one-year waiting period between nominating and granting of freeman status and also placed religious restrictions on the colony's citizens, specifically preventing Quakers from becoming freemen.[69] Freeman status was also restricted by age; while the official minimum age was 21, in practice most men were elevated to freeman status between the ages of 25 and 40, averaging somewhere in their early thirties.[92] The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ...

Governors of Plymouth Colony[93]
Dates Governor
1620 John Carver
1621–1632 William Bradford
1633 Edward Winslow
1634 Thomas Prence
1635 William Bradford
1636 Edward Winslow
1637 William Bradford
1638 Thomas Prence
1639–1643 William Bradford
1644 Edward Winslow
1645–1656 William Bradford
1657–1672 Thomas Prence
1673–1679 Josiah Winslow
1680–1692 Thomas Hinckley

The colony's most powerful executive was its Governor, who was originally elected by the freemen, but was later appointed by the General Court in an annual election. The General Court also elected seven "Assistants" to form a cabinet to assist the governor. The Governor and Assistants then appointed "Constables" who served as the chief administrators for the towns and "Messengers" who were the main civil servants of the colony. They were responsible for publishing announcements, performing land surveys, carrying out executions, and a host of other duties.[69] Signing of the Mayflower Compact John Carver, born c. ... Bas-relief on Bradford Street in Provincetown depicting the signing of the Mayflower Compact William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected Governor of the Colony for 15 two-year terms. ... Edward Winslow, 1651, by an anonymous artist Edward Winslow (1595–1655) was an American Pilgrim leader on the Mayflower. ... Thomas Prence (1599 - March 29, 1673) was a co-founder of Eastham, Massachusetts, a political leader in both the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, and governor of Plymouth (1634, 1638, and 1657 - 1673). ... Josiah Winslow (1629? - 1680) was an American Pilgrim leader. ... Thomas Hinckley (1618 - April 25, 1706) was the governor of the Plymouth Colony and held several other governmental positions during his lifetime, including that of a representative, a deputy, magistrate, and assistant, among others. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The General Court was both the chief legislative and judicial body of the colony. It was elected by the freemen from among their own number and met regularly in Plymouth, the capital town of the colony. As part of its judicial duties, it would periodically call a "Grand Enquest", which was a grand jury of sorts, elected from the freemen, who would hear complaints and swear out indictments for credible accusations. The General Court, and later lesser town and county courts, would preside over trials of accused criminals and over civil matters, but the ultimate decisions were made by a jury of freemen.[69] In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ...


Laws

As a legislative body, the General Court could make proclamations of law as needed. In the early years of the colony, these laws were not formally compiled anywhere. In 1636 these laws were first organized and published in the 1636 Book of Laws. The book was reissued in 1658, 1672, and 1685.[69] Among these laws included the levying of "rates", or taxes, and the distribution of colony lands.[94] The General Court established townships as a means of providing local government over settlements, but reserved for itself the right to control specific distribution of land to individuals within those towns. When new land was granted to a freeman, it was directed that only the person to whom the land was granted was allowed to settle it.[95] It was forbidden for individual settlers to purchase land from Native Americans without formal permission from the General Court.[96] The government recognized the precarious peace that existed with the Wampanoag, and wished to avoid antagonizing them by buying up all of their land.[97]


The laws also set out crimes and their associated punishments. There were several crimes that mandated the death penalty: treason, murder, witchcraft, arson, sodomy, rape, bestiality, adultery, and cursing or smiting one's parents.[98] The actual exercise of the death penalty was fairly rare; only one sex-related crime, a 1642 incidence of bestiality by Thomas Granger, resulted in execution.[99] One person, Edward Bumpus, was sentenced to death for "striking and abusing his parents" in 1679, but his sentence was commuted to a severe whipping by reason of insanity.[100] Perhaps the most notable use of the death penalty was in the execution of the Native Americans convicted of the murder of John Sassamon; this helped lead to King Philip's War.[101] Though nominally a capital crime, adultery was usually dealt with by public humiliation. Convicted adulterers were often forced to wear the letters "A.D." sewn into their garments, much in the manner of Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter.[102][103][104] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... “Witch” redirects here. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Hester Prynne, the young protagonist of Nathaniel Hawthornes book The Scarlet Letter, is a woman condemned by her Puritan comrades. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... This article is about the 1850 book. ...


Several laws dealt with indentured servitude, a legal status whereby a person would work off debts or be given training in exchange for a period of unrecompensed service. The law required that all indentured servants had to be registered by the Governor or one of the Assistants, and that no period of indenture could be less than six months. Further laws forbade a master from shortening the length of time of service required for his servant, and also confirmed that any indentured servants whose period of service began in England would still be required to complete their service while in Plymouth.[105] An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


Official Seal

Still used by the town of Plymouth, the seal of the Plymouth Colony was designed in 1629. It depicts four figures within a shield bearing St George's Cross, apparently in Native-American style clothing, each carrying the burning heart symbol of John Calvin. The seal was also used by the County of Plymouth until 1931.[106] St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


Geography

Boundaries

Without a clear land patent for the area, the settlers settled without a charter to form a government, and as a result, it was often unclear in the early years as to what land was under the colony's jurisdiction. In 1644, "The Old Colony Line"—which had been surveyed in 1639—was formally accepted as the boundary between Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth.[107]

1677 map of New England by William Hubbard showing the location of Plymouth Colony. The map is oriented with west at the top.
1677 map of New England by William Hubbard showing the location of Plymouth Colony. The map is oriented with west at the top.

The situation was more complicated along the border with Rhode Island. Roger Williams in 1636 settled in the area of Rehoboth, near modern Pawtucket. He was forcibly evicted in order to maintain Plymouth's claim to the area. Williams would move to the west side of the Pawtucket River to found the settlement of Providence, the nucleus for the colony of Rhode Island, which was formally established with the "Providence Plantations Patent" of 1644. As various settlers from both Rhode Island and Plymouth began to settle along the area, the exact nature of the western boundary of Plymouth became more unclear. The issue was not fully resolved until the 1740s, long after the dissolution of Plymouth Colony itself. Rhode Island had received a patent for the area in 1693, which had been disputed by Massachusetts Bay Colony. Rhode Island successfully defended the patent, and in 1746, a royal decree transferred the land along the eastern shore of the Narragansett Bay to Rhode Island, including the mainland portion of Newport County and all of modern Bristol County, Rhode Island.[108][109] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1587 × 1194 pixel, file size: 410 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plymouth Colony ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1587 × 1194 pixel, file size: 410 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plymouth Colony ... Roger Williams could mean: Roger Williams University Roger Williams (theologian), co-founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams (soldier) Roger Williams (pianist), American pianist Roger Williams (UK politician), British politician Roger Williams (US politician), US Texas politician Roger Williams (hepatologist), a British liver specialist Roger Williams (trombonist) Roger Williams (activist) This... Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. ... “Providence” redirects here. ... Newport County is one of five counties located in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. ... Bristol County is a county located in the state of Rhode Island. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...




Counties and towns

1890 Map of Barnstable County, Massachusetts showing the location and dates of incorporation of towns
1890 Map of Barnstable County, Massachusetts showing the location and dates of incorporation of towns

Plymouth Colony was not formally divided into counties until June 2, 1685, during the reorganization that would lead to the formation of the Dominion of New England. Three counties were formed, composed of the following towns:[110] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ...


Barnstable County on Cape Cod:[111] Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ...

  • Barnstable, the shire town (county seat) of the county, first settled in 1639 and incorporated 1650.[112]
  • Eastham, site of the "First Encounter", first settled 1644 and incorporated as the town of Nauset in 1646, name changed to Eastham in 1651.[113]
  • Falmouth, first settled in 1661, and incorporated as Succonesset in 1686.[114]
  • Sandwich, first settled in 1637 and incorporated in 1639.[115]
  • Yarmouth, incorporated 1639.[116]

Bristol County along the shores of Buzzards Bay and Narragansett Bay, part of this county would later be ceded to Rhode Island:[117] Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Barnstable County Settled 1637 Incorporated 1638 Government  - Type Council-manager city  - Town    Manager John C. Klimm Area  - City  76. ... A shire town is another term for county seat or county town, meaning the place a countys government is based. ... Eastham is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... The garden of the historical society of Falmouth Falmouth is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Barnstable County Settled 1637 Incorporated 1639 Government type Open town meeting Area    - Town  44. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Barnstable County Settled 1639 Incorporated 1639 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  28. ... Bristol County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Buzzards Bay is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the state of Massachusetts. ... Narragansett Bay, shown in pink. ...

  • Taunton, the shire town of the county, incorporated 1639.[118]
  • Bristol, incorporated 1680 and included the former locations of Sowams and Montaup (Mount Hope), which were Massasoit's and King Philip's capitals, respectively. Ceded to Rhode Island in 1746 and is now part of Bristol County, Rhode Island.[109]
  • Dartmouth, incorporated 1664. Dartmouth was the site of a significant massacre by the Indian forces during King Philip's War. It was also the location of a surrender of a group of some 160 of Philip's forces who were later sold into slavery.[119]
  • Freetown, incorporated 1683, originally known as "Freemen's Land" by its first settlers.[120]
  • Little Compton, incorporated as Sakonnet in 1682, ceded to Rhode Island in 1746 and is now part of Newport County, Rhode Island.[121]
  • Rehoboth, first settled 1644 and incorporated 1645. Nearby to, but distinct from the Rehoboth settlement of Roger Williams, which is now the town of Pawtucket, Rhode Island.[122]
  • Rochester, settled 1638, incorporated 1686.[123]
  • Swansea, founded as the township of Wannamoiset in 1667, incorporated as town of Swansea in 1668. It was here that the first English casualty of King Philip's War occurred.[124]

Plymouth County, located along the western shores of Cape Cod Bay:[125] Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1638 Incorporated 1639 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Charles Crowley Area  - City  48. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Location in Massachusetts Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1650 Incorporated 1664 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  97. ... Freetown is a town located in Bristol County, Massachusetts. ... Location of Little Compton, Rhode Island. ... Rehoboth is a town located in Bristol County, Massachusetts. ...   Rochester is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Swansea is a town located in Bristol County in southeastern Massachusetts. ... Plymouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Cape Cod Bay is a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ...

  • Plymouth, the shire town of the county and capital of the colony. This was the original 1620 settlement of the Mayflower Pilgrims, and continued as the largest and most significant settlement in the colony until its dissolution in 1691.[126]
  • Bridgewater, purchased from Massasoit by Myles Standish, and originally named Duxburrow New Plantation, it was incorporated as Bridgewater in 1656.[127]
  • Duxbury, founded by Myles Standish, it was incorporated in 1637. Other notable residents of Duxbury included John Alden, William Brewster, and Governor Thomas Prence.[128]
  • Marshfield, incorporated 1640. Home to Josiah Winslow, governor of the colony during King Philip's War.[129]
  • Middleborough, incorporated 1669 as Middleberry. Named for its location as the halfway point on the journe from Plymouth to Mount Hope, the Wampanoag capital.[130]
  • Scituate, settled 1628 and incorporated 1636. The town was the site of a major attack by King Philip's forces in 1676.[131]

Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth County Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Town  134. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Plymouth County Settled 1650 Incorporated 1656 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  28. ... For the place in England see Duxbury Woods Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth County Settled 1624 Incorporated 1637 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  37. ... Signing of the Mayflower Compact John Alden (1599?-September 22, 1687) was one of the Pilgrims who emigrated to America in 1620 on the Mayflower and founded the Plymouth Colony. ... Marshfield is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Middleborough is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Scituate, Massachusetts is a small seacoast town located in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod Bay midway between Boston and Plymouth. ...

Demographics

English

The English in Plymouth Colony fit broadly into three categories: Pilgrims, Strangers, and Particulars. The Pilgrims, like the Puritans that would later found Massachusetts Bay Colony to the north, were a Protestant group that closely followed the teachings of John Calvin. However, unlike the Puritans, who wished to reform the Anglican church from within, the Pilgrims saw it as a morally defunct organization, and sought to remove themselves from it.[67] The name "Pilgrims" was actually not used by the separatists themselves. Though William Bradford used the term "pilgrims" to describe the group, he was using the term generically, to define the group as travelers on a religious mission. The term used by those we now call the Pilgrims was the "Saints". They used the term to indicate their special place among God's elect, as they subscribed to the Calvinist belief in predestination.[132] The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


Besides the Pilgrims, or "Saints", the rest of the Mayflower settlers were known as the "Strangers". This group included the non-Pilgrim settlers placed on the Mayflower by the Merchant Adventurers, as well as later settlers who would come for other reasons throughout the history of the colony and who did not necessarily adhere to the Pilgrim religious ideals.[133][134] A third group, known as the "Particulars", consisted of a group of later settlers that paid their own "particular" way to America, and thus were not obliged to pay the colony's debts.[135]


The presence of the Strangers and the Particulars was a considerable annoyance to the Pilgrims. As early as 1623, a conflict between the two groups broke out over the celebration of Christmas, a day of no particular significance to the Pilgrims. Furthermore, when a group of Strangers founded the nearby settlement of Wessagusset, the Pilgrims were highly strained, both emotionally and in terms of resources, by their lack of discipline. They looked at the eventual failure of the Wessagusset settlement as Divine Providence against a sinful people.[136] For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


The residents of Plymouth used terms to distinguish between the earliest settlers of the colony and those that came later. The first generation of settlers, generally thought to be those that arrived before 1627, called themselves the "Old Comers" or "Planters". Later generations of Plymouth residents would refer to this group as the "Forefathers".[137]


Native Americans

The Native Americans in New England were organized into loose tribal confederations, sometimes called "nations". Among these confederations were the Nipmucks, the Massachusett, the Narragansett, the Niantics, the Mohegan, and the Wampanoag.[49] Several significant events would dramatically alter the demographics of the Native American population in the region. The first was "Standish's raid" on Wessagusset, which frightened Native American leaders to the extent that many abandoned their settlements, resulting in many deaths through starvation and disease.[42] The second, the Pequot War, resulted in the dissolution of its namesake tribe and a major shift in the local power structure.[49] The third, King Phillip's War, had the most dramatic effect on local populations, resulting in the death or displacement of as much as 80% of the total number of Native Americans of southern New England and the enslavement and removal of thousands of Native Americans to the Caribbean and other locales.[59] Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... The Massachusett were tribal communities of Native Americans who lived in areas surrounding Massachusetts Bay in what is now the state of Massachusetts. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... Niantic has several meanings: The Niantic, a tribe of American Indians. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. ... King Philips War was a general Indian uprising in 1675-1676 to resist continued expansion of the English colonies in New England. ...


Black slaves

Some of the wealthier families in Plymouth Colony owned black slaves, which unlike the white indentured servants, were considered the property of their owners and passed on to heirs like any other property. Slave ownership was not widespread and very few families possessed the wealth necessary to own slaves. In 1674, the inventory of Capt. Thomas Willet of Marshfield includes "8 Negroes" at a value of ₤200. Other inventories of the time valued slaves at ₤24–25 each, well out of the financial ability of most families. A 1689 census of the town of Bristol shows that of the 70 families that lived there, only one had a black slave.[138] So few were black slaves in the colony that the General Court never saw fit to pass any laws dealing with them.[105] The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


Family size

A fairly comprehensive demographic study was done by historian John Demos for his seminal 1970 work on the Pilgrims, A Little Commonwealth. He reports that the colony's average household grew from 7.8 children per family for first-generation families, to 8.6 children for second-generation families, and to 9.3 for third-generation families. Child mortality also decreased over this time, with 7.2 children born to first-generation families living until their 21st birthday. That number increased to 7.9 children by the third generation.[139] Life expectancy was higher for men than for women. Of the men who survived until the age of 21, the average life expectancy was 69.2 years. Over 55 percent of these men lived past 70, less than 15 percent died before the age of 50. For women, the numbers are much lower, owing to the difficulties inherent in childbearing. The average life expectancy of women at the age of 21 was only 62.4 years. Of these women, less than 45 percent lived past 70, and about 30 percent died before the age of 50.[139]


Economy

The largest source of wealth for Plymouth Colony was the fur trade. The disruption of this trade caused by Myles Standish's raid at Wessagusset created great hardship for the colonists for many years to come, and was directly cited by William Bradford as a contributing factor to the colonists economic difficulties in their early years.[42] The colonists attempted to supplement their income by fishing; the waters in Cape Cod bay were known to be excellent fisheries. However, they lacked any skill in this area, and it did little to relieve their economic hardship.[140] The colony traded throughout the region, establishing trading posts as far away as Penobscot, Maine. They were also frequent trading partners with the Dutch at New Amsterdam.[141] Penobscot is a town located in Hancock County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ...


The economic situation improved with the arrival of cattle in the colony. It is unknown when the first cattle arrived, but the division of land for the grazing of cattle in 1627 represented one of the first moves towards private land ownership in the colony.[142] Cattle became an important source of wealth in the colony; the average cow could sell for ₤28 in 1638. However, the flood of immigrants during the Great Migration drove the price of cattle down. The same cows sold at ₤28 in 1638 were valued in 1640 at only ₤5.[143] Besides cattle, there were also pigs, sheep, and goats raised in the colony[144]


Agriculture also made up an important part of the Plymouth economy. The colonists adopted Native American agricultural practices and crops. They planted maize, squash, pumpkins, beans, and potatoes. Besides the crops themselves, the Pilgrims learned productive farming techniques from the Native Americans, such as proper crop rotation and the use of dead fish to fertilize the soil. In addition to these native crops, the colonists also successfully planted Old World crops such as turnips, carrots, peas, wheat, barley, and oats.[145] This article is about the maize plant. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... For the film, see Pumpkin (film). ... This article is on the plant. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Species References ITIS 41455 2002-09-22 Oats are the seeds of any of several cereal grains in the genus Avena. ...


Overall, there was very little cash in Plymouth Colony, so most wealth was accumulated in the form of possessions. Since trade goods such as furs, fish, and livestock were subject to fluctuations in price, they were unreliable repositories of wealth. Goods such as clothes and furnishings represented an important source of economic stability for the residents.[146]


Legacy

Despite its short history, fewer than 72 years, the events surrounding the founding and history of Plymouth Colony have had a lasting effect on the art, traditions, and mythology of the United States of America.


Art, literature and film

Front page of William Bradford's manuscript for Of Plimoth Plantation
Front page of William Bradford's manuscript for Of Plimoth Plantation

The earliest artistic depiction of the Pilgrims was actually done before their arrival in America—Dutch painter Adam Willaerts painted a portrait of their departure from Delfshaven in 1620.[147] The same scene was repainted by Robert Walter Weir in 1844, and hangs in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol building. Numerous other paintings have been created memorializing various scenes from the life of Plymouth Colony, including their landing and the "First Thanksgiving", many of which have been collected by Pilgrim Hall, a museum and historical society founded in 1824 to preserve the history of the Colony.[148] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (504x782, 151 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Of Plymouth Plantation ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (504x782, 151 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Of Plymouth Plantation ... Embarkation of the Pilgrims, Robert Weirs most well known work in the United States rotunda. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... The Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts is the oldest museum in the United States in continuous operation, having opened in 1824. ...


Several contemporary accounts of life in Plymouth Colony have become both vital primary historical documents and literary classics. Of Plimoth Plantation by William Bradford and Mourt's Relation by Bradford, Edward Winslow, and others are both accounts written by Mayflower passengers, accounts that provide much of the information we have today regarding the trans-Atlantic voyage and early years of the settlement. Benjamin Church wrote several accounts of King Philip's War, including Entertaining Passages Relating to Philip's War, which remained popular throughout the eighteenth century. An edition of the work was illustrated by Paul Revere in 1772. Another work, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God, provides an account of King Philip's War from the perspective of Mary Rowlandson, an Englishwoman who was captured and spent some time in the company of Native Americans during the war.[149] Later works, such as "The Courtship of Miles Standish" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, have provided a romantic and partially fictionalized account of life in Plymouth Colony.[150] The front page of the Bradford journal Written over a period of years by the leader of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. ... Mourts Relation was written primarily by Edward Winslow, although William Bradford appears to have written most of the first section. ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... Historical marker in Princeton, Massachusetts commemorating Mary Rowlandsons release Mary White Rowlandson (1636 – January 5, 1711) was a colonial American woman, who wrote a vivid description of the nearly three months she spent living with Native Americans. ... The Courtship of Miles Standish is an 1858 narrative poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow set in the early days of the Plymouth Colony. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members...


There are also numerous films about the Pilgrims, including the several versions of "The Courtship of Miles Standish",[151] the 1952 film Plymouth Adventure starring Spencer Tracy,[152] and the 2006 TV documentary, produced by the History Channel, "Desperate Crossings:The True Story of the Mayflower".[153] Plymouth Adventure is a motion picture drama released in 1952. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ...


Thanksgiving

Sarah Josepha Hale campaigned to establish the modern American Thanksgiving holiday.

Each year the United States celebrates a holiday known as Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November. It is a recognized federal holiday,[154] and frequently involves family gathering with a large feast, traditionally featuring a turkey. Civic recognition of the holiday typically include parades and football games. The holiday is meant to honor the "First Thanksgiving", which was a harvest feast held in Plymouth in 1621. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


The annual Thanksgiving holiday is a fairly recent creation. Throughout the early nineteenth century, the U.S. government had declared a particular day as a national day of Thanksgiving, but these were one-time declarations meant to celebrate a significant event, such as victory in a battle. The modern Thanksgiving holiday is largely the work of a single woman, Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of Boston's Ladies' Magazine. Beginning in 1827, she wrote editorials calling for a national, annual day of thanksgiving to commemorate the Pilgrim's first harvest feast. After nearly 40 years, in 1863, Abraham Lincoln declared the first modern Thanksgiving to fall on the last Thursday in November. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Congress ultimately moved it to the fourth Thursday in November. In 1941, the holiday was recognized by Congress as an official federal holiday.[155][156] Sarah Josepha Hale (October 24, 1788 - April 30, 1879) was an American writer. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Among the modern traditions to develop alongside of the Thanksgiving holiday include the National Football League's Thanksgiving Classic games and the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City. NFL redirects here. ... NFL Thanksgiving 2006 logo. ... “Macys Day Parade” redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Plymouth Rock

Main article: Plymouth Rock

One of the enduring symbols of the landing of the Pilgrims is Plymouth Rock, a large granite outcropping of rock that was near their landing site at Plymouth. However, none of the contemporary accounts of the actual landing makes any mention that the Rock was the specific place of landing. The Pilgrims chose the site for their landing not for the rock, but for a small brook nearby that was a source of fresh water and fish.[157] Plymouth Rock, described by some as the most disappointing landmark in America because of its small size and poor visitor access. ...


The first identification of Plymouth Rock as the actual landing site was in 1741 by 90-year-old Thomas Faunce, whose father had arrived in Plymouth in 1623, several years after the supposed event. The rock was later covered by a solid-fill pier. In 1774, an attempt was made to excavate the Rock, but it broke in two. The severed piece was placed in the Town Square at the center of Plymouth. In 1880, the intact half of the rock was excavated from the pier, and the broken piece was reattached to it. Over the years, souvenir hunters have removed chunks from the rock, but the remains are now protected as part of the complex of living museums. These include the Mayflower II, a recreation of the original ship, Plimoth Plantation, an historical recreation of the original 1620 settlement, and the Wampanoag Homesite, which recreates a 17th century Indian village.[158] The Mayflower II is a replica of the 17th century ship Mayflower, celebrated for transporting the Pilgrims to the New World. ... Categories: Stub | Living museums | Plymouth County, Massachusetts ...


The Mayflower Society

Main article: The Mayflower Society

The General Society of Mayflower Descendants, or The Mayflower Society, is a genealogical organization comprised of individuals who have documented their descent from one or more of the 102 passengers who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620. The Society was founded at Plymouth in 1897. The group claims that tens of millions of Americans can claim descent from these passengers. They offer research services to people seeking to establish family connections to the Mayflower passengers.[159] The Society of Mayflower Descendants is a hereditary organization comprised of individuals who have documented their descent from one or more of the 102 passengers who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620 at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts. ... This is a list of hereditary & lineage organizations. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


References

  • Addison, Albert Christopher (1911). The Romantic Story of the Mayflower Pilgrims. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
  • Deetz, James; Patricia Scott Deetz (2000). The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-3830-9. 
  • Demos, John (1970). A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-016836-6. 
  • Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-03760-5. 
  • Weinstein, Allen; David Rubel (2002). The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7894-8903-1. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Patricia Scott Deetz; James F. Deetz (2000). Passengers on the Mayflower: Ages & Occupations, Origins & Connections. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-19.
  2. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 7–13
  3. ^ Addison (1911), foreword "From a Pilgrim Cell", pp xiii–xiv
  4. ^ Addison (1911), pp 51
  5. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 16–18
  6. ^ Due to hardships experienced during the early years of the settlement, as well as corruption and mismanagement by their representatives, the debt was not actually paid off until 1648. Philbrick (2006), pp 19–20, 169
  7. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 20–23
  8. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 24–25
  9. ^ Addison (1911), pp 63
  10. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 27–28
  11. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 35–36
  12. ^ Croxton, Derek (1991). The Cabot Dilemma: John Cabot's 1497 Voyage & the Limits of Historiography. Essays in History. Corcoran Department of History at the University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  13. ^ Edney, Matthew H.. The Cartographic Creation of New England. Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  14. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 55–56
  15. ^ Popham Colony: The First English Colony in New England. www.pophamcolony.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  16. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 69–71
  17. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 46–48
  18. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 41
  19. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 55–77
  20. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 78–80
  21. ^ Johnson (1997), pp 37
  22. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 80–84
  23. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 88–91
  24. ^ Massasoit was specifically the sachem of a single tribe of Wampanoag Indians known as the Pokanoket, though he was recognized as the founder and leader of the entire confederation. Philbrick (2006), pp 93, 155
  25. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 93–94
  26. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 94–96
  27. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 52–53
  28. ^ West, Elliot. Squanto in Weinstein and Rubel (2002), pp 50–51
  29. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 97–99
  30. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 100–101
  31. ^ Addison (1911), pp 83–85
  32. ^ Patricia Scott Deetz; James F. Deetz (2000). Mayflower Passenger Deaths, 1620–1621. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  33. ^ Addison (1911), pp 83
  34. ^ Travers, Carolyn Freeman. Fast and Thanksgiving Days of Plymouth Colony. Plimoth Plantation: Living, Breathing History. Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  35. ^ Primary Sources for "The First Thanksgiving" at Plymouth. Pilgrim Hall Museum (1998). Retrieved on 2007-03-30. note: this reference contains partial transcriptions of two documents, Winslow's Mourt's Relations and Bradford's Of Plimoth Plantation, which describe the events of the First Thanksgiving
  36. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 102–103
  37. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 104–109
  38. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 110–113
  39. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 113–116
  40. ^ a b c d Deetz, Patricia Scott (2000). Population of Plymouth Town, County, and Colony, 1620–1690. Department of Anthropology, University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  41. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 151–154
  42. ^ a b c d e Philbrick (2006) pp 154–155
  43. ^ Winslow, Edward (1624). Chapter 5. Good Newes From New England. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  44. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 123–126, 134
  45. ^ Residents of Plymouth according to the 1627 Division of Cattle. Plimoth Plantation: Living, Breathing History. Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  46. ^ Leach, Douglas Edward (Sep., 1951). "The Military System of Plymouth Colony". The New England Quarterly 24 (3): pp. 342–364. DOI:10.2307/361908. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.  note: login required for access
  47. ^ Taylor, Norris (1998). The Massachusetts Bay Colony. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
  48. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 57–58, 71, 84, 90, 115, 128, 155
  49. ^ a b c Perspectives: The Pequot War. The Descendants of Henry Doude. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  50. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 180–181
  51. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 205
  52. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 207–208
  53. ^ a b c Aultman, Jennifer L. (2001). From Thanksgiving to War: Native Americans in Criminal Cases of Plymouth Colony, 1630–1675. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  54. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 221–223
  55. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 229–237
  56. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 288–289
  57. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 311–323
  58. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 331–337
  59. ^ a b Philbrick (2006) pp 332, 345–346
  60. ^ a b Timeline of Plymouth Colony 1620–1692. Plimoth Plantation (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  61. ^ Demos (1970), pp 17
  62. ^ Demos (1970), pp 17–18
  63. ^ Weinstein and Rubel (2002), pp 64–65
  64. ^ Demos (1970), foreword pp x.
  65. ^ a b c Demos (1970), pp 83–84
  66. ^ Demos (1970) pp 134–136
  67. ^ a b Maxwell, Richard Howland (2003). Pilgrim and Puritan: A Delicate Distinction. Pilgrim Society Note, Series Two. Pilgrim Hall Museum. Retrieved on 2003-04-04.
  68. ^ Demos (1970), pp 8
  69. ^ a b c d e f Fennell, Christopher (1998). Plymouth Colony Legal Structure. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  70. ^ a b Demos 1970, pp 104–106, 140
  71. ^ Demos (1970), pp 8–9
  72. ^ Demos (1970), pp 132
  73. ^ a b Philbrick (2006), pp 104
  74. ^ Deetz and Deetz, pp 87–100 and endnotes
  75. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 92–98 and endnotes
  76. ^ Demos (1970), pp 151
  77. ^ Demos (1970), pp 66. Demos names the following figures for life expectancy: For males that reached 21 years old, they lived to an average age of 70; for women who reached this age the life expectancy was 63.
  78. ^ a b Demos (1970), pp 82–99
  79. ^ Demos (1970), pp 66. Historian John Demos quotes a 1667 contract between John Phillips and Faith Doty which states "The said Faith Doty is to enjoy all of her house and land, goods and cattles, that shee [sic] is now possessed of, to her owne [sic] proper use, to dispose of them att [sic] her owne [sic] free will..."
  80. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 99–100
  81. ^ Whipps, Heather (September 21, 2006). Census: U.S. household size shrinking. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. A study reported by MSNBC found that the modern American household consisted of 2.6 people. Demos (1970), pp 192 cites that by the third generation, the average family had 9.3 births, with 7.9 children living until adulthood. Since most families had two parents, this would extrapolate to an average of 10 people under one roof.
  82. ^ Demos (1970), 64–69
  83. ^ Travers, Carolyn Freeman (2007). Common Myths: Dead at Forty. Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  84. ^ Demos (1970), pp 62–81
  85. ^ a b Demos (1970), pp 141
  86. ^ Demos (1970), pp 71–75
  87. ^ Demos (1970), pp 146
  88. ^ Demos (1970), pp 147–149
  89. ^ Demos (1970), pp 142–143
  90. ^ Demos (1970), pp 144
  91. ^ Demos (1970), pp 104
  92. ^ Demos (1970), pp 148
  93. ^ Governors of Plymouth Colony. Pilgrim Hall Museum (1998). Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  94. ^ Demos (1970), pp 7
  95. ^ Demos (1970), pp 10
  96. ^ Demos (1970), pp 14
  97. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 214–215
  98. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 133 cite the first eight examples (treason-adultery), Demos (1970) pp 100 mentions the last
  99. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 135
  100. ^ Demos (1970) pp 102. Bumpus's actual sentence was to be "whipt att the post", with the note that "hee was crasey brained, ortherwise hee had bine put to death."
  101. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 223
  102. ^ Johnson (1997), pp 53
  103. ^ Demos (1970), pp 96–98
  104. ^ Deetz and Deetz(2000), pp 143
  105. ^ a b Galle, Lillian (2000). Servants and Masters in the Plymouth Colony. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  106. ^ Martucci, David (1997). The Flag of New England. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  107. ^ Payne, Morse (2006). The Survey System of the Old Colony. Slade and Associates. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  108. ^ The Border is Where? Part II. The Rhode Islander: A depository of opinion, information, and pictures of the Ocean State. blogspot.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  109. ^ a b Town of Bristol. EDC Profile. Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  110. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), endnotes, lists twenty towns as part of Plymouth Colony. In addition to the ones listed here, the towns of Edgartown and Tisbury on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket on its namesake island are included. However, several other sources, including the 1890 Massachusetts Gazeteer used here, note that Martha's Vineyard (Dukes County) and Nantucket Island (Nantucket County) were part of the Colony of New York prior to the Dominion, and were not formally annexed until the 1691 charter that ended Plymouth Colony as an independent entity. Some towns north of the "Old Colony Line", such as Hull, Wessagussett and Hingham may have been founded by Plymouth settlers or were temporarily administered as part of Plymouth Colony before the boundary with Massachusetts was established in 1644.
  111. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Barnstable County Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  112. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Barnstable Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  113. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Eastham Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  114. ^ Deyo, Simeon L. (1890). Chapter XX. History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. republished in 2006 online by CapeCodHistory.us. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  115. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Sandwich Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  116. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Yarmouth Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  117. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Bristol County Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  118. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Taunton Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  119. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Dartmouth Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  120. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Freetown Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  121. ^ The Little Compton Historical Society Home Page. The Little Compton Historical Society (2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  122. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Rehoboth Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  123. ^ Rochester (MA) Town History. Town of Rochester, Massachusetts (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  124. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Swansey Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. note: some confusion exists over the correct spelling of Swansea. The modern spelling is used here.
  125. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Plymouth County Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  126. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Plymouth Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  127. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Bridgewater Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  128. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Duxbury Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  129. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Marshfield Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  130. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Middleborough Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  131. ^ Nason, Elias (1890). Scituate Massachusetts, 1890. Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  132. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 14
  133. ^ Cline, Duane A. (2006). The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony: 1620. Rootsweb. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  134. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 21–23
  135. ^ Demos (1970), pp 6
  136. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 128, 151–154
  137. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 14 and endnotes
  138. ^ Demos, pp 110–111, also see Demos's footnote #10 on pp 110
  139. ^ a b Demos (1970), Appendices, pp 192–194
  140. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 136
  141. ^ Philbrick (2006), pp 199–200
  142. ^ Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp 77–78. The first mention of cattle occurs with the arrival of "three heifers and a bull" in 1624, but there is some doubt as to whether this was the first cattle in the colony.
  143. ^ Chartier, Charles S.. Livestock in Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  144. ^ Johnson (1997), pp 37
  145. ^ Johnson (1997), pp 36–37
  146. ^ Demos (1970) pp. 52–53
  147. ^ Philbrick 2006, pg 22
  148. ^ History Paintings. Pilgrim Hall (1998). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  149. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 75, 288, 357–358
  150. ^ Philbrick (2006) pp 354
  151. ^ IMDB search: Miles Standish. IMDB. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  152. ^ Plymouth Adventure (1952). IMDB. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  153. ^ The Mayflower (2006). IMDB. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  154. ^ 2007 Federal Holidays. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edgartown is a town located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts. ... The Lighthouse of Tisbury (West Chop Light) in 1891 Northern view of Holmes Hole, East Tisbury, 1841 Tisbury is a town located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Nantucket County Settled 1641 Incorporated 1671 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  105. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Dukes County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Hull is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David M. Madden (D) Area  - City  21. ... Hingham is a town in Plymouth County on the South Shore of Massachusetts. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... Plantation was an early method of colonization in which settlers were planted abroad in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Research Starters: Plymouth Colony (962 words)
Plymouth Colony, America's first permanent Puritan settlement, was established by English Separatist Puritans in December 1620.
The colony gradually grew in size, and the original settlement known as the Plimoth Plantation expanded as settlers built houses in the area.
Plymouth Colony retained its independence for over 70 years, and by 1691 its population exceeded 7,000.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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