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Encyclopedia > Plutocracy
Forms of government

This series is part of
the Politics series A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...

List of forms of government This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. ...

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A plutocracy is a form of government where the state's power is centralized in an affluent social class. The degree of economic inequality is high while the level of social mobility is low. This can apply to a multitude of government systems, as the key elements of plutocracy transcend and often occur concurrently with the features of those systems. The word plutocracy itself is derived from the ancient Greek root ploutos, meaning wealth and kratein, meaning to rule or to govern.-1... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Despotism is a form of government by a single authority, either a single person (ie. ... A dictatorship is a autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, or political influence). ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... States in which a single party is constitutionally linked to power are coloured in brown. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... Social mobility or intergenerational mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of his or her life, or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system. ...

Contents

Usage

The term plutocracy is generally used to describe two distinct concepts: a historical term and a modern political term.


Historical

Traditionally, plutocracy is the political control of the state by an oligarchy of the wealthy. Examples of such plutocracies include some city-states in Ancient Greece and the Italian merchant republics of Venice, Florence, and Genoa. Plutocracies typically emerge as one of the first governing systems within a territory after a period of anomie.[citation needed] Aristocracies are an example of plutocracies that typically develop early in the history of a nation state. Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, or political influence). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... Florences skyline Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... For the band, see Anomie (band) Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... -1... A nation-state is a specific form of state (a political entity), which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ...


Kevin Phillips, author and political stategist to U.S. President Richard Nixon, argues that the United States is a plutocracy in which there has been "the fusion of money and government." [1] There are several people called Kevin Phillips: Kevin Phillips, political commentator and writer Kevin Phillips, England and Southampton football player This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1969 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Before the equal voting rights movement managed to end it in the early 20th century, many countries used a system where rich persons had more votes than poor. A factory owner may for instance have had 2000 votes while a worker had one, or if they were very poor no right to vote at all. Even artificial persons such as companies had voting rights. However, it would take until 1945 before persons living on welfare and persons in personal bankruptcy would get voting rights.[2][3]


Modern Political

The second usage of plutocracy is a pejorative reference to the great and undue influence (both positive and negative) the wealthy have on the political process in contemporary society. Positive influence includes campaign contributions and bribes; negative influence includes refusing to support the government financially by refusing to pay taxes, threatening to move profitable industries elsewhere, and so on. It can also be exerted by the owners and ad buyers of media properties which can shape public perception of political issues. Recent examples include Rupert Murdoch's News Corp's alleged political agendas in Australia, the UK[4] and the United States or George Soros' efforts to back left-leaning PACs (political action committees) and the oil industry oligarchy which may back right-leaning PACs. A word or phrase is pejorative if it implies contempt or disapproval. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG, (commonly known as Rupert Murdoch) (born 11 March 1931) is a businessman and media magnate, most known for being the owner of News Corporation. ... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: NWS, LSE: NCRA) is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ... George Soros George Soros (pronounced ) (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is a Jewish-American financial speculator, stock investor, and liberal political activist. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, or political influence). ...


Recently, there have been numerous cases of wealthy individuals and organizations exerting financial pressure on governments to pass favorable legislation. (see: Lobbying) Most western democracies permit partisan organizations to raise funds for politicians, and it is well-known that political parties frequently accept significant donations from various individuals (either directly or through corporate institutions). Ostensibly this should have no effect on the legislative decisions of elected representatives; however it would be unlikely that no politicians are influenced by these contributions. The more cynical might describe these donations as bribes, although legally they are not. In the United States, campaign finance reform efforts seek to ameliorate this situation. However, campaign finance reform must successfully challenge officials who are beneficiaries of the system which allows this dynamic in the first place. This has led many reform advocates to suggest taxpayer dollars be used to replace private campaign contributions, these reforms are often called clean money, clean elections reform as opposed to simply campaign finance reform which does not adress the conflict of interest involved where most or all of the campaign money is from private, often for-profit sources. It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... Clean Elections, also called Clean Money is a term given by its proponents to describe a system of public financing of political campaigns (a form of campaign finance reform), which is currently being advocated and implemented on the state level in the United States. ...


External links

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See also

Look up Plutocracy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Forms and Styles of Leadership: see also Form of government

Anarchy | Democracy | Geniocracy | Gerontocracy | Meritocracy | Matriarchy | Ochlocracy | Panarchism | Patriarchy | Plutocracy | Theocracy | Technocracy Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Corporate abuse refers to incidents that involve unethical behavior on behalf of a corporation; a case of corporate abuse may be a scandal, fraud, or negligence toward the corporations employees and/or the local community. ... A Corporate police state is a pejorative term for the kind of transnational system of government that transcends geographic boundaries to regulate the conduct of employees, outsource contractors and markets, via a form of business practices known as vertical integration. ... This box:  • • Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... Corporatocracy (sometimes corporocracy) is a neologism coined by proponents of the Global Justice Movement to describe a government bowing to pressure from corporate entities. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, or political influence). ... A special interest is a person or political organization established to influence governmental policy or legislators in a specific area of policy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Leadership in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... Anarchism is the name of a political philosophy or a group of doctrines and attitudes that are centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (such as the state)[1] and support its elimination. ... Geniocracy is a system of government proposed by the Raëlian movement, that is designed to select for intelligence. ... A gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by a small clique of leaders, in which the oldest hold the most power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Matriarchy is a form of society in which power is with the women and especially with the mothers of a community. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... Panarchism is a political philosophy advocating the peaceful co-existence of all political systems, where each individual may voluntarily adhere to the system of their choice, free to join and leave the jurisdiction of the governments he sees fit. ... Patriarchy (from Greek: pater (genitive form patris, showing the root patr-), meaning father and arché meaning rule) is the anthropological term used to define the sociological condition where male members of a society tend to predominate in positions of power; with the more powerful the position, the more likely it... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Technocracy (techno for technology and cracy for power) is an organizational system in which decision makers and political leaders are selected on the basis of technological knowledge —often because of some conflict or competition where technological escalation is a constant feature. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plutocracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (583 words)
A plutocracy is a form of government where all the state's decisions are centralized in an affluent wealthy class of citizenry, and the degree of economic inequality is high while the level of social mobility is low.
Plutocracies typically emerge as one of the first governing systems within a territory after a period of anomie.
Plutocracy is closely related to aristocracy as a form of government, since wealth and high social status have been closely associated throughout history.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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