FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Plutarch" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Plutarch
Plutarch
Mestrius Plutarchus
Πλούταρχος

Parallel Lives, Amyot translation, 1565
Born: Circa 46 AD
Chaeronea, Boeotia
Died: Circa 127 AD
Delphi, Phocis
Occupation: Biographer, essayist, priest, ambassador, magistrate
Nationality: Flag of Greece Ancient Greek
Subjects: Biography, various
Literary movement: Middle Platonism,
Hellenistic literature
Debut works: Essay: Moralia
Biography: Lives
Several works misattributed; see Pseudo-Plutarch

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; c. 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist.[1] Plutarch was born to a prominent family in Chaeronea, Boeotia [Greece], a town about twenty miles east of Delphi. His oeuvre consists of the Parallel Lives and the Moralia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (807x870, 49 KB)Plutarch File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... Boeotia (Greek: Βοιωτία -Voiotía, also Viotia) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðeÌžlˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An essay is a short work of writing that treats a topic from an authors personal point of view. ... . ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century and the rise of Alexander the Great. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðeÌžlˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. Some composers musical pieces are identified by opus numbers which generally run either in order of composition or in order of publication. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On...

Contents

Early life, education and family

Ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, where Plutarch served as one of the priests responsible for interpreting the predictions of the oracle.
Ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, where Plutarch served as one of the priests responsible for interpreting the predictions of the oracle.

Born in 46 AD[a] in the small town of Chaeronea, in the Greek region known as Boeotia. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but it was probably Nikarchus, from the common habit of Greek families to repeat a name in alternate generations. His family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias as he attested in Moralia[2]. His brothers Timon and Lamprias are frequently mentioned in his essays and dialogues, where Timon is spoken of in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, Timoxena, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not give way to excessive grief at the death of their two year old daughter, who was named Timoxena after her mother. Interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Aegeus, a mythical king of Athens, consults the Pythia, who sits on a tripod. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Joannes Rualdus, was a Frenchman who compiled a Life of Plutarchus which was prefixed to the Paris Edition of 1624, in two volumes folio, of Plutarchs works. ...


The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them, Autobulus and second Plutarch, are often mentioned. Plutarch's treatise on the Timaeus of Plato is dedicated to them, and the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner-parties recorded in the 'Table Talk.' Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. His treatise on Marriage Questions, addressed to Eurydike and Pollianus, seems to speak of her as having been recently an inmate of his house, but without enabling us to form an opinion whether she was his daughter or not.[3]


Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67.[4]. He had a number of influential friends, including Soscius Senecio and Fundanus, both important senators, to whom some of his later writings were dedicated.[citation needed] Plutarch travelled widely in the Mediterranean world, including central Greece, Sparta, Corinth, Patrae (Patras), Sardes, Alexandria, and two trips to Rome[b]. Ammonius of Athen was a Platonist philosopher, 1st century AD, teacher of Plutarch of Chaeronea. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...

"The soul, being eternal, after death is like a caged bird that has been released. If it has been a long time in the body, and has become tame by many affairs and long habit, the soul will immediately take another body and once again become involved in the troubles of the world. The worst thing about old age is that the soul's memory of the other world grows dim, while at the same time its attachment to things of this world becomes so strong that the soul tends to retain the form that it had in the body. But that soul which remains only a short time within a body, until liberated by the higher powers, quickly recovers its fire and goes on to higher things."
Plutarch (The Consolation, Moralia)

He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. However, his duties as the senior of the two priests of Apollo at the Oracle of Delphi (where he was responsible for interpreting the auguries of the Pythia) apparently occupied little of his time. He led an active social and civic life and produced an incredible body of writing, much of which is still extant. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Aegeus, a mythical king of Athens, consults the Pythia, who sits on a tripod. ... Aegeus, a mythical king of Athens, consults the Pythia, who sits on a tripod. ...


Work as magistrate and ambassador

In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was also a magistrate in Chaeronea and he represented his home on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. His friend Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman consul, sponsored Plutarch as a Roman citizen and, according to the 10th century historian George Syncellus, late in life, the Emperor Hadrian appointed him procurator of Achaea – a position that entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul himself.[citation needed] Consul (abbrev. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... George Syncellus (died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, apart of Stoic and Epicurean philosopher, he was a Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... The Roman Empire in 120, with the province of Achaea highlighted. ...


Plutarch held the office of Archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once. He busied himself with all the little matters of the town and undertook the humblest of duties.[5]


The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Hadrian's predecessor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, but most historians consider that unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian[citation needed]. Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Template:Infobox boobies the Roman emperor This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ... The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by ethnic groups identified as Illyrians: Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrioi, Autariates, Taulanti (see List of Illyrian tribes). ...


Plutarch died between the years 119 AD and 127 AD.[c]


Parallel Lives

A page from the 1470 Ulrich Han printing of Plutarch's Parallel Lives.
A page from the 1470 Ulrich Han printing of Plutarch's Parallel Lives.
Main article: Parallel Lives

His best-known work is the Parallel Lives, a series of biographies of famous Greeks and Romans, arranged as dyads to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. The surviving Lives contain twenty-three pairs of biographies, each pair containing one Greek Life and one Roman Life, as well as four unpaired single Lives. As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence of character — good or bad — on the lives and destinies of famous men. Some of the more interesting Lives — for instance, those of Heracles and Philip II of Macedon — no longer exist, and many of the remaining Lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae, or have been tampered with by later writers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (549 × 805 pixel, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plutarch ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (549 × 805 pixel, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plutarch ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... A lacuna is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work. ...


Life of Alexander

Plutarch's Life of Alexander is one of the five surviving tertiary sources about the Macedonian conqueror, Alexander the Great, and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source.[citation needed] Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, also contains unique information about the early Roman calendar.[citation needed] Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ...


Life of Pyrrhus

Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus is a key text because it is the main historical account on Roman history for the period from 293 to 264 BC, for which neither Dionysius nor Livy have surviving texts.[6] Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Criticism of Parallel Lives

"It is not histories I am writing, but lives; and in the most glorious deeds there is not always an indication of virtue of vice, indeed a small thing like a phrase or a jest often makes a greater revelation of a character than battles where thousands die."
Plutarch (Life of Alexander/Life of Julius Caesar, Parallel Lives, [tr. E.L. Bowie])

Plutarch stretches and occasionally fabricates the similarities between famous Greeks and Romans in order to write their biographies as parallels. For instance, the lives of Nicias and Crassus have nothing in common except that both men were rich and both suffered a great military defeat at the ends of their lives.[7]


In Life of Pompey, Plutarch praises Pompey's trustworthy character and tactful behavior in order to conjure up a moral judgment that goes against most historical accounts. Plutarch delivers anecdotes with a moral points, rather than in-depth comparative analyses of the causes of the fall of the Achaemenid Empire and the Roman Republic.[8] The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In defense of Plutarch, he generally sums up all his moral anecdotes in a chronological sequence unlike his Roman contemporary Suetonius.[8] Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


Moralia

A bust of the early Greek historian Herodotus, whom Plutarch criticized in On the Malice of Herodotus.
A bust of the early Greek historian Herodotus, whom Plutarch criticized in On the Malice of Herodotus.
Main article: Moralia

The remainder of Plutarch's surviving work is collected under the title of the Moralia (loosely translated as Customs and Mores). It is an eclectic collection of seventy-eight essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On Fraternal Affection - a discourse on honor and affection of siblings toward each other, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great - an important adjunct to his Life of the great king, On the Worship of Isis and Osiris (a crucial source of information on Egyptian religious rites)[9], along with more philosophical treatises, such as On the Decline of the Oracles, On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance, On Peace of Mind and lighter fare, such as Odysseus and Gryllus, a humorous dialogue between Homer's Ulysses and one of Circe's enchanted pigs. The Moralia was composed first, while writing the Lives occupied much of the last two decades of Plutarch's own life. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1490 × 1990 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1490 × 1990 pixel, file size: 1. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess. ... Typical depiction of Osiris Osiris (Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, Wesir, or Ausare) is the Egyptian god of life, death, and fertility. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseys; Latin: Ulixes or, less commonly, Ulysses), pronounced /oʊˈdɪs. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ...


On the malice of Herodotus

In On the malice of Herodotus Plutarch criticizes the historian Herodotus for all manner of prejudice and misrepresentation. It has been called the “first instance in literature of the slashing review.”[10] The 19th century English historian George Grote considered this essay a serious attack upon the works of Herodotus, and speaks of the "honourable frankness which Plutarch calls his malignity."[11] Plutarch makes some palpable hits, catching Herodotus out in various errors, but it is also probable that it was merely a rhetorical exercise, in which Plutarch plays devil's advocate to see what could be said against so favourite and well-known a writer.[3] According to Plutarch scholar R. H. Barrow, Herodotus’ real failing in Plutarch’s eyes was to advance any criticism at all of those states that saved Greece from Persia. “Plutarch,” he concluded, “is fanatically biased in favor of the Greek cities; they can do no wrong.”[12] George Grote George Grote (November 17, 1794 - June 18, 1871) was an English classical historian. ...


Isis and Osiris

"On the Worship of Isis and Osiris" is a crucial source of information on Egyptian religious rites[13]. This article discusses the ancient goddess. ... Typical depiction of Osiris Osiris (Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, Wesir, or Ausare) is the Egyptian god of life, death, and fertility. ...


===Questions===


A pair of interesting minor works in Book IV of the Moralia is the Roman and Greek Questions. The customs of Romans and Greeks are illuminated in little essays that pose questions such as 'Why were patricians not permitted to live on the Capitoline?' (no. 91) and then answers them.[14]


Pseudo-Plutarch

Main article: Pseudo-Plutarch

Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. Some editions of the Moralia include several works now known to be pseudepigrapha: among these are the Lives of the Ten Orators (biographies of the Ten Orators of ancient Athens, based on Caecilius of Calacte), The Doctrines of the Philosophers, and On Music. One "pseudo-Plutarch" is held responsible for all of these works, though their authorship is of course unknown.[citation needed] The thoughts and opinions recorded are not Plutarch's and come from a slightly later era, though they are all classical in origin and have value to the historian. Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ... The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th century BC–4th century BC). ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Caecilius, of Calacte in Sicily, Greek rhetorician, flourished at Rome during the reign of Augustus. ... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ...


Lost works

The Romans loved the Lives, and enough copies were written out over the centuries so that a copy of most of the lives managed to survive to the present day. Some scholars, however, believe that only a third to one-half of Plutarch’s corpus is extant. The lost works of Plutarch are determined by references in his own texts to them and from other authors references over time. There are traces of twelve more Lives that are now lost.[15] A lost work is a literary work produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist. ...


Plutarch's general procedure for the Lives was to write the life of a prominent Greek, then cast about for a suitable Roman parallel, and end with a brief comparison of the Greek and Roman lives. Currently, only nineteen of the parallel lives end with a comparison while possibly they all did at one time. Also missing are many of his Lives which appear in a list of his writings, those of Hercules[citation needed], the first pair of Parallel Lives, Scipio Africanus and Epaminondas, and the companions to the four solo biographies. Even the lives of such important figures as Augustus, Claudius, and Nero have not been found and may be lost forever.[16][10]


Plutarch's influence

Plutarch's writings had enormous influence on English and French literature. In his plays, Shakespeare paraphrased parts of Thomas North's translation of selected Lives, and occasionally quoted from them verbatim. The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ...


Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Transcendentalists were greatly influenced by the Moralia so much that Emerson called the Lives "a bible for heroes" in his glowing introduction to the five volume 19th century edition of his Moralia.[17] Emerson also wrote that "We cannot read Plutarch without a tingling of the blood; and I accept the saying of the Chinese Mencius: 'A sage is the instructor of a hundred ages. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined.' "[18] Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ...


Montaigne's own Essays draw deeply on Plutarch's Moralia and are consciously modeled on the Greek’s easygoing, discursive inquiries into science, manners, customs, and beliefs. His essays contain more than four-hundred references to Plutarch and his works.[10] Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (IPA pronunciation: []) (February 28, 1533 – September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ...


James Boswell quoted Plutarch's line about writing lives, rather than biographies in the introduction to his own Life of Samuel Johnson. His other admirers include Ben Jonson, John Dryden, Alexander Hamilton, John Milton, and Sir Francis Bacon, as well as such disparate figures as Cotton Mather and Robert Browning. James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 - April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. ... Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728). ... Image:Nishon- Project Gutenberg eText 13103. ...


Plutarch's direct influence declined in the 19th and 20th centuries, though his influence remains embedded in the popular ideas of Greek and Roman history.[19]


Translations of Lives and Moralia

There are translations in English, French, Italian and German.[citation needed]


French Translations

Jacques Amyot's translations brought Plutarch's works to Western Europe. He went to Italy and studied the Vatican text of Plutarch, from which he published a French translation of the Lives in 1559 and Moralia in 1572, which were widely read by educated Europe.[20] Amyot's translations had as deep an impression in England as France, because Thomas North later published his English translation of the Lives in 1579 based on Amyot’s French translation instead of the original Greek.


English Translations

Plutarch's Lives were translated into English, from Amyot's version, by Sir Thomas North in 1579. The complete Moralia was first translated into English from the original Greek by Philemon Holland (q.v.) in 1603.


In 1683, John Dryden began a life of Plutarch and oversaw a translation of the Lives by several hands and based on the original Greek. This translation has been reworked and revised several times, most recently in the nineteenth century by the English poet and classicist Arthur Hugh Clough.


Latin Translations

There is one translation of Parallel Lives into Latin, titled "Pour le Dauphin" (French for "for the Prince") written by a scribe in the court of Louis XV of France. Louis XV is said to have commissioned the translation because he wanted his grandson, Louis XVI, to learn the successes and failings of the famous classical leaders, but thought that Greek was not as useful as Latin.


See also

Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ...

Notes

a. ^  Plutarch's date of birth probably occurred during the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius and between 45 AD and 50 AD, though the exact date is debated.[3][citation needed] For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...


b. ^  Plutarch was once believed to have spent 40 years in Rome, but it is currently thought that he traveled to Rome once or twice for a short period.[citation needed]


c. ^  Plutarch died between the years 119 AD and 127 AD.[citation needed]

Citations

  1. ^ "Plutarch". Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. 
  2. ^ Symposiacs, Book IX, questions II & III
  3. ^ a b c Aubrey Stewart, George Long. "Life of Plutarch", Plutarch's Lives, Volume I (of 4). The Gutenberg Project. Retrieved on 2007-01-03. 
  4. ^ Plutarch Bio(46c.-125). The Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  5. ^ Clough, Arthur Hugh [1864]. "Introduction", Plutarch's Lives. Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics. 
  6. ^ Cornell, T.J. (1995). "Introduction", The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). Routledge, p.3. 
  7. ^ Plutarch (1972). "Translator's Introduction", Fall Of The Roman Republic: Six Lives by Plutarch, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, p.8. 
  8. ^ a b Livius.Org Plutarch of Chaeronea. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  9. ^ Plutarch; translated by Frank Cole Babbitt. Isis and Osiris. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  10. ^ a b c Kimball, Roger. Plutarch & the issue of character. The New Criterion Online. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  11. ^ Grote, George [1830] (2000-10-19). A History of Greece: From the Time of Solon to 403 B.C.. Routledge, p.203. 
  12. ^ Barrow, R.H. [1967] (1979). Plutarch and His Times. 
  13. ^ "On the worship of Isis and Osiris", [2]
  14. ^ Cornell, T.J. (1995). "Introduction", The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). Routledge, p.22. 
  15. ^ [1914] "Translator's Introduction", The Parallel Lives, Vol. I, Loeb Classical Library Edition. 
  16. ^ McCutchen, Wilmot H.. Plutarch - His Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  17. ^ Emerson, Ralph Waldo [1870]. "Introduction", in William W. Goodwin: Plutarch's Morals. London: Sampson, Low, p.xxi. 
  18. ^ Emerson, Ralph Waldo [1850]. "Uses of Great Men", Representative Men. 
  19. ^ Plutarch Biography.
  20. ^ "Amyot, Jacques (1513-1593)". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910-1911). 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ...

References

  • Blackburn, Simon (1994). Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Russell, D.A. [1972] (2001). Plutarch. Duckworth Publishing. ISBN 978-1853996207. 
  • Duff, Tim (2005). Plutarch's Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199252749. 
  • Hamilton, Edith [1957]. The Echo of Greece. W. W. Norton & Company, p.194. ISBN 0-393-00231-4. 

External links

Plutarch's works online

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Secondary material

The Works of Plutarch
The Works Parallel Lives | The Moralia | Pseudo-Plutarch
The Lives

Alcibiades and Coriolanus1Alexander the Great and Julius CaesarAratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1Demetrius and Antony1Demosthenes and Cicero1Dion and Brutus1Fabius and Pericles1Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1Numa and Lycurgus1Pelopidas and Marcellus1Philopoemen and Flamininus1Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1Poplicola and Solon1Pyrrhus and Gaius MariusRomulus and Theseus1Sertorius and Eumenes1
Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1Themistocles and Camillus
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and integrated Sicyon into the Achaean League, which was led by him to his maximum extent. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Nicias expeditions, before the Sicilian campaign. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in UK English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse. ... Art work over an ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Catō UticÄ“nsis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-132 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

The Translators John Dryden | Thomas North | Jacques Amyot | Philemon Holland | Arthur Hugh Clough
view  talk  edit

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...

Persondata
NAME Plutarch
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Mestrius Plutarchus; Πλούταρχος (Greek)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Greek writer- historian and essayist
DATE OF BIRTH c. 46
PLACE OF BIRTH Chaeronea, Boeotia
DATE OF DEATH 127
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plutarch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (927 words)
His friend Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman consul, sponsored Plutarch as a Roman citizen and, according to the 10th century historian George Syncellus, late in life, the Emperor Hadrian appointed him procurator of Achaea - a position that entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul himself.
As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence of character — good or bad — on the lives and destinies of famous men.
A biography of Plutarch is included in: Free eBook of Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans at Project Gutenberg, 18th century English translation under the editorship of Dryden (further edited by Arthur Hugh Clough).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m