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Encyclopedia > Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell
Note that some complexity is omitted from the diagram. Lymphocytes come from "Lymphoid" line, while granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and erythrocytes come from "Myeloid" line. Among myeloid cells, granulocytes and monocytes have a common precursor, "CFU-GM".
Note that some complexity is omitted from the diagram. Lymphocytes come from "Lymphoid" line, while granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and erythrocytes come from "Myeloid" line. Among myeloid cells, granulocytes and monocytes have a common precursor, "CFU-GM".

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. HSC are the precursor cells which give rise to all the types of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. This includes monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, microglia, erythrocytes (red blood cells), megakaryocytes (e.g. platelets), and dendritic cells. As stem cells, they are defined by their ability to form multiple cell types (multipotency) and their ability to self-renew. Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_blood_cell_lineage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_blood_cell_lineage. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. ... MONOCYTES: Plural of monocyte. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when cytoplasm processes become fragmented. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. ... MONOCYTES: Plural of monocyte. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... MONOCYTES: Plural of monocyte. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Natural killer cells (NK) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of nonspecific immune defense. ... Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when cytoplasm processes become fragmented. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ...


Multipotency: Individual HSC have the ability to give rise to any of the end-stage blood cell types. During differentiation, daughter cells derived from HSC undertake a series of commitment decisions to one or the other lineages. Intermediate cells become progressively more restricted in their lineage potential, until eventually lineage-committed end stage cells are generated.


Self-Renewal: Some kinds of stem cells are thought to undertake asymmetric cell division, generating one daughter cell that remains a stem cell and one daughter cell that differentiates. For Hematopoietic Stem Cells, however, whether asymmetric cell division occurs during self-renewal is not known with certainty. It is instead possible that hematopoiesis occurs via symmetrical divisions, that sometimes give rise to two daughter HSC, and that at other times give rise to progeny that are committed to differentiate. The balance between self-renewal versus differentiation would therefore be regulated by the control of these two kinds of symmetrical cell division.


It is known that a small number of HSC can expand to generate a very large number of progeny HSC. This phenomenon is used in bone marrow transplant when a small number of HSC reconstitute the hematopoietic system. This indicates that at least during bone marrow transplant, symmetrical cell divisions that give two progeny HSC must occur, as expansion in HSC numbers seen during bone marrow transplant cannot occur in any other way. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ...


Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. There is much interest in the environmental and molecular requirements for HSC self-renewal, as understanding the ability of HSC to replenish themselves will eventually allow the generation of expanded populations of HSC ex vivo that can be used therapeutically.

Contents

Source

Sketch of bone marrow and its cells
Sketch of bone marrow and its cells

HSC are found in the bone marrow of adults, which includes femurs, hip, ribs, sternum, and other bones. Cells can be obtained directly by removal from the hip using a needle and syringe, or from the blood following pre-treatment with cytokines, such as G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factors), that induce cells to be released from the bone marrow compartment. Other sources for clinical and scientific use include umbilical cord blood and placenta. For scientific purposes, fetal liver of animals is an occasional source. Image File history File links Gray72. ... Image File history File links Gray72. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the human body. ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ... The sternum or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... Cytokines is a group of proteinaceous signalling compounds that like hormones and neurotransmitters are used extensively for inter-cell communication. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ...


Colony-forming units

There are various kinds of colony-forming units: In microbiology, colony-forming unit (CFU) is a measure of viable bacterial numbers. ...

A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ...

Markers

Multipotent hematopoeitic stem cells present various cluster of differentiation markers on their surface: CD34+/- , CD38-, CD90+, CD133+, Lin-, Thy1+, CD105+, CD45+ The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Nomenclature

Between 1948 and 1950, the Committee for Clarification of the Nomenclature of Cells and Diseases of the Blood and Blood-forming Organs issued reports on the nomenclature of blood cells.[1][2] An overview of the terminology is shown below, from earliest to final stage of development:

  • [root]blast
  • pro[root]cyte
  • [root]cyte
  • meta[root]cyte
  • mature cell name

The root for CFU-E is "rubri", for CFU-GM is "granulo" or "myelo" and "mono", for CFU-L is "lympho" and for CFU-Me is "megakaryo". According to this terminology, the stages of red blood cell formation would be: rubriblast, prorubricyte, rubricyte, metarubricyte and finally erythrocyte. However, the following nomenclature seems to be, at present, the most prevalent:

Committee "lympho" "rubri" "granulo" or "myelo" "mono" "megakaryo"
Lineage Lymphoid Myeloid Myeloid Myeloid Myeloid
CFU CFU-L CFU-E CFU-GM CFU-GM CFU-Me
Process lymphocytopoiesis erythropoiesis granulocytopoiesis monocytopoiesis thrombocytopoiesis
[root]blast Lymphoblast Proerythroblast Myeloblast Monoblast Megakaryoblast
pro[root]cyte Prolymphocyte Polychromatophilic erythrocyte Promyelocyte Promonocyte Promegakaryocyte
[root]cyte - Normoblast Eosino/neutro/basophilic myelocyte Megakaryocyte
meta[root]cyte Large lymphocyte Reticulocyte Eosinophilic/neutrophilic/basophilic metamyelocyte, Eosinophilic/neutrophilic/basophilic band cell Early monocyte -
mature cell name Small lymphocyte Erythrocyte granulocytes (Eosino/neutro/basophil) Monocyte thrombocytes (Platelets)

Osteoclasts also arise from haemopoietic cells of the monocyte/neutrophil lineage, specifically CFU-GM. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... Lymphopoiesis refers to the generation of lymphocytes, or lymphoid hematopoiesis. ... Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ... Granulopoiesis (or granulocytopoiesis) is hematopoiesis of granulocytes. ... Lymphoblasts are interferons produced predominantly by leucocyte cells. ... Proerythroblast A proerythroblast (or rubriblast, or pronormoblast) is the earliest of four stages in development of the normoblast. ... Myeloblasts or blasts are new, immature blood cells developed in the bone marrow that are the precursors of myelocytes. ... Monoblast Monoblasts are normally found in bone marrow and do not appear in the normal peripheral blood. ... A megakaryoblast is a precursor cell to a promegakaryocyte, which in turn becomes a megakaryocyte. ... Prolymphocyte Found during lymphocytopoiesis, a prolymphocyte is the immediate precursor of a lymphocyte, derived from a lymphoblast. ... Proerythroblast Basophilic normoblast Polychromatic normoblast Orthochromatic normoblast An erythroblast is a type of red blood cell which still retains a cell nucleus. ... Basophilic promyelocyte Eosonophilic promyelocyte Neutrophilic promyelocyte A promyelocyte (or progranulocyte) is a granulocyte precursor, developing from the myeloblast and developing into the myelocyte. ... Promonocyte A promonocyte (or premonocyte) is a cell arising from a monoblast and developing into a monocyte. ... Promegakaryocyte A promegakaryocyte is a precursor cell for a megakaryocyte, arising from a megakaryoblast. ... A normoblast (or erythroblast) is a type of red blood cell which still retains a cell nucleus. ... Basophilic myelocyte Eosonophilic myelocyte Neutrophilic myelocyte A myelocyte is a young cell of the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow, but not in circulating blood (except when caused by certain diseases). ... Basophilic myelocyte Eosonophilic myelocyte Neutrophilic myelocyte A myelocyte is a young cell of the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow, but not in circulating blood (except when caused by certain diseases). ... Basophilic myelocyte Eosonophilic myelocyte Neutrophilic myelocyte A myelocyte is a young cell of the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow, but not in circulating blood (except when caused by certain diseases). ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... Basophilic metamyelocyte Eosonophilic metamyelocyte Neutrophilic metamyelocyte A metamyelocyte is a cell undergoing granulopoiesis, derived from a myelocyte, and leading to a band cell. ... Basophilic band cell Eosonophilic band cell Neutrophilic band cell A band cell (or band neutrophil) is a cell undergoing granulopoiesis, derived from a metamyelocyte, and leading to a mature granulocyte. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


Physical characteristics

Hematopoietic stem cells morphologically resemble lymphocytes. They are non-adherent, rounded, rounded nucleus, and low cytoplasm to nucleus ratio. Since PHSC can not be isolated as a pure population, it is not possible to identify them in a microscope. The above description is based on the morphological characteristics of a heterogeneous population of which PHSC are a component.


References

  1. ^ (1948) "First report of the Committee for Clarification of the Nomenclature of Cells and Diseases of the Blood and Blood-forming Organs.". Amer J Clin Pathol 18: 443-450.
  2. ^ (1950) "Third, fourth and fifth reports of the committee for clarification of the nomenclature of cells and diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs.". Am J Clin Pathol 20 (6): 562-79. PMID 15432355.

See also

 v  d  e 
Blood - Blood plasma
Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells | Red blood cells (ReticulocyteNormoblast) | White blood cells
Lymphocytes (Lymphoblast)
T cells (CytotoxicHelperRegulatory T cellsNatural Killer T cells) | B cells (Plasma cells & Memory B cells) | Natural killer cells
Myelocytes (Myeloblast)
Granulocytes (NeutrophilEosinophilBasophil) | Mast cell precursors | Monocytes (HistiocyteMacrophagesDendritic cellsLangerhans cells, MicrogliaKupffer cellsOsteoclasts) | Megakaryoblast | Megakaryocyte | Platelets

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell Information (483 words)
PHSC are the precursor cells which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages.
PHSC are found in the bone marrow of adults, which includes femurs, hip, ribs, sternum, and other bones.
Cells can be obtained directly by removal from the hip using a needle and syringe, or from the blood following pre-treatment with cytokines that induce cells to be released from the bone marrow compartment.
Brain Stem Cell (806 words)
Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell - Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells or pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow.
PHSC are the precurser cells which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages.
Cancer stem cell theory - Cancer stem cell theory is the theory that cancer and tumors are the result of stem cells that have been malignantly transformed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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