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Encyclopedia > Plural marriage
This article is part of the series on
Polygamy and the Latter Day Saint movement

Polygamy and the Latter Day Saint movement
Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy
Latter Day Saint polygamy in Utah
Current state of polygamy in the Latter Day Saint movement
1890 Manifesto
Second Manifesto
Mormon fundamentalism
Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a... Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that... Teens From Polygamous Families protested on August 19, 2006 In Salt Lake City Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, usually during the administration of Brigham Young as president of The...


Prominent practitioners of polygamy in the Latter Day Saint movement


Joseph Smith, Jr.
List of the wives of Joseph Smith, Jr.
Brigham Young
List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Joseph Smith redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... Beginning with founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS Church) is one of the largest Mormon fundamentalist denominations[1][2] and one of Americas largest practitioners of plural marriage. ...


Related Case Law


Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act
Poland Act
Reynolds v. United States
Edmunds Act
Edmunds-Tucker Act
The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. ... The Poland Act (18 Stat. ... This page is about the 1878 U.S. Supreme Court case about polygamy and religious duty as a defense to criminal prosecution. ... The Edmunds Act, signed into law on March 23, 1882, declared polygamy a felony. ... The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887 touched all the issues at dispute between Congress and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


Related Articles


Spiritual wifery
Celestial Marriage
Polygamy in the United States
Spiritual wifery is a term first used in America by the followers of Jacob Cochran as early as 1818 to describe their religious doctrine of free love. ... Celestial marriage (also called the New and Everlasting Covenant) is a doctrine peculiar to Mormonism, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and branches of Mormon fundamentalism. ...

Historically, one of the defining characteristics of much of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of polygamy or later referred to as plural marriage, a type of polygyny.[1] According to a consensus of historians, the practice was taught by Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and introduced formally to the public in 1852 by Brigham Young, leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The practice became famous during the 19th century when it was opposed and outlawed by the United States government, resulting in an intense legal conflict, culminating in LDS Church president Wilford Woodruff announcing the church's official abandonment of the practice on September 25, 1890.[2] Nevertheless, plural marriage continues amongst several groups of Mormon fundamentalists in the western United States, Canada, and Mexico. Mainstream Latter-day Saints who are found practicing polygamy or associating with sympathetic groups are excommunicated. The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... Wilford Woodruff (March 1, 1807 – September 2, 1898) was the fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1889 until his death. ... The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Teens From Polygamous Families protested on August 19, 2006 In Salt Lake City Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, usually during the administration of Brigham Young as president of The... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


According to a majority of historians, the doctrine of plural marriage was developed by Joseph Smith over several years, perhaps beginning in the early 1830s,[3] even though Smith publicly opposed the practice during his lifetime.[4][5][6] Under the Mormon doctrine of plural marriage, the first wife's consent should be sought before a man married another wife, but also declares that Jesus Christ will "destroy" the first wife if she does not consent to the plural marriage;[7] the revelation states: This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... Historically, one of the defining characteristics of much of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of polygamy or later referred to as plural marriage, a type of polygyny. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

… if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, and if he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else.
And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, and they are given unto him; therefore is he justified. …
[T]hen shall she believe and administer unto him, or she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord your God; for I will destroy her; … if she receive not this law … she then becomes the transgressor; and he is exempt[.]

The final portion of D&C 132:65 has been interpreted as meaning that the husband is exempt from asking for his wife's consent in the future. Plural marriage evolved out of the concept of heavenly sealings, where a man and woman can be married for eternity as well as for time. Scholars generally count about 30 wives for Smith, about 10 of them married to other men, being sealed to the women, while still retaining an earthly marriage to their current husbands. Plural marriages usually involve sexual relations, but some are marriages of convenience. The practice did not include group sex, and each wife had her own bedroom, and sometimes even her own house. Historically, one of the defining characteristics of much of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of polygamy or later referred to as plural marriage, a type of polygyny. ... A marriage of convenience (plural marriages of convenience) is a marriage contracted for reasons other than the traditional reasons of love or family. ... Peter Fendi, 1835 Carvings at Khajuraho, an ancient Hindu Temple near Delhi, India This content has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ...

Contents

The origin of plural marriage

Main article: Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy

The 1835 version of Doctrine and Covenants (D&C) prohibited polygamy and declared that monogamy was the only acceptable form of marriage: Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...

"Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in the case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again" [8]

Historians have speculated that Joseph Smith commenced to practice polygamy as early as 1833, but the practice was formalized in Utah following the 1843 polygamy revelation, made public in 1852.[7][9]


Brigham Young has claimed that Smith introduced the doctrine to selected church leaders in the early 1840s, some of whom (such as Young) were directed to take more wives. Some Mormon leaders at the time voiced their objection to the practice and left the Church.[citation needed] Others struggled with their consciences and agreed to the practice only after much prayer. Brigham Young famously said that after the doctrine was communicated to him, he would gladly have traded places with the body in a hearse he saw passing down the street, than embrace this new doctrine. But other church leaders began practicing polygamy in the 1840s. At the time the practice was kept a secret from non-members. Throughout his life, Smith publicly denied having multiple wives,[10] even though privately he was engaged in polygamy, and married or was "sealed" to dozens of women. For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


However, John C. Bennett, a recent convert to the church and the first mayor of Nauvoo, used the emerging teachings on eternal and plural marriage to justify acts of seduction, adultery and, in some cases, the practice of abortion in the guise of spiritual wifery.[citation needed] Bennett was called to account by Joseph Smith and church leaders, and was excommunicated from the movement. Engraving of John C. Bennett in a Napoleon-like pose as General of the Nauvoo Legion. ... There is also a Nauvoo, Alabama, and a Nauvoo, Pennsylvania Nauvoo (נָאווּ to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Spiritual wifery is a term first used in America by the followers of Jacob Cochran as early as 1818 to describe their religious doctrine of free love. ...


The practice was not publicly announced until 1852, some five years after the Mormons arrived in Utah, and eight years after Smith's death. The doctrine authorizing plural marriage was published in the 1876 version of Doctrine and Covenants.[11] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Plural marriages of early church leaders

Joseph Smith's wives

See also: List of the wives of Joseph Smith, Jr.

The 1843 polygamy revelation demanded that Smith's first wife Emma accept all of Smith's plural wives, and warns of damnation if the new covenant is not observed.[7] Smith's wife Emma was publicly and privately opposed to the practice and Joseph may have married some women without Emma knowing beforehand.[12] Despite evidence that Emma finally did accept the doctrine before Smith's death, Emma later publicly denied that her husband had ever preached or practiced polygamy, which later became a defining difference between the church under Brigham Young (Smith's successor), and the church that was established by Emma and her son Joseph Smith III. Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith (10 July 1804 - 30 April 1879) was the wife of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith (10 July 1804 - 30 April 1879) was the wife of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Joseph Smith III — Leader of the 1860 Reorganization of the Latter Day Saint church. ...


There is a subtle difference between 'sealing' (which is a priesthood ordinance that binds individuals together in the eternities), and 'marriage' (a social tradition in which the man and woman agree to be husband and wife in this life). In those early days of this religion, common practices and doctrines were not yet well-defined. Even among those who accept the views of conventional historians, there is disagreement as to the precise number of wives Smith had: the LDS Church's genealogical website lists 24 marriages for Smith, four of which are indicated to have taken place after his death.[13] Fawn M. Brodie lists 48[14], D. Michael Quinn 46 [15], and George D. Smith 42[16]. The discrepancy is created by the lack of documents to support the alleged marriages to some of the named wives. In Mormonism, priesthood is considered to be the power and authority to act in the name of God, including the performance of sacred rites and ordinances, and the performance of miracles. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... Cover of Fawn McKay Brodie: A Biographers Life Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15, 1915 — January 10, 1981) was a biographer and professor of history at UCLA, best known for Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, a work of psychobiography, and No Man Knows My History, the first important non-hagiographic... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A number of Smith's "marriages" occurred after his death, with the wife being sealed to Joseph via a proxy who stood in for him.[17] One historian, Todd M. Compton, documented at least 33 plural marriages or sealings during Smith's lifetime[18].


Sexual nature of Smith's plural marriages, and alleged children

It is unclear how many of the women Smith had sexual relations with. As of 2007, there are at least twelve early Latter Day Saints who, based on historical documents and circumstantial evidence, have been identified as potential Smith offspring stemming from plural marriages. In 2005 and 2007 studies, a geneticist with the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation showed "with 99.9 percent accuracy" that five of these individuals were in fact not Smith descendants: Mosiah Hancock (son of Clarissa Reed Hancock), Oliver Buell (son of Prescindia Huntington Buell), Moroni Llewellyn Pratt (son of Mary Ann Frost Pratt), Zebulon Jacobs (son of Zina Diantha Huntington Jacobs Smith), and Orrison Smith (son of Fanny Alger).[19] The remaining seven have yet to be conclusively tested, including Josephine Lyon, for whom current DNA testing cannot provide conclusive evidence either way. Lyon's mother, Sylvia Sessions Lyon, left her daughter a deathbed affidavit telling her she was Smith's daughter.[19] Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Latter Day Saint (LDS) is a person who identifies with the Latter Day Saint movement and is a follower of Mormonism. ... The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF) is a DNA and genealogical research institution with the goal of demonstrating how the peoples of the world are related. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


Polyandry among Smith's wives

About eight of Smith's wives were also married to other men (four were Mormon men in good standing, who in a few cases acted as a witness in Smith's marriage to his wife) at the time they married Smith. Typically, these women continued to live with their first husband, not Smith. Some accounts say Smith may have had sexual relations with some of his other wives, and one wife later in her life stated that he fathered children by one or two of his wives. [20] It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ...


Some of Smith's wives were older women and some of them younger, the youngest known being Helen Mar Kimball, who was 14. Heber C. Kimball, Helen Mar's father, was a devout Church member, Church leader, and close friend of Smith. Heber C. Kimball later married 39 wives.[21] Some historians have viewed these types of unions not as a marital connection but as a dynastic relationship sealing families together, in this case, linking the Kimball family with that of Smith's. Helen Mar Kimball (20 August 1828 in Mendon, New York - 13 November 1896 in Salt Lake City, Utah) is recognized as the twenty-sixth woman to marry LDS Church founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


Plural marriages of other early church leaders

Main article: List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage
See also: Brigham Young#Listing of wives

Church president Brigham Young had fifty-one wives, and fifty-six children by sixteen of those wives. Beginning with founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ...


Church apostle Heber C. Kimball had forty-three wives, and had sixty-five children by seventeen different women. Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Alleged problems associated with plural marriage in the LDS movement

Unhappiness associated with plural marriages

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church claim that plural marriages often produced extreme unhappiness in some wives.[22] LDS historian Todd Compton, in his book In Sacred Loneliness, described many instances where some wives in polygamous marriages were unhappy with polygamy.[23]


Church apologists note that many women were very satisfied with polygamous marriages, and many—such as Zina Huntington, a wife of Brigham Young—went on speaking tours as part of the suffrage movement touting the joys and benefits of plural marriage.


Plural marriage used as an excuse for multiple sexual partners

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church claim that church leaders established the practice of polygamy in order to further their immoral desires for sexual gratification with multiple sexual partners.[24] Critics point to the fact that church leaders practiced polygamy in secret from 1833 to 1852, despite a written church doctrine renouncing polygamy and stating that only monogamous marriages were permitted (section 101 D&C).[25] Critics also cite several first-person accounts of early church leaders attempting to use the polygamy doctrine to enter into illicit relationships with women.[26][27] Critics also assert that Joseph Smith instituted polygamy in order to cover-up an 1835 adulterous affair with a neighbor's daughter, Fanny Alger, by taking Alger as his second wife.[28] However, Compton dates this marriage to March or April of 1833, well before Joseph was accused of an affair.[29] Fanny Alger (born 30 September 1816 in Rehoboth, Massachusetts, died 29 November 1889 in Indianapolis, Indiana) is allegedly the first plural wife of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


Others conclude that many Latter-day Saints entered into plural marriage based on the belief that it was a religious commandment, rather than as an excuse for sexual license. For instance, many of the figures who came to be best associated with plural marriage, including Church President Brigham Young and his counselor Heber C. Kimball, expressed revulsion at the system when it was first introduced to them. Young famously stated that after receiving the commandment to practice plural marriage in Nauvoo, he saw a funeral procession walking down the street and he wished he could exchange places with the corpse. He recalled that "I was not desirous of shrinking from any duty, nor of failing in the least to do as I was commanded, but it was the first time in my life that I had desired the grave, and I could hardly get over it for a long time."[30] When Kimball first heard of the principle, he believed that he would marry elderly women whom he would care for and who would not be a threat to his first wife Vilate. He was later shocked to learn that he was to marry a younger woman.[31] His biographer writes that he "became sick in body, but his mental wretchedness was too great to allow of his retiring, and he would walk the floor till nearly morning, and sometimes the agony of his mind was so terrible that he would wring his hands and weep like a child..."[32] While his wife Vilate had trials "greivous to bear" as a result of her acceptance of plural marriage, she supported her husband in his religious duties, and taught her children that "she could not doubt the plural order of marriage was of God, for the Lord had revealed it to her in answer to prayer."[33] Apologists also note that, although the revelation permitting polygamy was not published until 1852, it was actually received by Joseph Smith sometime in the 1830s. For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ... Nauvoo (נאוו to be beautiful, Sephardi Hebrew Nåvu, Tiberian Hebrew Nâwû) is a city located in Hancock County, Illinois. ...


Plural marriage used to justify immoral behavior with young girls

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church claim that church leaders sometimes used polygamy to take advantage of young girls for immoral purposes.[34] LDS historian George D. Smith studied 153 men who took plural wives in the early years of the Mormon Church, and found that two of the girls were thirteen years old, 13 girls were fourteen years old, 21 were fifteen years old, and 53 were sixteen years old.[35] LDS historian Todd Compton documented that Joseph Smith married several girls of age 13 or 14.[36] Historian Stanly Hirshon documented cases of girls aged 10 and 11 being married to old men.[37] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Church apologists point out that underage marriage was not an issue in the 1800s.[citation needed] Legal marriage age for many places was as young as 10 or 12.[citation needed] There are many famous women who were married under the age of 17.[citation needed] However, it seems that even Brigham Young attempted to stamp out the practice of men being sealed to excessively young girls. In 1857, he stated "I shall not seal the people as I have done. Old Father Alread brought three young girls 12 & 13 years old. I would not seal them to him. They would not be equally yoked together...Many get their endowments who are not worthy and this is the way that devils are made."[38] For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ...


Shortage of wives caused by plural marriage

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church point out that polygamy may have caused a shortage of brides in the early LDS community,[39] citing quotes by church leader Heber C. Kimball who said (addressing departing missionaries): Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Heber C. Kimball Heber Chase Kimball (June 14, 1801 – June 22, 1868) (commonly known as Heber C. Kimball) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement. ...

Brethren, I want you to understand that it is not to be as it has been heretofore. The brother missionaries have been in the habit of picking out the prettiest women for themselves before they get here, and bringing on the ugly ones for us; hereafter you have to bring them all here before taking any of them, and let us all have a fair shake.[40]

On another occasion, he said "You are sent out as shepherds to gather sheep together; and remember that they are not your sheep ... do not make selections before they are brought home and put into the fold."[41]


Church apologists point out that polygamy was relatively rare in the early church community, involving only 2% to 5% of church households, and thus any alleged shortage of wives was negligible.


The precise number who participated in plural marriage is not known, but studies indicate a maximum of 20-25% of LDS adults were members of polygamist households. One third of the women of marriageable age and nearly all of the church leadership were involved in the practice.[42]


Coercion and deception related to plural marriage

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church have documented several cases where deception and coercion were used to induce marriage,[43] for example citing the case of Joseph Smith who warned some potential spouses of eternal damnation if they did not consent to be his wife.[44] In 1893, married LDS church member John D. Miles traveled to England and proposed to Caroline Owens, assuring her that he was not polygamous. She returned to Utah and participated in a wedding, only to find out after the ceremony that Miles was already married. She ran away, but Miles hunted her down and raped her. She eventually escaped, and filed a lawsuit against Miles that reached the Supreme Court and became a significant case in polygamy case law.[45] </ref> Ann Eliza Young, nineteenth wife of Brigham Young, claimed that Young coerced her to marry him by threatening financial ruin of her brother.[46] A lithograph of Ann Eliza Young sometime between 1869 and 1875 Ann Eliza Young (née Webb) (1844 - 1908?) was one of Brigham Youngs many wives and later a critic of polygamy and a U.S. Mormon dissident. ...


Church apologists point out that these were isolated cases, and the vast majority of wives consented willingly to plural marriage.


Plural marriage and incest

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS church claim that polygamy was used to justify marriage of close relatives that would otherwise be considered immoral.[47][48] In 1843, Joseph Smith's diary records the marriage of John Bernhisel to his sister, Maria.[49] In 1886, Lorenzo Snow said that brothers and sisters should be able to get married.[50] former LDS church member and prominent critic Fanny Stenhouse wrote in 1875: Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

It would be quite impossible, with any regard to propriety, to relate all the horrible results of this disgraceful system.... Marriages have been contracted between the nearest of relatives; and old men tottering on the brink of the grave have been united to little girls scarcely in their teens; while unnatural alliances of every description, which in any other community would be regarded with disgust and abhorrence, are here entered into in the name of God.[51]

Abandoning the practice

As The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints settled in what became the Utah Territory it eventually was subjected to the power and opinion of the United States. Friction first began to show in the James Buchanan administration and federal troops arrived (see Utah War). The general opinion of the rest of the United States was that the practice of plural marriage was offensive. On July 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act into law, which forbade the practice in US territories. President Lincoln told the church that he had no intentions of enforcing it if they would not interfere with him, and so the matter was laid to rest for a time. Nevertheless, the rhetoric continued, and polygamy became an impediment to Utah being admitted to the United States. This was not a concern to Brigham Young, however, who preached in 1866 that if Utah will not be admitted to the Union until it abandons polygamy, "we shall never be admitted."[52] For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. ...


After the Civil War, immigrants to Utah who were not members of the church continued the contest for political power. They were frustrated by the consolidation of the members. Forming the Liberal Party, they began pushing for political changes and to weaken the church's advantage in the territory. In September of 1871, President Brigham Young was indicted for adultery due to his plural marriages. On January 6, 1879, the Supreme Court upheld the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act in Reynolds v. United States. The decision was not well-received by the members and leadership of the church. The Liberal Party believed the economic future of Utah Territory lay in mining, and Utah miners—typically non-Mormon—were key Liberal Party voters. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This page is about the 1878 U.S. Supreme Court case about polygamy and religious duty as a defense to criminal prosecution. ...


Federal government actions against polygamy

In February of 1882, George Q. Cannon, a prominent leader in the church, was denied a non-voting seat in the House of Representatives due to his polygamous relations. This revived the issue in national politics. One month later, the Edmunds Act was passed, amending the Morrill Act by revoking the right of polygamists to vote or hold office, and allowing them to be punished without due process. Even if people did not practice polygamy, they would have their rights revoked if they confessed a belief in it. In August, Rudge Clawson was imprisoned for continuing to cohabit with wives that he married before the 1862 Morrill Act. In 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker Act allowed seizure of control of the church and further extended the punishments of the Edmunds Act of 1882. In July of the same year, the U.S. Attorney General filed suit to seize the church and all of its assets. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... George Q. Cannon George Quayle Cannon (January 11, 1827–April 21, 1901) (commonly known as George Q. Cannon) was an early member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and served in the First Presidency under four successive Presidents of... The Edmunds Act, signed into law on March 23, 1882, declared polygamy a felony. ... The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887 touched all the issues at dispute between Congress and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


The church was losing control of the territorial government, and many members and leaders were being actively pursued as fugitives. Without being able to appear publicly, the leadership was left to navigate underground. Teaching new marriage and family arrangements where the principles that could not be openly discussed, compounded the problems. Those authorized to teach the doctrine had always stressed the strict covenants, obligations and responsibilities associated with it—the antithesis of license. But those who heard only rumors, or who chose to distort and abuse the teaching, often envisioned and sometimes practiced something quite different. One such person was John C. Bennett, an earlier mayor of Nauvoo and adviser to Joseph Smith, who twisted the teaching to his own advantage. Capitalizing on rumors and lack of understanding among general Church membership, he taught a doctrine of "spiritual wifery." He and associates sought to have illicit sexual relationships with women by telling them that they were married "spiritually," even if they had never been married formally, and that the Prophet approved the arrangement. These statements were false. The Bennett scandal resulted in his excommunication and the disaffection of several others. Bennett then toured the country speaking against the Latter-day Saints and published a bitter anti-Mormon exposé charging the Saints with licentiousness. Those that twisted teachings of polygamy over the years often caused serious problems and acted as a fuel for distress over the issue, associated rumors, and misunderstandings. Engraving of John C. Bennett in a Napoleon-like pose as General of the Nauvoo Legion. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ...


Following the aforementioned passage of the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887, the Church found it difficult to operate as a viable institution. Among other things, this legislation disincorporated the Church, confiscated its properties, and even threatened seizure of its temples. After visiting priesthood leaders in many settlements, President Woodruff left for San Francisco on September 3, 1890, to meet with prominent businessmen and politicians. He returned to Salt Lake City on September 21, determined to obtain divine confirmation to pursue a course that seemed to be agonizingly more and more clear. As he explained to Church members a year later, the choice was between, on the one hand, continuing to practice plural marriage and thereby losing the temples, "stopping all the ordinances therein," and, on the other, ceasing plural marriage in order to continue performing the essential ordinances for the living and the dead. President Woodruff hastened to add that he had acted only as the Lord directed:

I should have let all the temples go out of our hands; I should have gone to prison myself, and let every other man go there, had not the God of heaven commanded me to do what I do; and when the hour came that I was commanded to do that, it was all clear to me.

1890 Manifesto banning plural marriage

Main article: 1890 Manifesto

The final element in President Woodruff's revelatory experience came on the evening of September 23, 1890. The following morning, he reported to some of the General Authorities that he had struggled throughout the night with the Lord regarding the path that should be pursued. "Here is the result," he said, placing a 510-word handwritten manuscript on the table. The document was later edited by George Q. Cannon of the First Presidency and others to its present 356 words. On October 6, 1890, it was presented to the Latter-day Saints at the General Conference and approved. The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a...


Plural marriages after 1890

While many Church leaders in 1890 regarded the Manifesto as inspired, there were differences among them about its scope and permanence. Some leaders were reluctant to terminate a long-standing practice that was regarded as divinely mandated. As a result, over 200 plural marriages were performed between 1890 and 1904.[53] The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a...


1904 second manifesto banning plural marriage

Main article: Second Manifesto
Main article: Smoot Hearings

It was not until 1904, under the leadership of President Joseph F. Smith, that plural marriage was banned finally and completely, everywhere in the world, by the church."[54] Not surprisingly, rumors persisted of marriages performed after the 1890 manifesto, and beginning in January 1904, testimony given in the Smoot hearings made it clear that plural marriage had not been completely extinguished. Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that... The Smoot Hearings or Smoot Case involved controversy surrounding the election of Reed Smoot to the United States Senate and whether he should be able to serve in the United States Senate as a Mormon religious leader. ... Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ... The Reed Smoot hearings (Smoot hearings or Smoot Case) were a series of Congressional hearings on whether the United States Senate should seat U.S. Senator Reed Smoot, who was elected by the state of Utah in 1903. ...


The ambiguity was ended in the General Conference of April 1904, when President Joseph F. Smith issued the "Second Manifesto," an emphatic declaration that prohibited plural marriage and proclaimed that offenders would be subject to church discipline. They declared that any who participated in additional plural marriages, and those officiating, would be excommunicated from the church. Those disagreeing with the second manifesto included apostles Matthias F. Cowley and John W. Taylor who both resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve. Cowley retained his membership in the church, but Taylor was later excommunicated. Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that... A disciplinary council in the context of Mormonism is a trial during which members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints may be excommunicated, or expelled, from the church for a number of different sins or misdeeds. ... Matthias Foss Cowley (1858–1940) (commonly known as Matthias F. Cowley) was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1897 until his death in 1940. ... John Whittaker Taylor (May 15, 1858–October 10, 1916) was the son of John Taylor (the third President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) and Sophia Whittaker. ... In Mormonism, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Quorum of the Twelve, the Council of the Twelve, or the Twelve) is one of the governing bodies of the church hierarchy in many Latter Day Saint denominations, members of which are considered to be Apostles, and special...


Instance of plural marriage in 1943

In 1943, the First Presidency discovered apostle Richard R. Lyman was cohabitating with a woman other than his legal wife. As it turned out, in 1925 Lyman had begun a relationship which he defined as a polygamous marriage. Unable to trust anyone else to officiate, Elder Lyman and the woman exchanged vows secretly. By 1943, both were in their seventies. Lyman was excommunicated on November 12, 1943 at age 73. The Quorum of the Twelve provided the newspapers with a one-sentence announcement, stating that the ground for excommunication was violation of the Law of Chastity, which any practice of post-Manifesto polygamy constituted. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard R. Lyman Richard Roswell Lyman (November 23, 1870—December 31, 1963) was an Apostle in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1918 to 1943. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Law of Chastity is a part of the Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) belief structure. ...


Modern LDS Church position

Although plural marriage as practiced by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is believed to be correct doctrine in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the LDS Church today teaches it can only be practiced when specifically authorized by God. For example, two references to this doctrine in LDS Church scripture are "Abraham received concubines ... and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, because they were given unto him, and he abode in my law;"[55] and "For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people;"[56] which are pointed out in a standard Sunday School manual.[57] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Sunday School is an official auxiliary organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


Joseph Smith, Jr. states in his journal October 5, 1843 as quoted in 'An American Prophet's Record: Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith' page 417. "...Walked up and down St[reet] with Scribe and gave instructions to try those who were preaching, teaching, or practicing the doctrine of plurality of wives on this Law. Joseph forbids it and the practice thereof. No man shall have but one wife. [rest of page blank]" President Joseph F. Smith stated, "The doctrine is not repealed, the truth is not annulled, the law is right and just now as ever, but the observance of it is stopped"[citation needed] and that "[p]lural marriages have ceased in the Church. There isn't a man today in this Church or anywhere else outside of it who has authority to solemnize a plural marriage, not one."[citation needed] Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ...


The LDS Church teaches that even during periods when plural marriage was sanctioned, several individuals disobeyed the word of the Lord in the way they entered into it. David, Solomon, and Rehoboam, among others, married women that were not the will of the Lord for them.[citation needed] David's sin in having sexual relations with Bathsheba, then arranging for her husband to be killed in war is an example of this.[58] The Book of Mormon prophet Jacob also discusses when plural marriage is allowed.[59] David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... For other uses, see Wine bottle nomenclature. ... Bathsheba (בת שבע) is the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of King David in the Hebrew Bible. ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... In the Book of Mormon, Jacob (Hebrew יעקב Yaʿăqōḇ Holder of the heel; supplanter) is a younger brother of the prophet Nephi, and becomes the prophet himself after Nephis death. ...


Current LDS Church leadership asserts that only a small percentage of the Mormon pioneers that settled in Utah actually practiced plural marriage (the figure cited is usually around 2%-5%); that those who did usually had only two wives; and that these men often helped support widows, or women that were struggling on their own.[citation needed] However, scholarship beginning in the 1980s has led to estimates that the average incidence of polygamy was between 15-30%, depending on the years and location,[60] including virtually all church leadership at the time.[61] A statue commemorating the Mormon pioneers The Mormon Pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the State of Utah. ...


Officially, the LDS Church has not tolerated plural marriages since the 1890 Manifesto was declared. However, all of the First Presidency and almost all of the apostles at that time continued to maintain multiple families into the twentieth century: they did not feel that they could dissolve existing unions and families. Polygamy was gradually discontinued after the 1904 Second Manifesto as no new plural marriages were allowed and as the older polygamists died off. Since the Second Manifesto, the official policy of the LDS Church has been to excommunicate members who enter into or solemnize new plural marriages. The current LDS Church does not practice plural marriage, nor does it have any formal ties with Mormon fundamentalist groups that do. The 1890 Manifesto, sometimes simply called The Manifesto, was a historical statement which officially renounced the practice of polygamy in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church; see also Mormon). Signed on by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in September of 1890, the Manifesto was a... Joseph F. Smith, author of the Second Manifesto The Second Manifesto was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in which Smith confirmed that the church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that...


Fundamentalist beginnings

Over time, many of those who rejected the LDS Church's relinquishment of plural marriage formed small, close-knit communities in areas of the Rocky Mountains. These groups continue to practice 'the principle' despite the ostensible opposition, and consider the practice to be a requirement for entry into the highest heaven, which they call the "first degree" of the Celestial Kingdom. These people are commonly called Mormon fundamentalists and may either practice as individuals, as families, or as part of organized denominations. Mormon fundamentalism is a conservative movement of Mormonism that believes or practices what its adherents consider to be the fundamental aspects of Mormonism. ...


In consequence of the tendency of outsiders to confuse the LDS church with the breakaway groups, the LDS church seeks vigorously to disassociate itself from the practice of plural marriage.[62] Moreover, the LDS church has requested that journalists not refer to them as the 'Mormon Church', or the various polygamist sects as 'Mormons' or 'Mormon fundamentalists'; as such titles may become confusing when differentiating between denominations.[63] Multiple churches and sects use the term 'Mormon', as their religious beliefs involve canonizing 'The Book of Mormon', as well as a shared belief with the LDS church of Joseph Smith's calling as a modern-day prophet.


Relationship of Current Practice Regarding Temple Sealings to Plural Marriage

Marriages ending in divorce

A man who is sealed to a woman but later divorced must apply for a "sealing clearance" from the First Presidency in order to be sealed to another woman. This does not void or invalidate the first sealing. A woman in the same circumstances would apply to the First Presidency for a "cancellation of sealing," (sometimes incorrectly called a "temple divorce") allowing her to be sealed to another man. This approval voids the original sealing as far as the woman is concerned. Divorced women who have not applied for a sealing cancellation are considered sealed to the original husband. However, it should again be noted that the LDS Church teaches that even in the afterlife the marriage relationship is voluntary so it is evident that no man or woman can be forced into an eternal relationship through temple sealing that they do not wish to be in. On occasion, divorced women have been granted a cancellation of sealing, even though they do not intend to marry someone else. In this case, they are no longer considered as being sealed to anyone and are presumed to have the same eternal status as unwed women. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the First Presidency (or the Quorum of the Presidency of the Church) was the highest governing body in the Latter Day Saint church established by Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


Sealed marriages ended through death

In the case where a sealed marriage ends through the death of one of the spouses, the requirements are different. A man whose sealed wife has died does not have to request any permission to be married in the temple and sealed to another woman, unless the new wife's circumstance requires a cancellation of sealing. However, a woman whose sealed husband has died is still bound by the original sealing and used to have to request a cancellation of sealing to be sealed to another man. In some cases, women in this situation who wish to remarry choose to be married to subsequent husbands in the temple "for time only," and are not sealed to them, leaving them sealed to their first husband for eternity.


As of 1998, however, women may be sealed to more than one man. On page 72 of the 1998 edition of the Church Handbook of Instructions, the LDS Church created a new policy that a woman may also be sealed to more than one man. A woman, however, may not be sealed to more than one man while she is alive. She may only be sealed to subsequent partners after both she and her husband(s) have died.[64] Thus, if a widow who was sealed to her first husband remarries, she may be sealed by proxy to all of her subsequent husband(s), but only after both she and the subsequent husbands have died. Church leaders have not clarified if women in such circumstances will live in a polyandrous relationship in the afterlife.


It would seem that after death the presumed status of widowers who are re-sealed is an effective plural marriage. If a man leaves this life having been sealed to two or more women, and having been faithful in life to both of them, one would presume that in the hereafter those relationships would continue.


Proxy sealings where both spouses have died

According to Church policy, after a man has died, he may be sealed by proxy to all of the women to whom he was legally married to while he was alive. The same is true for women; however, if a woman was sealed to a man while she was alive, all of her husbands must be deceased before she can be sealed by proxy to them.[64]


Church doctrine is not entirely specific on the status of men or women who are sealed by proxy to multiple spouses. There are at least two possibilities:

  1. Regardless of how many people a man or woman is sealed to by proxy, they will only remain with one of them in the afterlife, and that the remaining spouses, who might still merit the full benefits of exaltation that come from being sealed, would then be given to another person in order to ensure each has an eternal marriage.
  2. These sealings create effective plural marriages that will continue after death. There are no Church teachings clarifying whether polyandrous relationships can exist in the afterlife, so some church members doubt whether this possibility would apply to women who are sealed by proxy to multiple spouses. The possibility for women to be sealed to multiple men is a recent policy change enacted in 1998. Church leaders have neither explained this change, nor its doctrinal implications.

It should be noted that the LDS Church teaches free agency is given to all, and it seems clear that those in the afterlife would have a choice whether to accept the marriage sealing performed on their behalf.


Implications

Theological issues are likely to exist when any church endorses the notion that marriage relationships continue into an afterlife, yet endorses people having more than one spouse during life. In this light, a doctrine of multiple marriage relationships in the afterlife does not necessarily imply an endorsement of plural marriage during life.


It should be noted that the LDS Church teaches that even in the afterlife the marriage relationship is voluntary so it is presumed that no man or woman can be forced into an eternal relationship through temple sealing that they do not wish to be in.


See also

  • Group marriage
  • 1843 polygamy revelation
  • List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage
  • Short Creek raid
  • Polyandry
  • Criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement

Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all... Beginning with founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Short Creek raid is the name given to Arizona state police and U.S. National Guard action against Mormon fundamentalists that took place on the morning of July 26, 1953 at Short Creek, Arizona. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Anti-Mormon protestors at a 2006 general conference of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...

Notes

  1. ^ anonymous (September 9, 1871), “History of Mormonism”, The Daily Corinne Reporter 4 (84), <http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,885> .
  2. ^ Woodruff's declaration was formally accepted in a church general conference on October 6, 1890.
  3. ^ Compton 1997
  4. ^ Whitmer 1887
  5. ^ Times and Seasons, Volume 5, page 474
  6. ^ Times and Seasons, Volume 5, page 423
  7. ^ a b c A 12 July 1843 polygamy revelation on plural marriage, attributed to Joseph Smith, with the demand that Emma Smith, the first wife, accept all of Joseph Smith's plural wives. See the Doctrine and Covenants, 132:1–4, 19, 20, 24, 34, 35, 38, 39, 52, 60–66. The revelation states in part that:

    Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you my servant Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired of my hand to know and understand wherein I, the Lord, justified my servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as also Moses, David and Solomon, my servants, as touching the principle and doctrine of their having many wives and concubines—
    Behold, and lo, I am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee as touching this matter.
    Therefore, prepare thy heart to receive and obey the instructions which I am about to give unto you; for all those who have this law revealed unto them must obey the same.
    For behold, I reveal unto you a new and an everlasting covenant; and if ye abide not that covenant, then are ye damned; for no one can reject this covenant and be permitted to enter into my glory. …
    if a man marry a wife by my word, which is my law, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power and the keys of this priesthood …
    Then shall they be gods, because they have no end …
    to know the only wise and true God, and Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent. I am he. Receive ye, therefore, my law. …
    God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham to wife. And why did she do it? Because this was the law; and from Hagar sprang many people. This, therefore, was fulfilling, among other things, the promises. …
    Was Abraham, therefore, under condemnation? Verily I say unto you, Nay; for I, the Lord, commanded it. …
    Abraham received concubines, and they bore him children; and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, because they were given unto him, and he abode in my law; as Isaac also and Jacob did none other things than that which they were commanded; and because they did none other things than that which they were commanded, they have entered into their exaltation, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not angels but are gods.
    David also received many wives and concubines, and also Solomon and Moses my servants, as also many others of my servants, from the beginning of creation until this time; and in nothing did they sin save in those things which they received not of me. …
    David's wives and concubines were given unto him of me …
    And let mine handmaid, Emma Smith, receive all those that have been given unto my servant Joseph
    Let no one, therefore, set on my servant Joseph; for I will justify him …
    as pertaining to the law of the priesthood—if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, and if he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else.
    And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, and they are given unto him; therefore is he justified. …
    [T]hen shall she believe and administer unto him, or she shall be destroyed, saith the Lord your God; for I will destroy her; … if she receive not this law … she then becomes the transgressor; and he is exempt[.] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, common consent is a principle established by the movements founder Joseph Smith, Jr. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... Emma Hale Smith Emma Hale Smith (10 July 1804 - 30 April 1879) was the wife of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

  8. ^ Doctrine and Covenants, section 101, page 251, 1835 edition.
  9. ^ Although the polygamy doctrine is dated 1843, LDS historians note that that is the date the doctrine was written down, but Smith apparently received the revelation in the 1830s.[citation needed]
  10. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 195,283-284
  11. ^ Doctrine and Covenants, section 132 and the doctrine denouncing polygamy (section 101) was removed.
  12. ^ Brodie 1971, pp. 403
  13. ^ Joseph Smith: Individual Record. FamilySearch Ancestral File v4.19. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  14. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 457
  15. ^ Quinn 1994, p. 587
  16. ^ Smith 1994, p. 14
  17. ^ Jacobs, Zina Diantha Huntington. "All Things Move in Order in the City: The Nauvoo Diary of Zina Diantha Huntington Jacobs". BYU Studies 19. 
  18. ^ Compton Dec. 1996
  19. ^ a b Moore, Carrie. "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants", Deseret Morning News, 11/10/2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. 
  20. ^ The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives - FARMS Review
  21. ^ Stan Kimball lists 43 wives in his biography of Kimball.
  22. ^ Tanner 1979, pp. 226-228
  23. ^ Compton 1997
  24. ^ Tanner 1979, pp. 204-290
  25. ^ Tanner 1987, p. 202
  26. ^ Young 1875, pp. 65-86
  27. ^ Bennett 1842, pp. 226-232
  28. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 132-134
  29. ^ Compton 1996, pp. 174-207
  30. ^ Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 100 (1985).
  31. ^ Whitney 1888, p. 326
  32. ^ Whitney 1888, p. 326
  33. ^ Whitney 1888, pp. 325-328
  34. ^ Abanes 2003, p. 294
  35. ^ “Nauvoo Polygamists", George D. Smith, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Spring 1994, p. ix
  36. ^ Compton 1997
  37. ^ Hirshon 1969, pp. 126-127
  38. ^ Wilford Woodruff, Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 5:58.
  39. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 297
  40. ^ Hirshon 1969, pp. 129-130
  41. ^ Journal of Discourses; August 28, 1852; vol. 6, p256.
  42. ^ Encyclopedia of Mormonism. MacMillan(1992) p. 1095
  43. ^ Ostling 1999, pp. 60-63
  44. ^ Compton 1997
  45. ^ Gage 1972
  46. ^ Young 1875, pp. 440-454
  47. ^ Young 1875, pp. 306-319
  48. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 297
  49. ^ Faulring 1987, p. 424
  50. ^ Journal of Mormon History, 1992, p. 106
  51. ^ Stenhouse 1875
  52. ^ Journal of Discourses 11:266.
  53. ^ Hardy 1992
  54. ^ Scriptures of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for the Sunday Schools, Salt Lake City: Deseret Sunday School Union, 1968, p. 159
  55. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 132
  56. ^ Jacob 2
  57. ^ Lesson 31: “Sealed … for Time and for All Eternity”, Doctrine and Covenants and Church History Gospel Doctrine Teacher’s Manual, 176
  58. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 132
  59. ^ Jacob 2
  60. ^ (Hardy 2005, p. 215).
  61. ^ Bachman, Daniel W., Esplin, Ronald K. (1992) "Plural Marriage", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism 3: 1095. New York:Macmillan Publishing Co.
  62. ^ "Mormon Fundamentalists", 6 March 2006 press release by the LDS Church
  63. ^ "Polygamist Sects Are Not 'Mormons,' Church Says", 25 October 2006 press release by the LDS Church
  64. ^ a b LDS Church, Church Handbook of Instructions, (LDS Church, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998). "A deceased woman may be sealed to all men to whom she was legally married during her life. However, if she was sealed to a husband during her life, all her husbands must be deceased before she can be sealed to a husband to whom she was not sealed during life."

FamilySearch is a family history website provided by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Church Handbook of Instructions (formerly the General Handbook of Instructions) is a two-volume book of instructions and policies for leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...

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  28. Tanner, Jerald and Sandra (1987), Mormonism - Shadow or Reality?, Utah Lighthouse Ministry, ISBN 9993074438 .
  29. Richard S. Van Wagoner; Mormon Polygamy: A History; Signature Books; ISBN 0-941214-79-6 (Paperback, 2nd edition, 1992)
  30. Whitney, Orson F. (1888), The Life of Heber C. Kimball .
  31. Young, Anne Eliza (1876), Wife No. 19, or the story of a life in bondage. Being a complete exposé of Mormonism, and revealing the sorrows, sacrifices and sufferings of women in polygamy, Hartford, Conn.: Dustin, Oilman & Co., <http://www.archive.org/details/wifenoorstoryofl00youniala> ; Ayer Co Publishing ISBN 0-405-04488-7 (Hardcover, 1978); Kessinger Publishing, LLC ISBN 0-7661-4048-2 (Paperback, 2003).
  32. Young, Anne Eliza (1875), Wife No. 19, Hartford, Conn.: Kensinger Publishing, LLC, ISBN 0766140482, <http://www.archive.org/details/wifenoorstoryofl00youniala> .

Richard Abanes (b. ... Thomas G. Alexander is an American historian and academic who acts as the Lemuel H. Redd Professor of Western History at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. ... Engraving of John C. Bennett in a Napoleon-like pose as General of the Nauvoo Legion. ... Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15, 1915 – January 10, 1981) was a teacher and biographer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jerald D. Tanner (June 1, 1938—October 1, 2006) and Sandra McGee Tanner have been prominent critics of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Jerald D. Tanner (June 1, 1938—October 1, 2006) and Sandra McGee Tanner have been prominent critics of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Categories: LDS stubs ... A lithograph of Ann Eliza Young sometime between 1869 and 1875 Ann Eliza Young (née Webb) (1844 - 1908?) was one of Brigham Youngs many wives and later a critic of polygamy and a U.S. Mormon dissident. ... A lithograph of Ann Eliza Young sometime between 1869 and 1875 Ann Eliza Young (née Webb) (1844 - 1908?) was one of Brigham Youngs many wives and later a critic of polygamy and a U.S. Mormon dissident. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
General Questions Regarding Mormon Fundamentalists (1195 words)
The practice is referred to as "plural marriage." It occurs when one man is married to more than one wife (technically called "polygyny").
In 1852, Church leaders announced to the world that plural marriages were being allowed.
"The exact percentage of Latter-day Saints who participated in the practice [of plural marriage] is not known, but studies suggest a maximum of from 20% to 25% of LDS adults were members of polygamous households.
DISSOLVING A PLURAL MARRIAGE IN CONNECTICUT (1114 words)
Since the marriage presented in your question meets the statutory definition of bigamy, it could not have been legally performed here; thus, it appears that a Connecticut court would view the second and third marriages as invalid and not grant a divorce.
A marriage performed in a foreign country that involves at least one Connecticut resident is valid if the parties could have legally married in Connecticut and the marriage conforms to the laws of the foreign country.
The Court held that although the marriage was valid where it was celebrated, it contravened the strong public policy in this state against incestuous marriages (currently CGS § 46b-21); thus, the plaintiff was not the decedent's surviving spouse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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