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Encyclopedia > Plumbing
A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings
A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings
A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building.
A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building.
Copper piping system in a building with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Copper piping system in a building with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and the drainage of waste. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean water, and proper collection and transport of wastes.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2115x668, 180 KB) Plumber key. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2115x668, 180 KB) Plumber key. ... Plumber wrench - a tool to screw (rotate with force) various pipes during plumbing. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1071 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1071 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3443 × 2288 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3443 × 2288 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Pipe is a tube or hollow cylinder for the conveyance of fluid, gas and sometimes other materials. ... Tubing refers to a flexible hose or pipe used in plumbing, irrigation, and other industries. ... A plumbing fixture is a device which is part of a system to deliver and drain away water, but which is also configured to enable a particular use. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... Joe Kessler is a plumber! A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage, drainage, venting, heating and air-conditioning, or industrial process plant piping. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... A trio of propane hot water heaters. ...


Plumbing also refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution of potable water and the removal of waterborne wastes. Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city. Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ...

Contents

History

Standardized earthenware plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2] Plumbing originated during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water, and drainage of wastes. Improvement in plumbing systems was very slow, with virtually no progress made from the time of the Roman system of aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... A cesspit, or cesspool,(also known as zesspit or zesspool) is a pit, conservancy tank, or covered cistern, which can be used for sewage or refuse. ...


Materials

Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead or stone. Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper,[3] brass, plastic, steel, or other nontoxic material. Present-day drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead is not used in modern water-supply piping due to its toxicity.[4][5] For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.


Fittings and valves

In addition to the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions. The piping and plumbing fittings and valves articles discuss them further. Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and to regulate fluid flow, for example. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ...


Fixtures

Plumbing fixtures are designed for the end-users. Some examples of fixtures include Water Closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations A plumbing fixture is a device which is part of a system to deliver and drain away water, but which is also configured to enable a particular use. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... Urinals redirects here. ... A toilet (left) and a bidet (right). ... For other uses, see Shower (disambiguation). ... For the foundations of the World Trade Center, see The Bathtub. ... For other uses, see Sink (disambiguation). ... The Jet dEau fountain in Lake Geneva in Geneva The Samson fountain at Peterhof near St Petersburg: the lion is the heraldic animal of Peter the Greats enemy, Sweden A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons), fills a basin of some... A humidifier is a household appliance that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or in the entire home. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons...


Equipment

Plumbing equipment, not present in all systems, include, for example, water meters, pumps, expansion tanks, backflow preventers, filters, water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers, gauges, and control systems. This article is about a mechanical device. ... A trio of propane hot water heaters. ... A heat exchanger is a device for transferring heat from one fluid to another, where the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix. ...


Now there is equipment that is technologically advanced and helps plumbers fix problems without the usual hassles. For example, plumbers use video cameras for inspections of hidden leaks or problems, they use hydro jets, and high pressure hydraulic pumps connected to steel cables for trench-less sewer line replacement.


Systems

The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:

For their environmental benefit and sizable energy savings hot water heat recycling units are growing in use throughout the residential building sectors. Further ecological concern has seen increasing interest in gray-water recovery and treatment systems. Domestic water supply or system (DWS) is a comprehensive term for the potable water supply systems in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings. ... A buildings waste-disposal system has two parts: the drainage system and the venting system. ... On-site septic disposal systems are common in rural areas where public sewage treatment systems do not exist. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... Hot water heat recycling (also known as drain water heat recovery, greywater heat recovery, or sometimes shower water heat recovery) is the use of heat exchanger technology to recover and reuse hot water heat from various activities such as dishwashing, clothes washing and especially showers. ... Greywater, sometimes spelled graywater, grey water or gray water and also known as sullage, is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. ...


Firestopping

Self-levelling silicone firestop installation in mechanical service penetration in 2 hour rated concrete floor.
Self-levelling silicone firestop installation in mechanical service penetration in 2 hour rated concrete floor.

Firestopping is required where mechanical penetrants traverse fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies, or membranes thereof. This work is usually done worldwide by the insulation trade and/or specialty firestop sub-contractors. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3593x5419, 1684 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plumbing Silicone Sealant ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3593x5419, 1684 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plumbing Silicone Sealant ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ...


Regulation

Much of the plumbing work in populated areas (cities, towns, etc...) is regulated by government or quasi-government agencies due to the direct impact on the public's health, safety, and welfare. Plumbing installation and repair work on residences and other buildings generally must be done according to plumbing and building codes to protect the inhabitants of the buildings and to ensure safe, quality construction to future buyers. If permits are required for work, plumbing contractors typically secure them from the authorities on behalf of home or building owners. Unusually, in the United Kingdom the plumbing trade still remains virtually ungoverned; there are no systems in place to monitor or control the activities of unqualified plumbers or those home owners who choose to undertake installation and maintenance works themselves, despite the health and safety issues which arise from such works when they are undertaken incorrectly - see Health Aspects of Plumbing (HAP) published jointly by the World Health Organisation (WHO)[1] and the World Plumbing Council (WPC) [2]. WPC has subsequently appointed a representative to the World Health Organisation to take forward various projects related to Health Aspects of Plumbing.[3]. Furthermore, despite having in place an infrastructure dedicated to formally training plumbers and various statutes, regulations and bye-laws designed to dictate and control how and in what manner plumbing works are undertaken, there is nothing to stop anyone without any training whatsoever working as a plumber, safe in the knowledge that it is unlikely that their lack of technical know-how will ever be found out. Such people are commonly referred to as "cowboys". For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


See also

Look up Plumbing in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... A system of copper water tubes used in a radiator heating system. ... A heat sink (aluminium) with heat pipe (copper) A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a very small difference in temperature between the hotter and colder interfaces. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... Hot water heat recycling (also known as drain water heat recovery, greywater heat recovery, or sometimes shower water heat recovery) is the use of heat exchanger technology to recover and reuse hot water heat from various activities such as dishwashing, clothes washing and especially showers. ...

References

  1. ^ Plumbing: the Arteries of Civilization, Modern Marvels video series, The History Channel, AAE-42223, A&E Television, 1996
  2. ^ Teresi et al. 2002
  3. ^ Copper Tube Handbook, the Copper Development Association, New York, USA, 2006
  4. ^ Uniform Plumbing Code, IAPMO
  5. ^ International Plumbing Code, ICC
  • Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster, 351-352. ISBN 0-684-83718-8. 
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of
Plumbing

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

External Resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
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plumbing: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2555 words)
This led to a distrust of early indoor plumbing that tended to leak and a deadly fear of the sewer gas that accompanied the leaks.
Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes and tubing for potable water systems and for drainage of waste.
Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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