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Encyclopedia > Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Skyline of Plovdiv
Official seal of Plovdiv
Seal
Nickname: The city of the seven hills
Position of Plovdiv in Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°9′N 24°45′E / 42.15, 24.75
Country Bulgaria
Province Plovdiv
Government
 - Mayor Slavcho Atanasov VMRO
Area
 - City 101 km² (39 sq mi)
 - Land 101 km² (39 sq mi)
 - Water 0 km² (0 sq mi)
Elevation 164 m (538 ft)
Population (31.12.2005)
 - City 378,107
 - Density 3,352/km² (8,681.6/sq mi)
 - Metro 575,297[5]
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 378,107.[1] It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria and three municipalities (Plovdiv, Maritsa and Rodopi), as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace. The city is an important economic, transport, cultural and educational centre.[2] Image File history File links Plovdiv-coat-of-arms. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... Image File history File links Plovdiv_location_in_Bulgaria. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... This is a chronological list of mayors of Plovdiv, the second largest city of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya, Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia region of the Ottoman Empire, and later... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... The Maritsa municipality is located in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria on the northern bank of the Maritsa River. ... Rodopi municipality is situated in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


Plovdiv is situated in the central part of the Upper Thracian Plain on the two banks of the Maritsa River. It is 10 km from the Rhodope mountains and 50 km from the Balkan mountains. The city is constructed on seven syenite hills, some of which are 250 m high. Because of these seven hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as Градът на седемте тепета (the city of the seven hills). View of the city of Sliven and the eastern Upper Thracian Plain from southern Stara Planina The Upper Thracian Plain (Bulgarian: , Gornotrakiyska nizina) constitutes the northern part of the historical region of Thrace. ... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Syenite leucocratic variety of nepheline syenite from Sweden (särnaite). ...


Plovdiv is host to economic and cultural events such as the International Fair Plovdiv, the international theatrical festival "A scene on a crossroad", the TV festival "The golden chest". There are many remains preserved from Antiquity such as the Ancient amphitheatre, Roman odeon, Roman Stadium, the archaeological complex Eirene and others. In the 12th century BC the settlement on one of the hills grew to the Thracian city of Eumolpias which was among the first cities in Europe. International Fair Plovdiv (Международен панаир Пловдив), held in Plovdiv, is Bulgarias largest and oldest international trade fair. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... Although commonly referred to an an amphitheatre, it is more correctly called a theatre. ... The Roman Stadium The Plovdiv Roman Stadium is among the largest Roman structures in the Balkans. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...

Contents

Name

During its long history, Plovdiv was given various names: in Thracian: Pulpudeva, Eumolpias; Latin: Trimontium; Greek: Φιλιππούπολη, Φιλιππούπολις / Philippoupoli, Philippoupolis; Turkish: Filibe. In the Middle Ages the Bulgarians called the city Paldin (Пълдин) or Plavdiv (Плъвдив). The city was usually known as Philippopolis in English until the early 20th century. The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The asteroid (minor planet) 3860 Plovdiv is named after the city. It was discovered by the Bulgarian astronomer Violeta G. Ivanova on 8 August 1986. Plovdiv Peak (1040 m) on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Plovdiv. For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... Violeta Ivanova (Виолета Иванова) is a Bulgarian astronomer. ... Plovdiv Peak (Vrah Plovdiv vr&h plov-div) is a peak rising to 1,040 m in the E extremity of Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... Location of the South Shetlands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula. ...


Geography

A view over Plovdiv
A view over Plovdiv

Plovdiv is situated in the central parts of the Upper Thracian Plain. It is divided by southern Bulgaria's largest river Maritsa. Only one of the city's six districts is located to the north of the river and the main part of the city lies to the south. Image File history File linksMetadata Plovdiv-view-gruev. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Plovdiv-view-gruev. ... View of the city of Sliven and the eastern Upper Thracian Plain from southern Stara Planina The Upper Thracian Plain (Bulgarian: , Gornotrakiyska nizina) constitutes the northern part of the historical region of Thrace. ... For other uses, see Maritsa (disambiguation). ...


The plain of Plovdiv is an alluvial plain formed by the Maritsa and its tributaries. The heights of Sredna Gora rise to the north-west, to the east are the Chirpan Heights. To the south the plain is surrounded by the slopes of the Rhodope mountains[3] which are steep and around 1300 meters high with the valleys of the rivers Vacha, Stara Reka, Yadenitsa, Chepinska and others cutting their way through the heavily forested mountain. In the city itself there are six syenite hills, called tepeta. In the beginning of the 20th century they used to be seven but one of them was destroyed. Traditionally the citizens call them Dzhendem tepe, Bunardzhik, Sahat tepe, Nebet tepe, Dzhambaz tepe and Taksim tepe. The last three form the area of the Three hills (Bulgarian: Трихълмие) in the central part of the city.[4] An alluvial plain is a relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills. ... A view of Sredna Gora from the Thracian tomb near Starosel Sredna Gora (Средна Гора) is a mountain range in central Bulgaria, situated parallel with Stara Planina and extending to the river Iskar to the west and the elbow of Tundzha north of Yambol to the east. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...


Climate

The climate is temperate with strong influence from the Mediterranean and is typical of southern Europe. Summers are generally extremely hot and dry. Winters tend to either have a very mild Mediterranean character, or a very cold Siberian character, and sometimes see elements of both. The average annual temperature is 12.4°С. The average maximum temperature is in July - 30.3°С and the absolute maximum was recorded during the same month in 2000 - 45.0°С. The average minimum temperature is 6.5°С and the absolute minimum was -31.5°С measured during an inversion. The average relative humidity is 73%, it is highest in December - 86% and lowest in July and August - 62%. The total precipitation is 540 mm - the wettest month of the year is May with an average precipitation of 66.2 mm, while the driest is August with an average of 31 mm. The average number of days with a snow blanket in Plovdiv is 23. The average depth of the blanket of snow is 2 to 4 cm and the maximum is normally 6 to 13 but in some winters it can reach 50 cm or more. Gentle winds (0 to 5 m/sec) are predominant in the city with wind speeds of up to 1 m/s representing 95% of all winds during the year. Mists are common in the cooler months especially along the banks of the Maritsa. On average there are 33 days with mist during the year.[5] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Smoke rising in Lochcarron is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air. ... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ...


Climate table:

Weather averages for Plovdiv
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.6 (76) 26 (79) 30.2 (86) 31.4 (89) 36.2 (97) 45.8 (114) 46.7 (116) 44.2 (112) 39.0 (102) 30.3 (87) 23.9 (75) 21.1 (70) 46.7 (116)
Average high °C (°F) 5 (41) 8.9 (48) 14.8 (59) 21.7 (71) 26.3 (79) 31.4 (89) 36.2 (97) 35.6 (96) 30.4 (87) 21.6 (71) 11.3 (52) 4.1 (39) 20.6 (69)
Average low °C (°F) -3.7 (25) -2.2 (28) 4.3 (40) 8.7 (48) 12.0 (54) 18.9 (66) 22.8 (73) 21.4 (71) 19.1 (66) 13.7 (57) 8.0 (46) -1.5 (29) 10.1 (50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 39 (1.5) 33 (1.3) 37 (1.5) 36 (1.4) 51 (2) 65 (2.6) 32 (1.3) 24 (0.9) 30 (1.2) 41 (1.6) 49 (1.9) 44 (1.7) 481 (18.9)
Source: worldweather.org[6]

History

Main article: History of Plovdiv

Antiquity

The Roman odeon.
The Roman odeon.

Plovdiv is one of the oldest cities in Europe. It is a contemporary of Troy and Mycenae, and older than Rome, Carthage or Constantinople. Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery[7] and other objects of everyday life from as early as the Neolithic Age, showing that in the end of the 7th millennium B.C there already was an established settlement there.[8][9] According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Plovdiv's written post-Bronze Age history lists it as a Thracian fortified settlement named Eumolpias. In 4th century BC the city was a centre of a trade fair (called panegyreis).[10] In 342 BC, it was conquered by Philip II of Macedon[11], the father of Alexander the Great, who renamed it "Φιλιππόπολις", Philippopolis or "the city of Philip" in his own honour. Later, it was reconquered by the Thracians who called it Pulpudeva (a translation of Philipopolis)[12] The Odeon was a building used for musical performance in Athens built in the 5th century BC. Hence, any building in ancient Greece or the ancient Roman Empire was called an odeon. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...


In 72 AD it was seized by the Roman general Terentius Varo Lukulus and was incorporated into the Roman Empire[13], where it was called Trimontium (City of Three Hills) and served as metropolis (capital) of the province of Thrace. It gained a city status in late 1st century.[14] Thrimontium was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called "The largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province.[15] In those times, the Via Militaris (or Via Diagonalis), the most important military road in the Balkans, passed through the city.[16][17] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ...

"This [Plovdiv] is the biggest and loveliest of all towns. Its beauty shines from faraway..."
Roman writer Lucian.

The Roman times were a period of growth and cultural excellence.[18] The ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, shrines, baths, and theatres. The city had advanced water system and sewerage. It was defended with a double wall. Many of those are still preserved and can be seen by the tourist. Today only a small part of the ancient city has been excavated.[12] For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ...


Middle Ages

The Slavs had fully settled in the area by the middle of the 6th century and changed the ethnic proportions of the region.[19] With the establishment of Bulgaria in 681 Philipopolis became and important border fortress of the Byzantine Empire. It was captured by Khan Krum in 812 but the region was fully incorporated into the Bulgarian Empire in 834 during the reign of Khan Malamir.[20] It remained in Bulgarian hands until it was conquered by the Byzantine Empire in 970 or 971. In 970 the Asian army of the Byzantine Empire under the eunuch Peter was destroyed by the Bulgarians near Plovdiv.[21] The city again came to be known as Philippopolis and became Byzantine in character. Aime de Varennes in 1180 encountered the singing of Byzantine songs in the city that recounted the deeds of Alexander the great and his predecessors, over 1300 years before.[22] Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Malamir (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 831–836. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Khan Krum was the first Bulgarian ruler to capture Plovdiv.
Khan Krum was the first Bulgarian ruler to capture Plovdiv.

Byzantine rule was succeeded by that of the Latin Empire in 1204, and there were two short interregnum periods as the city was twice occupied by Kaloyan of Bulgaria before his death in 1207.[12] In 1208 Kaloyan's successor Boril was defeated by the Latins in the battle of Plovdiv.[23] Under Latin rule, Plovdiv was the capital of the Duchy of Philippopolis governed by Renier de Trit, and later on by Gerard de Strem. Bulgarian rule was reestablished during the reign of Ivan Asen II between 1225 and 1229. In 1263 Plovdiv was conquered by the restored Byzantine Empire and remained in Byzantine hands until it was re-conquered by George Terter II of Bulgaria in 1322.[24] Byzantine rule was restored once again in 1323, but in 1344 the city and eight other towns were surrendered to Bulgaria by the regency for John V Palaiologos as the price for Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria's support in the Byzantine civil war.[25] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 1296 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 1296 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Boril (Bulgarian: ) reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1207 to 1218. ... Renier of Trit was the first Frankish duke of Philippopolis from 1204 to 1205. ... Ivan Asen II (Bulgarian: , pronounced ; also Йоан Асен II, Yoan Asen II), in English sometimes known as John Asen II, ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241, during the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Tsar George II of Bulgaria was monarch of Bulgaria from 1322 to 1323. ... John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: , Iōannēs V Palaiologos), (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and Anna of Savoy. ... Ivan Alexander (Bulgarian: , transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr;[1] IPA: ), also known as John Alexander,[2] ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371,[3] during the Second Bulgarian Empire. ...


In 1364 the Ottoman Turks under Lala Shakhin Pasha seized Plovdiv.[26][27] The Turks called the city Filibe. It was the capital of Rumelia until 1382 when the Ottomans captured Sofia which became the main city of the province. Plovdiv survived as one of the major cultural centers for Bulgarian culture and tradition. The name Plovdiv first appeared around that time and is derived from the city's Thracian name Pulpudeva (assumed to be a translation of Philippopolis, from Pulpu = Philippou and deva = city), which was rendered by the Slavs first as Pəldin (Пълдин) or Pləvdin. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ...


National revival

The Virgin Mary Church.
The Virgin Mary Church.

Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, Plovdiv was a focal point for the Bulgarian national movement in the Eastern Rumelia province of the Empire. During that period Plovdiv was a major economic center along with Istanbul, Odrin and Solun. The richer citizens constructed beautiful houses many of which can still be seen in the Architectural reserve Old Plovdiv. Plovdiv was a sanjak centre of Rumelia Province between 1364-1864 and was the sanjak centre of Edirne Vilayet between 1864-1878 during Ottoman Rule. The Bulgarian national revival (Vazrazdane) was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people in the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal, the largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Adrianople redirects here. ...


Plovdiv had an important role in the struggle for Church independence which was according to some historians a peaceful bourgeois revolution. Plovdiv became the center of that struggle with leaders such as Nayden Gerov, Dr Valkovich, Joakim Gruev and whole families. In 1836 the first Bulgarian school was inaugurated and in 1850 modern secular education began when the "St Cyrill and Metodius" school was opened. On 11 May 1858 the day of Saints Cyril and Methodius was celebrated for the first time, this later became a National holiday which is still celebrated today. In 1858 in the Church of Virgin Mary the Christmas liturgy was served for the first time in the Bulgarian language since the beginning of the Ottoman occupation. In 1868 the school expanded into the first grammar school. Some of the intellectuals, politicians and spiritual leaders of the nation graduated that school.[12] Nayden Gerov (Bulgarian: ), born Nayden Gerov Hadzhidobrevich (Bulgarian: ) February 23, 1823, Koprivshtitsa–October 9, 1900, Plovdiv) was a Bulgarian linguist, folklorist, writer and public figure during the Bulgarian National Revival. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For details about each of the saints, see Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...


The city was liberated from the Ottomans during the Battle of Plovdiv in 1878.[27] Following the crushing Russian victory at the last battle of Shipka Pass, Russian commander Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko began to move southeast towards Constantinople. ...


Eastern Rumelia

Main article: Bulgarian unification

According to the Treaty of San Stefano on 3 March 1878 the Principality of Bulgaria included the lands with predominantly Bulgarian population. Plovdiv which was the biggest and most vibrant Bulgarian city was selected as a capital of the restored country and for a seat of the Temporary Russian Government.[28] Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, however, did not approve that treaty and the final result of the war was concluded in the Congress of Berlin which divided the newly liberated country into several parts. It separated the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia from Bulgaria and Plovdiv became its capital. The Ottoman Empire created a constitution and appointed a governor.[29] At the time, it had a population of about 33,500, of which 45% were Bulgarians, 25% Greeks, 21% Turks, 6% Jews and 3% Armenians. A map of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia before the Unification. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ...


In the spring of 1885 Zahari Stoyanov formed the Secret Bulgarian Central Revolutionary Committee in the city which actively conducted propaganda for the unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia. On 5 September several hundred armed rebels from Golyamo Konare (now Saedinenie) marched to Plovdiv. In the night of 5-6 September these men led by Danail Nikolaev took control of the city and removed from office the General-Governor Gavril Krastevich. A provisional government was formed led by Georgi Stranski and universal mobilization was announced.[30] After the Serbs were defeated in the Serbo-Bulgarian War, Bulgaria and Turkey reached an agreement according to which the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia had a common government, Parliament, administration and army. Today 6 September is celebrated as the Unification Day and the Day of Plovdiv. Zahariy Stoyanov (Bulgarian: ) (1850 – September 2, 1889), born Dzhendo Stoyanov Dzhendov (Bulgarian: ), was a Bulgarian revolutionary, writer, and historian. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saedinenie (Bulgaria: Община Съединение) is a town in the Plovdiv Province, central Bulgaria. ... Combatants Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Strength >35,000 facing the Serbs at the beggining of the battle of Slivnitsa: 60,000+ towards the end of the war 60,000 Casualties 5000 killed, wounded and missing 7000 killed, wounded and missing The Serbo-Bulgarian War (Bulgarian: , Srabsko-balgarska voyna... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recent history

After the unification Plovdiv remained second city in population and significance after the capital Sofia. The first railway in the city was built in 1874 and in 1888 it was linked with Sofia. In 1892 Plovdiv became host of the First Bulgarian Fair with international participation which was succeeded by the International Fair Plovdiv. After the liberation the first brewery was inaugurated in the city. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... International Fair Plovdiv (Международен панаир Пловдив), held in Plovdiv, is Bulgarias largest and oldest international trade fair. ...

The St Loius Catholic Cathedral.
The St Loius Catholic Cathedral.

In the beginning of the 20th century Plovdiv grew as a significant industrial and commercial center with well developed light and food industry. German, French and Belgian capital was invested in the city in development of modern trade, banking and industry. In 1939 there were 16,000 craftsmen and 17,000 workers in manufacturing factories, mainly for food and tobacco processing. During the Second World War the tobacco industry expanded as well as the export of fruit and vegetables. In 1943 1,500 Jews were saved from deportation in concentration camps by the archbishop of Plovdiv Cyril who later became Bulgarian Patriarch. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Patriarch Cyril (Bulgarian: ) (January 3, 1901 - March 7, 1971), born Konstantin Markov (Bulgarian: ), was the first Patriarch of the restored Bulgarian Patriarchy. ...


On 6 April 1956 the first trolleybus line was opened and in the 1950s the Trimontsium Hotel was constructed. In the 1960s and 1970s there was a construction boom and many of the modern neighborhoods took shape. In the 1970s and 1980s antique remains were excavated and the Old Town was fully restored. In 1990 the Sports complex "Plovdiv" was finished, it included the largest stadium and rowing canal in the country. In that period Plovdiv became the birthplace of Bulgaria's movement for democratic reform, which by 1989 had garnered enough support to enter government. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Plovdiv has hosted specialized exhibitions of the World's Fair in 1981, 1985, and 1991. Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ...


Demographics

Population

The population (including those who live somewhere else in Bulgaria or outside the country but possess Bulgarian passports) for the municipality of Plovdiv for 2007 is 375,137 which makes it second in population in the nation. According to the data of NSI (National Institute of Statistics) the people who actually live in Plovdiv are 346,790.[31] Bulgarian passport cover The Bulgarian passport is a legal document that a Bulgarian citizen needs in order to travel outside the country. ...

Demographic evolution of Plovdiv between 1880 and 1939

1880 Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ...

1884 1887 1892 1900 1910 1920 1926 1934 1939

24,053

33,442 33,032 36,033 43,033 47,981 64,415 84,655 99,883 105,643

Just before the Liberation of Bulgaria Plovdiv was the second largest Bulgarian city after Stara Zagora. According to the data from 1880 it had 24,053 inhabitants.[32] Before it was burned down by the Turks in 1877 Stara Zagora had a population of 25,480 [33] while the capital Sofia had 20,501 inhabitants according to the first census in the Principality of Bulgaria in 1880. After the Unification Plovdiv was the largest city in the country for several years with 33,032 inhabitants compared to 30,428 for Sofia. According to the 1946 census Plovdiv was the second largest city with 117,563 inhabitants compared to 487,000 for the capital.[28] In Bulgarian historiography, the term Liberation of Bulgaria is used to denote the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 that led to the establishment of a Bulgarian state with the Treaty of San Stefano of 3 March 1878. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ...


Ethnicity and religion

In its ethnic character Plovdiv is a cosmopolitan city inhabited by Bulgarians, Turks, Armenians, Jews, Greeks and Gypsies. According to the 1884 census the Bulgarians were 50,09%, followed by Turks (21,36%), Greeks (16,44%), Jews (6,48%) and Armenians (2,93%). After the Wars for National Union (Balkan Wars and World War I) the city became home for thousands of refugees from the occupied Bulgarian lands in Macedonia, Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace. Many of the old neighbourhoods are still referred to as Belomorski, Vardarski. Most of the Jews left the city after the foundation of Israel in 1948. The Bulgarians are a majority followed by Gypsies and Turks.[34] // Turks and Turkish may refer to: Ethnic Turks Citizens or residents of Turkey in historical contexts, all Turkic peoples collectively Turk one of any of the peoples speaking any of the Turkic languages Turkic peoples A native or inhabitant of Turkey, or a member of Turkic speaking minorities in neighboring... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...

From left to right: A view from the central square; the City hall; a fountain in the City garden; a church near the Post Office.
From left to right: A view from the central square; the City hall; a fountain in the City garden; a church near the Post Office.

The vast majority of the inhabitants are Christians - mostly Eastern Orthodox but there are also Catholics, Eastern Catholics and Protestant trends (Adventists, Baptists and others). There are also some Muslims and Jews. In Plovdiv there are many churches, two mosques and a synagogue. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


City government

Plovdiv is the administrative center of Plovdiv Province, Municipality of Plovdiv, Maritsa municipality and Rodopi municipality. The Mayor of the Municipality of Plovdiv Slavcho Atanasov [35], together with the six district mayors represent the local executive authorities. The Municipal Council which consists of 51 municipal counselors, represents the legislative power and is elected according to the proportional system by parties’ lists.[36] The executive government of the Municipality of Plovdiv consists of a mayor who is elected by majority representation, five deputy mayors and one administrative secretary. All the deputy mayors and the secretary control their administrative structured units. Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... The Maritsa municipality is located in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria on the northern bank of the Maritsa River. ... Rodopi municipality is situated in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


According to the Law for the territorial subdivision of the Capital municipality and the large cities[37] the territory of Plovdiv Municipality is subdivided into six district administrations, their mayors being appointed following approval by the Municipal Council.

Trimontsium Hotel.
Trimontsium Hotel.
District Neighbourhoods
Central
neighbourhoods Kapana, Stariya grad, Marasha, Centar
Northern
neighbourhoods Karshiaka, Gagarin, Filipovo, Zaharna Fabrika
Southern
neighbourhoods Hristo Botev - Yug, Hristo Botev - Sever, Vastanecheski, Uhoto, Yuzhen, Komatevo, Ostromila, Belomorski
Eastern
neighbourhoods Kamenitsa, Izgrev, Stolipinovo
Western
neighbourhoods Hristo Smirnenski, Proslav, Maldezhki Halm, Mladost
Trakiya
Olga Skobeleva, Lauta

In 1969 the villages of Proslav and Komatevo were incorporated into the city. In 1987 the municipalities of Maritsa and Rodopi were separated from Plovdiv which remained their administrative center. In the last several years the inhabitants from those villages had taken steps to rejoin the "urban" municipality.[38]


Landmarks

Plovdiv is a major cultural center. The city has more than 200 archaeological sites[39], 30 of which are of national importance. There are many remains from antiquity - Plovdiv is among the few cities with two ancient theatres; remains of the medieval walls and towers; Ottoman baths and mosques; a well-preserved old quarter from the National Revival period with beautiful houses, churches and narrow paved streets. There are numerous museums, art galleries and cultural institutions. Plovdiv is host to musical, theatrical and film events.


The city is a starting point for trips to places in the region, such as the Bachkovo Monastery at 30 km to the south, the ski-resort Pamporovo at 90 km to the south or the spa resorts to the north Hisarya, Banya, Krasnovo, Strelcha.[40] There are more that 50 hotels with 7,000 beds as well as hostels and other forms of accommodation.[41] Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria is one of the largest and oldest Orthodox Christian monasteries in Eastern Europe. ... The five-star Hotel Pamporovo and the new church in the resort Pamporovo (Bulgarian: Пампорово) is a popular mountain resort in Smolyan Province, southern Bulgaria, one of the best-known in Southeastern Europe. ... A destination spa is a business establishment which people visit for personal health, life enhancement, fitness, personal care treatments such as massages, facials, in a resort setting. ... Hisarya (also spelled Hisar or Hissarya) is a small resort town in Bulgaria, in Plovdiv Region. ... Banya refers to. ... Strelcha (Bulgarian: ) is a small Bulgarian town with a population of 4,858 as of September 2005. ...


Antique city

The Antique theatre of Plovdiv.
The Antique theatre of Plovdiv.

The Antique theatre which is wrongly referred to as the Amphitheatre is one of the most famous monuments from the Antiquity in Bulgaria.[42] It was built in the beginning of the 2nd century during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan. It is situated in the natural saddle between the Dzhambaz Tepe and Taksim Tepe hills. It is divided into two parts with 14 rows each divided with a horizontal lane. The theatre could accommodate 3,500 people.[43] The three-storey scene is located on the southern part and is decorated with friezes, cornices and statues. The theatre was studied, conserved and restored between 1968 and 1984. Many events are still held on the scene[44] including the Verdi festival and the International Folklore festival. The Roman Odeon was restored in 2004.[45] It was built in 2-5th century and is the second (and smaller) antique theatre of Philipopolis with 350 seats. It was initially built as a bulevterion - edifice of the city counsel and was later reconstructed as a theatre. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 439 KB) Description: The Roman Theatre in Plovdiv in Bulgaria Creator: CdaMVvWgS Date of creation: May 1, 2005 License: GNU-FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Plovdiv Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 439 KB) Description: The Roman Theatre in Plovdiv in Bulgaria Creator: CdaMVvWgS Date of creation: May 1, 2005 License: GNU-FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Plovdiv Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Although commonly referred to an an amphitheatre, it is more correctly called a theatre. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ...


The Roman forum dates from the reign of Vespasian in 1st century and was finished in the 2nd century. It is located near the modern post office next to the Odeon. It has an area of 11 hectares and was surrounded by shops and public buildings. The forum was a focal point of the streets of the ancient city.[46] Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...

The remains of Roman stadium.
The remains of Roman stadium.

The Roman Stadium[47] is another important monument of the ancient city. It is situated between Sahat Tepe and the Three hills in the modern Dzhumaya Square. It was built in the 2nd century and modeled after the stadium in Delphi. In Roman times it could hold 30,000 spectators.[46] Only a small part of the northern section with 13 seat rows can be seen nowadays - the larger part lies under the main street and a number of buildings. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1604 KB) own work, September 2006, Eva Popp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plovdiv Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1604 KB) own work, September 2006, Eva Popp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plovdiv Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Roman Stadium The Plovdiv Roman Stadium is among the largest Roman structures in the Balkans. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


The Eirene Archaeological complex is located in the southern part of the Three hills on the northern part of an ancient street in the Arheologicheski underpass. It includes remains of a public building from 3-4th century which belonged to a noble citizen. Eirene is the Christian name for Penelopa - a maiden from Megadon who was converted to Christianity in 2nd century. There are colourful mosaics which have geometrical forms and figures.[48]


On Nebet Tepe are found remains of the first settlement on the Three hills which in 12th century BC grew to the Thracian city of Eumolpias, one of the first cities in South-eastern Europe. Massive walls surrounding a temple and a palace have been excavated. The oldest part of the fortress was constructed from large syenite blocks - the so called "cyclop construction". The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


Museums and protected sites

The Archaeological Museum was established in 1882 as a People's Museum of Eastern Rumelia.[49] In 1928 the museum was moved to a 19th century edifice on Saedinenie Square built by the famous Plovdiv architect Josif Shniter. The museum contains a rich collection of Thracian art. The three section "Prehistory"[50], "Antiquity"[51] and "Middle Ages"[52] contain precious artifacts from the Paleolithic to the early Ottoman period (15th-16th centuries).[53] The famous Panagyurishte treasure is part of the museum's collection.[54] // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...

The Ethnographic Museum.
The Ethnographic Museum.

The Historical Museum of Plovdiv[55] was founded in 1951 as a scientific and cultural institute for collecting, saving, and researching historical evidence about Plovdiv and the region from 16th to 20th centuries. The exhibition is situated in three buildings.[53]


The Regional Ethnographic Museum - Plovdiv was inaugurated in 1917. On 14 October 1943 it was moved to a house in the Old town. In 1949 the Municipal House-museum was reorganized as a People's Ethnographic Museum and in 1962 it was renovated. There are more than 40,000 objects.[53] is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Museum of Natural Science was inaugurated in 1955in the old edifice of the Plovdiv Municipality built in 1880. It is among the most important museums in the country with rich collections in Paleontology, Mineralogy and Botanic sections. There are several rooms for wildlife and it contains Bulgaria's largest freshwater aquarium with 40 fish species.[53] It has a collection of minerals from the Rhodope mountains. Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Botanic is an electoral ward of South Belfast. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...


The Museum of Aviation was established on 21 September 1991 on the territory of the Krumovo airbase[56] 12 km to the south-east of the city. The museum possesses 59 aircraft and both indoor and outdoor exhibitions.[53] is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Old Town of Plovdiv is a historic preservation site known for its Bulgarian Renaissance architectural style. The Old Town covers the area of the three central hills (Трихълмие, Trihalmie) —Nebet Tepe, Dzhambaz Tepe and Taksim Tepe. Almost every house in the Old Town has its characteristic exterior and interior decoration.


Churches, mosques and temples

There are a number of 19th century churches, most of which follow the distinctive Eastern Orthodox construction style. Those are the Saint Constantine and Saint Helena, the Saint Marina, the Saint Nedelya, the Saint Petka and the Holy Mother of God Churches. There are also Roman Catholic Cathedrals in Plovdiv, the largest of them being St Ludovic. There are several more modern Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churches, as well as older style Apostolic churches. Two mosques remain in Plovdiv from the time of the Ottoman rule. There is also one synagogue. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Culture

Theatre and music

A house in the Old town.
A house in the Old town.
A performance in the Roman Odeon.
A performance in the Roman Odeon.

The Plovdiv Drama Theatre[57] is a successor of the first professional theatre group in Bulgaria founded in 1881. The Plovdiv Puppet Theatre, founded in 1948, remains one of the leading institutions in this genre. The Plovdiv Opera was established in 1953.


Another post of Plovdiv's culture is the Philharmonic, founded in 1945.[58] Soloists such as Dmitri Shostakovich, Sviatoslav Richter, Mstislav Rostropovich, Yuri Boukov and Mincho Minchev have worked with the Plovdiv Philharmonic. The orchestra has toured in almost all of the European countries. The Trakiya Folklore Ensemble, founded in 1974, has performed thousands of concerts in Bulgaria and more than 42 countries.[59] The Trakiya Traditional Choir was nominated for a Grammy Award. The Detska Kitka Choir is one of the oldest and best known youth choirs in Bulgaria, winner of numerous awards from international choral competitions. Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter (Russian: , Svjatoslav Teofilovič Rikhter) (March 20 [O.S. March 7] 1915 – August 1, 1997) was a Soviet pianist, widely recognized as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Detska Kitka Choir is a girls’ choir based in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. ...


Literature

Plovdiv is among the nation's primary literary centres - in 1855 Hristo Danov created the first Bulgarian publishing company and later the first printing-press.[60] The city's traditions as a literary centre are preserved by the first public library in Bulgaria, the Ivan Vazov National Library, by the 19 chitalishta (cultural centres) and by numerous booksellers and publishers. The library was founded in 1879[61] and named after the famous Bulgarian writer and poet Ivan Vazov who worked there for five years creating some of his best works.[62] Today the Ivan Vazov National Library is the second largest national library institution with more than 1,5 million books[63], owning rare Bulgarian and European publications. The chitalishte in Koprivshtitsa was built in 1869 A chitalishte (Bulgarian: читалище ) is a typical Bulgarian public building which fulfills several functions at once, such as a library and a theatre. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Arts

The Art Gallery of Plovdiv
The Art Gallery of Plovdiv

The city has traditions in Iconography since the Middle Ages. During the Period of National Revival a number of notable icon-painters (called in Bulgarian zografi, зографи) from all regions of the country worked in Plovdiv - Dimitar Zograf and his son Zafir Zograf, Zahari Zograf, Georgi Danchov and others.[27] After the Liberation the famous Bulgarian painter of Czech origin Ivan Mrkvička came to work in the city. The Painters' society was established there by artists from Southern Bulgaria in 1912 whose members included the prominent painters Zlatyu Boyadzhiev, Sirak Skitnik, Tsanko Lavrenov. Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One of the mural self-portraits of Zahari Zograf Zahariy Hristovich Dimitrov (Bulgarian: Захарий Христович Димитров), better known as Zahari Zograf (or Zahariy Zograf; Захари(й) Зограф) is arguably the most famous Bulgarian painter of the Bulgarian National Revival, noted for his church mural paintings and icons and often regarded as the founder of secular art... Ivan Mrkvička (-Czech, also Jan Václav Mrkvička; Bulgarian: ) (23 April 1856 – 16 May 1938) was a Czech-born painter and an active contributor to the artistic life of newly-liberated Bulgaria in the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Zlatyu Georgiev Boyadzhiev (October 22, 1903 - February 2, 1976) was a Bulgarian painter. ...


Today the city has 30 art galleries. The Art Gallery of Plovdiv was founded in the late 19th century.[64] It possesses 5,000 pieces of art in 4 separate buildings. Since 1981 it has a section for Mexican Art donated by the Mexican painters in honour of the 1,300-year anniversary of the Bulgarian State. Mexican may have several meanings. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Plovdiv

Located in the middle of a rich agricultural region, since the beginning of the 20th century Plovdiv grew as an industrial center. Food processing, tobacco, brewing and textiles were the main pillars of the industry.[65] During the socialism the city's economy greatly expanded and wasdominated by heavy industry - it still produces lead and zinc, machinery, electronics, motor trucks, chemicals and cosmetics. After the fall of Communism in 1989 and the collapse of Bulgaria's planned economy, a number of industrial complexes were closed. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... The driver of a car transporter truck prepares to offload Skoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For further uses of the word truck, see Truck (disambiguation). ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Make-up redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ...


Plovdiv has one of the country's fastest growing economies with average GDP growth of 12-13%. As of 2005 the total revenues are 9.4 billion leva (approximately 4.8 billion euro), which is with 88% more than in 2001. The profits for the same period rose 4.5 times.[66] The unemployment is 6,5%[67] which is lower than the national average. One of recent problems are municipality's administrative borders which almost completely coincide with the city limits. Due to the constant increase of investments which are $465,000,000 for 2005 some of the businesses have to be redirected to the Maritsa or Rodopi municipalities such as the industrial zone of Radinovo village.[66] GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Lev can refer to several things: Lev is a male first name of Slavic origin. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Industry has been expanding again since the late 1990s, with manufacturing plants built in the city or in its outskirts, mainly the municipality of Maritsa. In this period, some €500,000,000 has been invested in construction of new factories. Some of the new plants include the Liebherr refrigerator plant with 1,850 employees and a capacity of 450,000 items per year, the Socotab tobacco processing plant (2,000 employees), a bicycle plant (500 workers, capacity 500,000 units)[68], а Schneider electronics factory[69], a biodiesel plant, the Bulsaphil textile plant (790 workers), and several electronics and high-tech plants producing CD players and other electronic equipment. The largest electronics plant in the Balkans was inaugurated in the nearby village of Voivodinovo.[70] The Liebherr Group is a German manufacturer established in 1949 by Hans Liebherr. ... Schneider may refer to: Schneider (surname) for the name and people Schneider, Indiana, a small town in the United States. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Due to the demand for business office space Business Park Plovdiv is going to be constructed in the district of Trakiya. The investment is for €68,000,000 and the park will occupy an area of 110,000 m².[71][72] A commercial and industrial park is to be built in the village of Radinovo at several km to the north-west of the city with a built-up area of 50,000 m².[73]


Shopping and commerce

A new trade center in the Trakiya District.
A new trade center in the Trakiya District.

The commercial sector is developing fast. Trade centers have been built mainly in the Central district and the district of Trakiya. Those include Trade Center Grand[74], Market Center[75] and two more all on the Kapitan Raycho Street[76], Forum in Trakiya, Exelsior and others. There are several malls under construction - the €40 million Mall of Plovdiv with a shopping area of 40,000 m², 11 cinemas and parking for 700 cars[77], €50 mln. Central Mall Markovo tepe[78], a huge €60 mln. mall and hotel complex in the district of Trakiya[79] as well as several other projects planned or under construction. Look up Mall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...



Several hypermarkets have been built mainly on the outskirts of the city: Metro, Kaufland, Sani (2 outlets), Praktiker, Billa, Mr. Bricolage, Baumax, Technopolis, Technopark Europa and others. The main shopping area is the central street with its shops, cafés and restaurants. A number of cafés, craftsmen workshops and souvenir shops are situated in the Old town and the small streets in the centre, known among the locals as "The trap" (Bulgarian: Капана). METRO AG Logo METRO AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Germany. ... Kaufland is a German hypermarket chain part of the same group as Lidl and Handelshof. ... There are places in the world that have the name Sani: Sani Beach - a hotel in Sani. ... Praktiker is a German hypermarket chain offering home improvement and do-it-yourself goods. ... This article is about the company. ... A Mr. ... bauMax is an Austrian hypermarket chain offering home improvement and do-it-yourself goods. ...


The Plovdiv International Fair, held annually since 1892, is the largest and oldest fair in the country and all of southeastern Europe, gathering companies from all over the world in an exhibition area of 138,000 m² located on a territory of 352,000 m² on the northern banks of the Maristsa river.[80] It attracts more than 600,000 visitors from different countries.[81] International Fair Plovdiv (Международен панаир Пловдив), held in Plovdiv, is Bulgarias largest and oldest international trade fair. ...


The city also has a duty-free zone since 1987. It has a customs terminal handling cargo from trucks and trains.[82]


Transport

The Central Railway Station of Plovdiv.
The Central Railway Station of Plovdiv.
Plovdiv airport.
Plovdiv airport.

Plovdiv has a geographical position which makes it an international transport hub. Three of the ten Pan-European corridors run into or near the city - Corridor IV (Dresden-Bucharest-Sofia-Plovdiv- Instanbul), Corridor VIII (Durrës-Sofia-Plovdiv-Varna/Burgas) and Corridor X (Salzburg-Belgrade-Plovdiv-Instanbul).[83][84] A major tourist center, Plovdiv lies at the foot of the Rhodope Mountains, and most people wishing to explore the mountains choose it as their trip's starting point. The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Corridor X may refer to Part of Interstate 22 in the USA, one of the Appalachian Regional Corridors The part of European route E75 in the area of the former Yugoslavia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...


Plovdiv is a major road and railway hub in southern Bulgaria[85]: the Trakiya motorway (A1) is only at 5 km to the north. It lies on the important national route from Sofia to Burgas via Stara Zagora. First-class roads lead to Sofia to the west, Karlovo to the norths, Asenovgrad and Kardzhali to the south, Stara Zagora and Haskovo to the east. There are intercity buses which link Plovdiv with cities and towns all over the country and many European countries. They are based in three bus stations: South, Rodopi and North. Trakiya morotway near the town of Vakarel The Trakiya motorway (Bulgarian: ) or Thrace motorway, designated A1, is a motorway currently in construction in Bulgaria. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Location of Haskovo Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Provinces (Oblast) Government  - Mayor Georgi Ivanov Elevation 196 m (643 ft) Population (2005-12-14)  - Total 96,010 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal Code Area code(s) 038 Haskovo (Bulgarian: ); is the name of a town and administrative... The Bus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ...


Railway transportation in the city dates back to 1872 when it became a station on the Lyubimets-Belovo railway line. There are railways to Sofia, Panagyurishte, Karlovo, Peshtera, Stara Zagora, Dimitrovgrad and Asenovgrad. There are three train stations - Central Railway Station, Trakiya and Filipovo as well as a Freight Station.[83] End of the single track, unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, quite close to the Slovenian border. ... Lyubimets, a small town in the Khaskovo region of Bulgaria with its own municple control. ... Belovo (Bulgarian Белово) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Panagyurishte (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dimitrovgrad is a municipality in the Haskovo region of Southern Bulgaria. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ...


Plovdiv has an extensive public transport system[86], including around 40 bus and trolleybus lines.[83] Six bridges span over the Maritsa river including a railroad bridge and a covered bridge. There are important road junctions to the south, south-west and north. A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... For other uses, see Maritsa (disambiguation). ... A covered bridge is a bridge, often single-lane, with enclosed sides and a roof. ...


Plovdiv International Airport is located near the village of Krumovo, 12 km southeast of the city. There are plans for its modernisation and expansion. It takes charter flights from several European countries. A number of other, mainly small airports are located in the surroundings of the city including the important military airbase in Graf Ignatievo to the north of Plovdiv. Plovdiv International Airport (Bulgarian: Международно Летище Пловдив) (IATA: VAR, ICAO: LBWN) is the airport of the second largest city in Bulgaria, Plovdiv. ... Krumovo (Bulgarian: Крумово) is a village in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria. ... Lajes Airbase in the Azores islands, Portugal An Airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. ... Graf Ignatievo (Bulgarian: Граф Игнатиево) is a village in the Maritsa municipality, southern Bulgaria. ...


Education

Around two thirds of the citizens (62,38%) have secondary, specialized or higher education. That percentage has increased in the period 1992-2001.[87]


Plovdiv has 78 schools including elementary, high, foreign language, mathematics, technical and art schools. There are also 10 private schools and a seminary. The number of pupils for 2005 is 36,964 and is constantly decreasing since the mid 1990 due to lower birth-rate.[87] Among the most prestigious schools are: Plovdiv English Language School, National Schools of Commerce - Plovdiv[88], Omega College[89], English Academy[90], National School for music and dance art Plovdiv[91], French High School of Plovdiv[92]. For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ...


The city has 6 universities and a number of state and private colleges and branches of other universities. Those include the Plovdiv University[93] with 900 lecturers and employees and 13,000 students, the Medical University of Plovdiv with 2,600 students[94], the Medical College, Technical University of Sofia - Branch Plovdiv[95], Agrarian University - Plovdiv[96], University of Food Technologies[97], Academy for Music, Dance and Fine Arts[98] and others.[87] The Plovdiv University is one of the biggest and most prestigious in Bulgaria. ...


Sports and recreation

Plovdiv Sports Complex in autumn.
Plovdiv Sports Complex in autumn.

The Plovdiv Sports Complex is the biggest in Eastern Europe. It consists of the Plovdiv Stadium with several additional football fields, tennis courts, swimming pools, rowing base with 3km long channel, restaurants, cafés situated in a spacious park in the western part of the city just south of the Maritza river. There are also playgrounds for the children. It is popular among the citizens of Plovdiv and the guests of the city who use it for jogging, walking and relaxation. The Plovdiv Statium[99] has 55,000 seats which makes it the largest football venue in Bulgaria.[100] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Plovdiv Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... Maritza can be: The river Maritsa Maritza (musical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other stadiums include Hristo Botev Stadium (22,000 seats)[101], Lokomotiv Stadium (the capacity is 11,000 seats)[102], Maritsa Stadium (5,000 seats) and Todor Diev Stadium (7,000 seats). There are also six indoor sports halls - Lokomotiv, Dunav, Stroitel, Chaika, Akademik, Total Sport. In 2006 a water park was opened near the city centre called Aqualand.[103] Several smaller water parks are situated in the city as well. The following is a list of indoor arenas. ...

A view from the City garden.
A view from the City garden.

Football is the most popular sport in the city. Plovdiv has four professional football teams. Botev Plovdiv[104] was founded in 1912, and is named after one of the most ardent Bulgarian poets and revolutionaries, Hristo Botev. The city also has PFC Lokomotiv, founded in 1936.[105] Both teams are a regular fixture in the top Bulgarian league. The rivalry between them is considered to be even more fierce than the one between Levski and CSKA of Sofia. There are also two other football clubs in the city – Maritsa FC (founded in 1921)[106] and Spartak Plovdiv (1947).[107] Soccer redirects here. ... Botev Plovdiv (also known as the Canaries), founded on March 12, 1912, is a Bulgarian football club from the city of Plovdiv. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... PFC Lokomotiv 1936 Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is a Bulgarian football club, from the city of Plovdiv. ... The Bulgarian A Professional Football Group (А Професионална футболна група) or A PFG (А ПФГ) is the top division of Bulgarian football. ... Levski Sofia redirects here. ... CSKA Sofia redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... FC Maritsa Plovdiv (ФК Марица Пловдив) are a Bulgarian football club from the city of Plovdiv founded in 1921 through the merger of Karshiyaka-Vampir and Trite konski sili. ... Botev Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Ботев Пловдив), also known as the Canaries, founded on March 12, 1912, is a Bulgarian football club from the city of Plovdiv. ...


Plovdiv is host of the international boxing tournament "Strandzha" which takes place since 1949.[108] In 2007 ninety-six boxers from 20 countries participated in the tournament. There is a horse racing club and a horse base near the city. Plovdiv has several volleyball and basketball teams. For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... This article is about the sport. ...


Three of the city's seven hills are protected natural territories since 1995. Two of the first parks in Bulgaria are located in the city center - Tsar Simeon garden (also known as the City garden) and Dondukov garden. Some of the larger parks include the Botanical garden, Beliz Brezi, Ribnitsa and Lauta. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Notable citizens

Old Plovdiv.
Old Plovdiv.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (778x1198, 688 KB) Beschrijving Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Plovdiv Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Bulgarian National Revival Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Old Plovdiv Category... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (778x1198, 688 KB) Beschrijving Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Plovdiv Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Bulgarian National Revival Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Old Plovdiv Category... Boris Christoff Boris Christoff (Bulgarian: ) (May 18, 1914, Plovdiv, Bulgaria – June 28, 1993, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the greatest basses of the 20th century. ... Nikolay Bukhalov (born March 20, 1967 in Karlovo) is Bulgarias most successful ever flatwater canoer. ... Stefka Kostadinova (born March 25, 1965) is a Bulgarian former athlete specialising in the high jump and current President of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee. ... Maria Petrova cyrillic Мария Петрова was born in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on November 13 1975 and is regarded as one of the finest rhythmic gymnasts of all time. ... Müezzinzade Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pascha (born 1564 in Filibe in Ottoman Empire, today Plovdiv in Bulgaria; died 1632 in Istanbul) was an Ottoman Grand Vizier. ... Jordan Jovchev (born February 24, 1973 in Plovdiv) is a Bulgarian gymnast. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Milcho Leviev (December 19, 1937, Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a Bulgarian composer, arranger, jazz performer and pianist. ... She was born in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on January 30th, 1944, and her artistic career starts from here. ... Ognyana Petkova-Dusheva Ognyana Petkova,/Dusheva/ (Bulgarian: Огняна Петрова-Душева) is Bulgarian canoer, born ( December 20, 1964 ) in Svilengrad,Bulgaria Ognyana Petkova,/Dusheva/ started her sports career in Plovdiv “Trakia” Sports Club of canoe-kayak in 1976. ... Tsvetana Pironkova (Bulgarian: ) (born 13 September 1987) is a female Bulgarian tennis player. ... Hristo Stoichkov alternatively spelt Stoitchkov (Bulgarian: ) (born February 8, 1966, in Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a football manager and former striker who was a member of the Bulgaria national team that finished fourth at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. ... Petar Stefanov Stoyanov (Bulgarian: ) (born May 25, 1952) was President of Bulgaria from 1997 until 2002. ... Anjel Raymond Vagenstein was born in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on October 17, France where his Jewish family emigrated due to political reasons. ...

Twinning

Plovdiv is twinned with the following cities[109][110]: This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... , Country  Czech Republic Region Parts 29  - Bohunice  - Bosonohy  - Bystrc  - Brno-Center  - ÄŒernovice  - Chrlice  - Ivanovice  - Jehnice  - Jundrov  - Kníničky  - Kohoutovice  - Komín  - Královo Pole  - Líšeň  - Maloměřice and ObÅ™any  - Medlánky  - Brno-North  - Nový Lískovec  - OÅ™ešín  - Å˜ečkovice and Mokrá Hora  - Slatina  - Brno-South... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of South Korea highlighting the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Gyumri in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Marz Established 401 BC Government  - Mayor Vartan Ghukasyan Area  - City 36 km²  (13. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Location of the city of Kumanovo (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Zoran Damjanovski Elevation +340 m (1,115 ft) Population (2002)  - Total 105 484 Time zone CET (UTC+1) Postal codes Area code(s) 389 031 Patron saints St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Location of Leskovac within Serbia Coordinates: , Country District Settlements 144 Government  - Mayor Vladan Marinković (DS) Area [3]  - Municipality 1,025 km² (395. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... 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See also

This is a chronological list of mayors of Plovdiv, the second largest city of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... This is a list of airports in Bulgaria. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Plovdiv

References

  1. ^ General Directorate of Citizens' Registration and Administrative Services: Population Chart as of December 15, 2007 for the City of Plovdiv (Bulgarian). Retrieved on 2007-12-18
  2. ^ (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 138. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  3. ^ (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 145. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  4. ^ Седемте чудеса на България - Пловдив
  5. ^ Общински план за развитие на Пловдив 2005 - 2013 г., посетен на 10 ноември 2007 г.
  6. ^ World Weather Information Service
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Детев, П. Разкопки на Небет тепе в Пловдив, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 27-30
  9. ^ Ботушарова, Л. Стратиграфски проучвания на Небет тепе, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 66-70
  10. ^ История на България, Том 1, Издателство на БАН, София, 1979, p. 142
  11. ^ История на България, Том 1, Издателство на БАН, София, 1979, p. 206
  12. ^ a b c d История на Пловдив
  13. ^ Dimitrov, B. (2002). The Bulgarians - the first Europeans (in Bulgarian). Sofia: University press "St Climent of Ohrid", p. 17. ISBN 954-07-1757-4. 
  14. ^ История на България, Том 1, Издателство на БАН, София, 1979, p. 307
  15. ^ Lenk, B. - RE, 6 A, 1936 col. 454 sq
  16. ^ Cultural Corridors of South East Europe/Diagonal Road. Association for Cultural Tourism.
  17. ^ Николов, Д. Нови данни за пътя Филипопол-Ескус, София, 1958, p. 285
  18. ^ Dimitrov, B. (2002). The Bulgarians - the first Europeans (in Bulgarian). Sofia: University press "St Climent of Ohrid", pp. 18-19. ISBN 954-07-1757-4. 
  19. ^ Dimitrov, B. (2002). The Bulgarians - the first Europeans (in Bulgarian). Sofia: University press "St Climent of Ohrid", p. 25. ISBN 954-07-1757-4. 
  20. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 66 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  21. ^ Syuzyumov, М (1916). "Sources from Leo Deacanus and Scyzitzes (Ob istochnikah Leva Diakona i Skilitsi, Об источниках Льва Дьякона и Скилицьi)" (in Russian). ВО (2). 
  22. ^ Vacalopoulos, Apostolos E. Origins of the Greek Nation. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Eutgers University Press, 1970) p. 22
  23. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 180 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  24. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 253 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  25. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 272 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  26. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 274 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  27. ^ a b c (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 139. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  28. ^ a b Очерци из историята на Пловдив (стр. 80 - Космополитен град. Махали и квартали в ново време)
  29. ^ История на България, страница на МВНР
  30. ^ Аndreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 322 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  31. ^ http://grao.bg/tna/tab02.txt
  32. ^ Eastern Rumelia between Europe and Orient, 17 January 2008 г.
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ Information for Plovdiv Demographic features (in Bulgarian)
  35. ^ [3]
  36. ^ Община Пловдив.
  37. ^ Law for the territorial subdivision of the Capital municipality and the large cities, посетен на 16 ноември 2007 г.
  38. ^ Темите на 2007-ма: Ягодово - квартал на Пловдив, Plovdiv24.com, 3 February 2008 г.
  39. ^ Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria (in Bulgarian/English), p. 371. ISBN 954-91672-I-6. 
  40. ^ Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria (in Bulgarian/English), p. 395. ISBN 954-91672-I-6. 
  41. ^ Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria (in Bulgarian/English), p. 395. ISBN 954-91672-I-6. 
  42. ^ [4]
  43. ^ The Antique theatre
  44. ^ (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 140. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  45. ^ The Roman odeon
  46. ^ a b (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 138. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  47. ^ The Roman stadium
  48. ^ Eirene Archaeological complex
  49. ^ Archaeological Museum Plovdiv
  50. ^ Archaeological Museum Plovdiv - Prehistoric art
  51. ^ Archaeological Museum Plovdiv - Roman art
  52. ^ Archaeological Museum Plovdiv - Middle Ages art
  53. ^ a b c d e Museums of Plovdiv
  54. ^ Archaeological Museum Plovdiv - Panagyurishte treasure
  55. ^ Plovdiv Regional Historical Museum
  56. ^ Infoplovdiv - Museum of Aviation
  57. ^ Drama Theatre Plovdiv
  58. ^ Philharmonic of Plovdiv
  59. ^ Trakiya Folklore Ensemble (in Bulgarian)
  60. ^ Hristo Danov
  61. ^ History of the Ivan Vazov National Library
  62. ^ With the exception of Under the Yoke the other significant works of Ivan Vazov (Nemili-nedragi, Eppopee of the Forgotten, Uncles) were written in Plovdiv.
  63. ^ Structure of the Ivan Vazov National Library
  64. ^ Art Gallery of Plovdiv
  65. ^ Plovdiv - BGP
  66. ^ a b Plovdiv regains its business positions
  67. ^ Unemployment in Plovdiv
  68. ^ Bicycle factory in Tsaratsovo
  69. ^ A new Schneider factory to be built in Radinovo near Plovdiv
  70. ^ The biggest electronic plant to open in Voivodinovo (in Bulgarian)
  71. ^ The construction of Business Park Plovdiv begins in October 2008
  72. ^ Business Park Plovdiv
  73. ^ ИТ парковете - нова концепция за България, ИТ парк Пловдив
  74. ^ Grand Trade Center to open in Plovdiv
  75. ^ Пет големи търговски центъра слагат край на сергиите в центъра на Пловдив
  76. ^ Пет големи търговски центъра слагат край на сергиите в центъра на Пловдив
  77. ^ Construction of MALL of PLOVDIV begins
  78. ^ A Bulgarian-Israeli company to build a mall in Plovdiv
  79. ^ Мол за 60 млн. евро ще строят в пловдивския райoн Тракия
  80. ^ Plovdiv International Fair
  81. ^ Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria (in Bulgarian/English), p. 393. ISBN 954-91672-I-6. 
  82. ^ Balabanov, G. (2005). This is Bulgaria (in Bulgarian/English), p. 393. ISBN 954-91672-I-6. 
  83. ^ a b c Transport in Plovdiv
  84. ^ See the map
  85. ^ (2002) Пътеводител България (in Bulgarian). София: ТАНГРА ТанНакРа ИК, p. 143-144. ISBN 954-9942-32-5. 
  86. ^ A map of the Plovdiv Public transport
  87. ^ a b c Information for Plovdiv - education
  88. ^ National School of Commerce - Plovdiv
  89. ^ Omega College, Plovdiv (Колеж "Омега" Пловдив)
  90. ^ English Academy Plovdiv
  91. ^ National School for music and dance art Plovdiv
  92. ^ French High School of Plovdiv
  93. ^ University of Plovdiv "Paisiy Hilendarski"
  94. ^ Medical University
  95. ^ Technical University of Sofia, Plovdiv branch
  96. ^ University of Agriculture
  97. ^ University of Food Technologies
  98. ^ Academy of Music, Dance and Fine Arts
  99. ^ Plovdiv Stadium in Stadiums of Bulgaria
  100. ^ World Stadiums
  101. ^ Hristo Botev Stadium in Stadiums of Bulgaria
  102. ^ Lokomotiv Stadium in Stadiums of Bulgaria
  103. ^ Aqualand
  104. ^ Official site of Botev Plovdiv
  105. ^ Official site of Lokomotiv Plovdiv
  106. ^ Maritsa Plovdiv
  107. ^ Spartak Plovdiv
  108. ^ International boxing tournament Strandzha
  109. ^ Sister cities
  110. ^ http://www.namrb.org/filesystem.php?id=12.xls

Coordinates: 42°9′N, 24°45′E is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of cities in Bulgaria with over 20,000 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Ancient Rocks, Aitos Crafts Alley, Aitos Aitos municipality is located in the eastern part of the Republic of Bulgaria and belongs to the administrative boundaries of Burgas county. ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Balchik (Bulgarian Балчик, Romanian Balcic) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Southern Dobruja area of northeastern Bulgaria. ... Belene (Bulgarian Белене) is a town in Northern Bulgaria. ... The centre of the town Houses in Varosha, the old quarter of Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad (Bulgarian: Благоевград, formerly Горна Джумая, Gorna Dzhumaya) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, situated in Blagoevgrad Province, with a population of about 76,000. ... all my regards and wishes to Angela Marinova from [email protected] ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Chirpan (Чирпан) is a town in southern Bulgaria, part of Stara Zagora Province. ... Devnya (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Varna Province, located in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Dimitrovgrad (Bulgarian: ) is a town and a municipality in Haskovo Province of southern Bulgaria. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Dupnitsa (Дупница) is a town in western Bulgaria. ... Elena is a Bulgarian town in the Middle Balkan Range, 42 km south-east of Veliko Turnovo; a mountain resort at an altitude of 280 m. ... Etropole (Етрополе) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province. ... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ... Gorna Oryahovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a town in northern Bulgaria, situated in Veliko Tarnovo Province, between the towns of Veliko Tarnovo and Dolna Oryahovitsa. ... Goce Delchev location in Bulgaria Gotse Delchev (Гоце Делчев), population 23,573, is a town in Southwestern Bulgaria (Pirin Macedonia). ... Harmanli is a town in south-eastern Bulgaria. ... Location of Haskovo Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Provinces (Oblast) Government  - Mayor Georgi Ivanov Elevation 196 m (643 ft) Population (2005-12-14)  - Total 96,010 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal Code Area code(s) 038 Haskovo (Bulgarian: ); is the name of a town and administrative... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ... Karnobat, a city in the Bourgaska State, Karnobat Municipality of Bulgaria. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Kavarna (Bulgarian: Каварна) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Dobruja region of northeastern Bulgaria. ... The Lyutov House, a mid-19th century house in Koprivshtitsa Characteristic architecture in Koprivshtitsa The roofs of the old buildings The Oslekov House Overview of the town The Karavelov House Koprivshtitsa (Bulgarian: ; , from the Bulgarian word , kopriva, meaning nettle) is a historic town in Sofia Province, central Bulgaria, lying on... Kozloduy (Bulgarian: ) is a town of 13,871 inhabitants in northwestern Bulgaria, located in Vratsa Province, on the river Danube. ... Kyustendil Coat of arms Kyustendil (Bulgarian: , historically , Velbazhd, Turkish: ) is a town in the very west of Bulgaria, and the capital of Kyustendil Province, with a population of 47,196 (2005 calculation). ... Shishman Street - a street in Lom, Bulgaria Soviet style tower blocks characterize Loms skyline, with the Danube River and Romania visible in the background. ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Montana (Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Montana Province. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Nikopol (Нікополь) is a town of Ukraine, in the government of Ekaterinoslav, on the right bank of the Dnieper, 70 miles S.S.W. of the town of Ekaterinoslav. ... Nova Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a town with a population of approximately 26,000 people in the city, and approximately 48,000 in the entire municipality (which includes 33 surrounding villages). ... Centar,Novi Pazar Novi Pazar (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Пазар,  ) is a city and municipality located in the RaÅ¡ka District of Serbia at 43. ... Oryahovo (Bulgarian: , Romanian: Rahova) is a port city in northwestern Bulgaria, part of Vratsa Province. ... Panagyurishte (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Pazardzhik (Bulgarian: , also spelled as Pazardjik or Pazarjik) is a town situated along the banks of the Maritsa river in Bulgaria. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Petrich is a small town in the Blagoevgrad district in Bulgaria, located at the foot of the Belasitza. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... For other places with the same name, see Popovo. ... Provadiya (Bulgarian: ) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Varna Province, located in a deep karst gorge along the Provadiya River not far from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Ä°brahim PaÅŸa) Mosque Razgrad (Разград) is a city in northeastern Bulgaria and the capital of Razgrad Province, built upon the ruins of the Ancient Roman town of Abritus on the banks of the Beli Lom. ... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Samokov (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. ... Sandanski (Bulgarian: , formerly Свети Врач, Sveti Vrach) is a town and recreation centre in southwestern Bulgaria, part of Blagoevgrad Province. ... Sevlievo is a town in north-central Bulgaria, between Sofia and Varna. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Smolyan (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: or Ahiçelebi) is a town in the very south of Bulgaria, the administrative center of Smolyan Province. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Svilengrad (Cyrillic: Свиленград) is a municipality in Bulgaria situated at the border of Turkey and Greece. ... Svishtov is a Bulgarian town at Danube river, nearly 235 km north-east from Sofia. ... A street in Targovishte TârgoviÅŸte is also a city in Romania. ... Coat of arms of Troyan Troyan (also spelled Troian, Bulgarian: Троян) is a town in central Bulgaria with population of about 30,000 and territory of 888,850 m². It is located 160km from Sofia. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Plan of Preslav Preslav (Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Velingrad is the most beautiful and most famous among the Bulgarian Balneological resorts. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Bulgarian: ) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... Zlataritsa (Bulgarian: ) is a town situated in the central northern part of Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province and close to the towns of Elena, Lyaskovets, Strazhitsa and Antonovo. ... Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Brezovo (Bulgarian Брезово) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Hissarya (also spelled Hisar or Hisarya) is a small resort town in Bulgaria, in the Plovdiv Region. ... Kaloyanovo municipality (Bulgarian: ) is a municipality in the Plovdiv Province, central Bulgaria and covers an area of 347 km². As of 2006 it has 12,390 inhabitants. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ... Krichim (Кричим) is a town in southern Bulgaria, located in the southwestern part of Plovdiv Province close to Perushtitsa. ... Kuklen is a village in Bulgaria. ... Laki (Bulgarian: ) is a small town in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria. ... The Maritsa municipality is located in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria on the northern bank of the Maritsa River. ... Parvomay (sometimes spelt Parvomai or Purvomay in English) is a town and the name of a Municipality in Southern Bulgaria. ... Townhall of Perushtitsa, the cultural centrum – 2 epochs, 1 goal: liberty Perushtitsa (Bulgarian: ) or Perushtitza is a Bulgarian town located in the Plovdiv Oblast at the foot of the Rhodopes. ... Rakovski (Раковски) is a town in southern Bulgaria, the historical region of Thrace, part of Plovdiv Province. ... Rodopi municipality is situated in the Plovdiv Province, southern Bulgaria. ... Sadovo (Bulgarian: Садово) is a small town in the Plovdiv Province, central Bulgaria. ... Saedinenie (Bulgaria: Община Съединение) is a town in the Plovdiv Province, central Bulgaria. ... The town of Sopot (12 119 inhabitants, 520 metres above sea level) is situated in the fertile sub-Balkan mountain valley of Karlovo (which is the western part of the legendary Valley of the Roses), immediately under the steep southern slopes of the Troyan Balkan Mountain (Central Stara Planina). ... Stamboliyski (Стамболийски) is a town in southern Bulgaria, part of Plovdiv Province. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plovdiv Guide - (262 words)
Plovdiv is the second largest city in Bulgaria, situated on the Maritsa River.
Being older than most of the oldest towns like Rome, Athens, Carthage or Constantinople, an almost contemporary of Troy, Plovdiv is a town built upon layers of towns and a culture developed upon layers of cultures.
Plovdiv is a picturesque town, with many parks and gardens, museums and archaeological monuments.
Plovdiv - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1708 words)
Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 376,918 citizens.
Plovdiv is regarded as the gate to the Rhodopes, as most people who head for the mountains choose it as their starting point.
In 1263 Plovdiv was conquered by the restored Byzantine Empire and remained in Byzantine hands until it was taken by George Terter II of Bulgaria in 1322.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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