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Encyclopedia > Pliocene

The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.3 million to 1.8 million years before present. A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ...


The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era. The Pliocene follows the Miocene epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene epoch. Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Cenozoic or Cainozoic era (sometimes Caenozoic Era) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... The Pleistocene Epoch is part of the geologic timescale. ...


The Pliocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. The name comes from the Greek words pleion (more) and ceno (new) and means roughly "continuation of the recent" and refers to the essentially modern marine mollusc faunas. Charles Lyell Sir Charles Lyell (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), British geologist, and popularizer of uniformitarianism. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ...


As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified, but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The boundaries defining the onset of the Pliocene are not set at an easily identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer Miocene and the relatively cooler Pliocene. The upper boundary was intended to be set at the start of the Pleistocene glaciations but is now considered to be set too late. Many geologists find the broader divisions into Paleogene and Neogene more useful. This article is about the geologic use of the term, for other uses see Stratum (disambiguation) Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ...


Astronomers suspect that a massive supernova occurred relatively near the Earth and might have caused a significant breakdown of the ozone layer and the extinction of some ocean life. Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... The ozone layer, or ozonosphere layer (rarely used term), is that part of the Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...

Tertiary sub-era Quaternary sub-era
Neogene period
Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene Holocene
Aquitanian Burdigalian Zanclean Early  
Langhian Serravallian Piacenzian Middle
Tortonian Messinian Gelasian Late

Contents

The Tertiary period was previously one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 65 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... The Pleistocene Epoch is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years. ... In the geologic timescale, the Aquitanian is the stage of the Miocene Epoch that is comprehended between 23 million 30 thousand and 20 million 430 thousand years ago, approximatedly. ... In the geologic timescale, the Burdigalian is the age of the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is between 20. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Early Pleistocene (also known as Lower Pleistocene, or Calabrian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ... In the geologic timescale, Piacenzian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... The Middle Pleistocene is the central part of the Pleistocene Epoch from about 780,000 YA to the penultimate cold pulse at about 125,000 YA. Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs | Pleistocene ... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ... The Messinian period is the last part of the Miocene epoch. ... In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ...


Pliocene subdivisions

The Pliocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...

Gelasian (2.588 – 1.806 MYA)
Piacenzian (3.600 – 2.588 MYA)
Zanclean (5.332 – 3.600 MYA)

In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... In the geologic timescale, Piacenzian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Pliocene climate

Climates became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. Antarctica became ice-bound, entirely covered with year-round glaciation, near or before the start of the Pliocene. The formation of an Arctic ice cap ca 3 mya is signalled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic and North Pacific ocean beds (Van Andel 1994 p 226). Mid-latitude glaciation were probably underway before the end of the epoch. This article is about the geographical formation. ...


Pliocene paleogeography

Continents continued to drift toward their present positions, moving from positions possibly as far as 250km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current locations. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama during the Pliocene, bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive marsupial faunas. The formation of the Isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, as warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off and an Atlantic cooling cycle began, with cold Arctic and Antarctic waters dropping temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean. Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs and destroys, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


Africa's collision with Europe formed the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Tethys Ocean divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was an ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Sea level changes exposed the land-bridge between Alaska and Asia. Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 1st 1,717,854 km² 1,300 km 2,380 km 13. ...


Pliocene marine rocks are well exposed in the Mediterranean, India, and China. Elsewhere, they are exposed largely near shores.


Pliocene flora

The change to a cooler, dry, seasonal climate had considerable impacts on Pliocene vegetation, reducing tropical species world-wide. Deciduous forests proliferated, coniferous forests and tundra covered much of the north, and grasslands spread on all continents (except Antarctica). Tropical forests were limited to a tight band around the equator, and in addition to dry savannahs, deserts appeared in Asia and Africa. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... An Inner Mongolian Grassland. ... Savanna is a grassland dotted with trees, and occurs in several types of biomes. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ...


Pliocene fauna

Oliva sayana, Florida (EEUU)
Oliva sayana, Florida (EEUU)

Both marine and continental faunas were essentially modern, although continental faunas were recognizably a bit more primitive than today. The first recognizable hominins, the australopithecines, appeared in the Pliocene. Image File history File linksMetadata Oliva_sayana. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Oliva_sayana. ... Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... This term australopithecine refers to two very closely related hominin genera: Australopithecus Paranthropus When used alone, the term refers to both genera together. ...


The land mass collisions meant great migration and mixing of previously isolated species. Herbivores got bigger, as did specialized predators. In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ...


Mammals

In North America, rodents, large mastodonts and gomphotheres, and opossums continued successfully, while hoofed animals (ungulates) declined, with camel, deer and horse all seeing populations recede. Rhinos, tapirs and chalicotheres went extinct. Carnivores including the weasel family diversifed, and dogs and fast-running hunting bears did well. Ground sloths, huge glyptodonts and armadillos came north with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Mastodon is also a Heavy Metal Band. ... Gomphothere is an diverse group of extinct elephant-like animals, proboscideans). ... Llamas such as this, which have two toes, are artiodactylas -- even toed ungulates Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius A camel is either of the two species of large even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus, the Dromedary (single hump) and the Bactrian Camel (double hump). ... Subfamilies Capreolinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 nugget For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Genera Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus Diceros Rhinoceros Coelodonta (extinct)Elasmotherium (extinct) A rhinoceros (commonly called a rhino for short) is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... Species Tapirus bairdii - Bairds Tapir Tapirus indicus - Malayan Tapir Tapirus pinchaque - Mountain Tapir Tapirus terrestris - Brazilian Tapir A tapir is a large, browsing animal, roughly the shape of an over-sized pig but with a short, prehensile trunk. ... Chalicotheres were a group of perissodactyl mammals that lived from 45 to 3. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Species Mustela africana Mustela altaica Mustela erminea Mustela eversmannii Mustela felipei Mustela frenata Mustela kathiah Mustela lutreola Mustela lutreolina Mustela nigripes Mustela nivalis Mustela nudipes Mustela putorius Mustela sibirica Mustela strigidorsa Mustela vison Weasels are mammals in the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic dog. ... Genera Ailuropoda Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus(extinct) A bear is a very large mammal of the order Carnivora, family Ursidae. ... Families Megalonychidae P.Gervais, 1855 Bradypodidae Gray, 1821 Sloths are medium-sized South American mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae, part of the order Xenarthra. ... Glyptodon (Greek for grooved or carved tooth) was a relative of the armadillo that lived during the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Genera Chlamyphorus Cabassous Chaetophractus Dasypus Euphractus Priodontes Tolypeutes Zaedyus Armadillos are any of several small mammals of the family Dasypodidae, mostly known for having a bony armor shell. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ...


In Eurasia rodents did well, while primate distribution declined. Elephants, gomphotheres and stegodonts were successful in Asia, and hyraxes migrated north from Africa. Horse diversity declined, while tapirs and rhinos did fairly well. Cows and antelopes were successful, and some camel species crossed into Asia from North America. Hyaenas and early saber-toothed cats appeared, joining other predators including dogs, bears and weasels. Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of animals, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. ... Gomphothere is an diverse group of extinct elephant-like animals, proboscideans). ... Stegodon is a genus of the extinct family Stegodontidae of the order Proboscidea. ... Genera  Procavia  Heterohyrax  Dendrohyrax A hyrax is any of about 11 species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 nugget For other uses, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Species Tapirus bairdii Tapirus indicus Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus terrestris Tapirs are large browsing animals, roughly pig-like in shape but with short, prehensile trunks. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Genera Aepyceros Alcelaphus Antidorcas Antilope Cephalophus Connochaetes Damaliscus Gazella Hippotragus Kobus Madoqua Neotragus Oreotragus Oryx Ourebia Pantholops Procapra Sylvicapra Taurotragus Tragelaphus and others The antelope are a group of herbivorous African or Asian animals of the family Bovidae, distinguished by a pair of hollow horns on their heads. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius A camel is either of the two species of large even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus, the Dromedary (single hump) and the Bactrian Camel (double hump). ... The term saber-toothed cat describes numerous cat-like species that lived during various parts of the Cenozoic and evolved their saber-toothed characteristics entirely independently. ...

Human evolution during the Pliocene

Human evolution is the process of change and development, or evolution, by which human beings emerged as a distinct species. ...

Africa was dominated by hoofed animals, and primates continued their evolution, with australopithecines (some of the first hominids) appearing in the late Pliocene. Rodents were successful, and elephant populations increased. Cows and antelopes continued diversification and overtaking pigs in numbers of species. Early giraffes appeared, and camels migrated via Asia from North America. Horses and modern rhinos came onto the scene. Bears, dogs and weasels (originally from North America) joined cats, hyaenas and civets as the African predators, forcing hyaenas to adapt as specialized scavengers. Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... This term australopithecine refers to two very closely related hominin genera: Australopithecus Paranthropus When used alone, the term refers to both genera together. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Lufengpithecus (extinct) Ankarapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Dryopithecus (extinct) Ouranopithecus (extinct) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Orrorin (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae... Families See Classification Section The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Binomial name Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 The Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Subfamilies Cryptoproctinae Euplerinae Hemigalinae Paradoxurinae Viverrinae The 35 species of civet, (pronounced sǐvǐt), genet, and linsang make up the family Viverridae. ...


South America was invaded by North American species for the first time since the Cretaceous, with North American rodents and primates mixing with southern forms. Litopterns and the notoungulates, South American natives, did well. Small weasel-like carnivorous mustelids and coatis migrated from the north. Grazing glyptodonts, browsing giant ground sloths and smaller armadillos did well. Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... The Litopterna, also known as the pseudo-horse, is an order of fossil mammals from the Tertiary Period that displays toe reduction. ... The Notoungulates are an extinct order of hoofed mammals that were native in South America. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Species Nasua nasua Nasua narica Nasua nelsoni The name coati is applied to any of three species of small neotropical mammals in the genus Nasua, family Procyonidae, ranging from southern Arizona to north of Argentina. ... Glyptodon (Greek for grooved or carved tooth) was a relative of the armadillo that lived during the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Scelidotheriidae Mylodontidae Orophodontidae Megalonychidae Megatheriidae Ground sloths are extinct edentate (Order Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... Genera Chlamyphorus Cabassous Chaetophractus Dasypus Euphractus Priodontes Tolypeutes Zaedyus Armadillos are any of several small mammals of the family Dasypodidae, mostly known for having a bony armor shell. ...


The marsupials remained the dominant Australian mammals, with herbivore forms including wombats and kangaroos, and the huge diprotodonts. Carnivorous marsupials continued hunting in the Pliocene, including dasyurids, the dog-like thylacine and cat-like Thylacoleo. The first rodents arrived, while bats did well, as did ocean-going whales. The modern duck-billed platypus, a monotreme, appeared. Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Genera and Species Vombatus É. Geoffroy, 1803 Vombatus ursinus (Shaw, 1800) Lasiorhinus Gray, 1863 Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen, 1845) Lasiorhinus krefftii Owen, 1873 Wombats are Australian marsupials; they are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately one metre (3 feet) in length and with a mere nubbin of a tail. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus A kangaroo is any of several large macropods (the marsupial family that also includes the wallabies, tree-kangaroos, wallaroos, pademelons and the Quokka: 65 species in all). ... Species Diprotodon opatum Diprotodon minor Diprotodon loderi Diprotodon annextans Diprotodonts were the largest marsupials that ever lived. ... Families Thylacinidae Dasyuridae Myrmecobiidae Most carnivorous marsupials belong to the order Dasyuromorphia, including the quolls, dunnarts, Numbat, Tasmanian Devil, and the recently extinct Thylacine. ... Binomial name Thylacinus cynocephalus (Harris, 1808) Thylacine The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), also known as Tasmanian Tiger, Tassie (tazzy) Tiger, or Tasmanian Wolf, was a large carnivorous marsupial native to Australia. ... Binomial name Thylacoleo carnifex (Owen, 1858) The Marsupial Lion (Thylacoleo carnifex) is an extinct species of carnivorous marsupial, that lived in Australia from about 24 million years ago, during the late Oligocene, and became extinct about 50,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. ... Suborders Megachiroptera Microchiroptera See text for families. ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ... Binomial name Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Shaw, 1799) The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a small, half-aquatic mammal endemic to the eastern part of Australia, and one of the five extant species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young (the other four are echidnas). ... Families Kollikodontidae(extinct) Ornithorhynchidae- Platypus Tachyglossidae- Echidnas Steropodontidae(extinct) Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs, instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ...


Birds

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Pliocene oceans

Oceans continued to be relatively warm during the Pliocene, though continued cooling. The Arctic ice cap formed, drying the climate and increasing cool shallow currents in the North Atlantic. Deep cold currents flowed from the Antarctic. An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ...


The formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 3.5 million years ago cut off the final remnant of what was once essentially a circum-equatorial current that had existed since the Cretaceous and the early Cenozoic. This may have contributed to further cooling of the oceans worldwide. The Isthmus of Panama. ... Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... The Cenozoic Era (sen-oh-ZOH-ik; sometimes Caenozoic Era in the United Kingdom) meaning new life (Greek kaino = new + zoikos = life) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ...


The Pliocene seas were alive with sea cows, seals and sea lions. Families Dugongidae Trichechidae For information about the Gothic Metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Genera Eumetopias Zalophus Otaria Neophoca Phocarctos A sea lion is any of several marine mammals of the family Otariidae. ...


Supernovae

In 2002, astronomers discovered that roughly 2 million years ago, around the end of the Pliocene epoch, a group of bright O and B stars called the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association passed within 150 light-years of Earth and that one or more supernovae may have occurred in this group at that time. Such a close explosion could have damaged the Earth's ozone layer and caused the extinction of some ocean life (consider that at its peak, a supernova of this size could produce that same amount of absolute magnitude as an entire galaxy of 200 billion stars). (Comins, Kaufmann pp. 359) In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us. ...


References

  • Van Andel, Tjeerd H., New Views on an Old Planet: a History of Global Change (2nd edition, 1994)
  • Comins, Niel F.; William J. Kaufmann III (2005). Discovering the Universe, 7th edition, New York, NY: Susan Finnemore Brennan. 0-7167-7584-0.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pliocene (317 words)
The Pliocene epoch is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from about 5 million to 1.8-1.6 million years before present.
The Pliocene follows the Miocene epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene epoch.
The Pliocene is the fifth and last epoch of the Tertiary Era.
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