FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pliny the Elder
rmn-military-header.png

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ...


Military of ancient Rome (Portal)
800 BC–AD 476 The Military of ancient Rome (known to the Romans as the militia) relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city of Rome to the end of the Western Roman Empire. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of Wars and Battles
Decorations and Punishments
Technological history
Military engineering (castra,
siege engines, arches, roads)
Personal equipment
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications (Limes,
Hadrian's Wall)
Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. No contemporary depiction of Pliny has survived.
Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. No contemporary depiction of Pliny has survived.

Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23 AD to August 24, 79 AD), better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient author, natural philosopher and naval and military commander of some importance who wrote Naturalis Historia. He believed that "true glory consists of doing what deserves to be written, and writing what deserves to be read". The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The history of ancient Rome - originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD - was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is that Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... robert galusha is mad ass fucking hot Root directory at Strategy of the Roman military Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of Great Britain. ... Pliny the Elder from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events Rome Greek geographer Strabo publishes Geography, a work covering the world known to the Romans and Greeks at the time of Emperor Augustus - it is the only such book to survive from the ancient world. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 79. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An author is any person(s) or entity(s) that originates and assumes responsibility for an expression or communication. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...


He was the son of a Roman eques by the daughter of the Senator Gaius Caecilius of Novum Comum. He was born at Como, not (as is sometimes supposed) at Verona: it is only as a native of Gallia Transpadana that he calls Catullus of Verona his conterraneus, or fellow-countryman, not his municeps, or fellow-townsman.[1] A statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Como (Comm in the local dialect of Lombard language) is a city in Lombardy, Italy, 45 km north of Milan. ... This page is about the city in Italy; for other uses, see Verona (disambiguation). ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ...

Contents

Life

Student and lawyer

Before 35 AD[2] Pliny's father took him to Rome, where he was educated under his father's friend, the poet and military commander, Publius Pomponius Secundus, who inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. Two centuries after the death of the Gracchi, Pliny saw some of their autograph writings in his preceptor's library,[3] and he afterwards wrote that preceptor's Life. For alternate uses, see Number 35. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Publius Pomponius Secundus, Roman general and tragic poet, lived during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius. ... The Gracchi were a plebeian family of ancient Rome. ...


He mentions the grammarians and rhetoricians, Remmius Palaemon and Arellius Fuscus,[4] and he may have been their student. In Rome he studied botany in the topiarius (garden) of the aged Antonius Castor,[5] and saw the fine old lotus trees in the grounds that had once belonged to Crassus.[6] He also viewed the vast structure raised by Caligula,[7] and probably witnessed the triumph of Claudius over Britain in 44.[8] Under the influence of Seneca the Younger he became a keen student of philosophy and rhetoric, and began practicing as an advocate. This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... Quintus Remmius Palaemon, Roman grammarian, a native of Vicentia, lived in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. ... Arellius Fuscus (or Aurelius Fuscus) was an ancient Roman orator. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Categories: Stub ... The lotus tree (Greek lôtos) was a plant in Greek mythology bearing a fruit that caused a pleasant drowsiness and growing in North Africa. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41 CE. During his brief reign, Caligula focused much of his attention on ambitious construction... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses, see Number 44. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ...


Junior officer

He saw military service under Corbulo in Germania Inferior in 47, taking part in the Roman conquest of the Chauci and the construction of the canal between the rivers Maas and Rhine.[9] As a young commander of cavalry (praefectus alae) he wrote in his winter-quarters a work on the use of missiles on horseback (De jaculatione equestri), with some account of the points of a good horse.[10] Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... This article is about the year 47. ... The Chauci were a populous Germanic tribe inhabiting the extreme northwestern shore of Germany during Roman times - basically the stretch of coast between Frisia in the west to the Elbe estuary in the east. ... The Meuse(Maas) at Maastricht Length 925 km Elevation of the source 409 m Average discharge 230 m³/s Area watershed 36 000 km² Origin France Mouth Hollands Diep Basin countries France - Belgium - Netherlands The Meuse (Dutch Maas) is a large European river rising in France, flowing through Belgium and... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... It has been suggested that Guided missile be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


In Gaul and Spain he learned the meanings of a number of Celtic words.[11] He took note of sites associated with the Roman invasion of Germany, and, amid the scenes of the victories of Drusus, he had a dream in which the victor enjoined him to transmit his exploits to posterity.[12] The dream prompted Pliny to begin forthwith a history of all the wars between the Romans and the Germans. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Drusus was a cognomen in Ancient Rome, and may refer to: Drusus Caesar - was the son of Germanicus, also called Drusus III. Gaius Livius Drusus was consul in 147 BC. Julius Caesar Drusus was the son of Tiberius, also called Drusus II. Marcus Livius Drusus was the name of two... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He probably accompanied his father's friend Pomponius on an expedition against the Chatti (50), and visited Germany for a third time (50s) as a comrade of the future emperor, Titus Flavius.[13] The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... This article is about the year 50. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ...


Literary interlude

Under Nero Pliny lived mainly in Rome. He mentions the map of Armenia and the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea, which was sent to Rome by the staff of Corbulo in 58.[14] He also saw the building of Nero's "golden house" after the fire of 64.[15] Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68)[2], born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this...


Meanwhile he was completing the twenty books of his History of the German Wars, the only authority expressly quoted in the first six books of the Annals of Tacitus,[16] and probably one of the principal authorities for the Germania. It was superseded by the writings of Tacitus, and, early in the 5th century, Symmachus had little hope of finding a copy.[17] The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, c. ...


He also devoted much of his time to writing on the comparatively safe subjects of grammar and rhetoric. A detailed work on rhetoric, entitled Studiosus, was followed by eight books, Dubii sermonis, in 67. For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ...


Senior officer

Under his friend Vespasian he returned to the service of the state, serving as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis (70) and Hispania Tarraconensis (73), and also visiting the province of Gallia Belgica (74). During his stay in Spain he became familiar with the agriculture and the mines of the country, besides paying a visit to Africa.[18] On his return to Italy he accepted office under Vespasian, whom he used to visit before daybreak for instructions before proceeding to his official duties, after the discharge of which he devoted all the rest of his time to study.[19] Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... This article is about the year 73. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see number 74. ... Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Famous author

He completed a History of His Times in thirty-one books, possibly extending from the reign of Nero to that of Vespasian, and deliberately reserved it for publication after his death.[20] It is quoted by Tacitus,[21] and is one of the authorities followed by Suetonius and Plutarch. The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


He also virtually completed his great work, the Naturalis Historia, an encyclopedia into which Pliny collected much of the knowledge of his time. The work had been planned under the rule of Nero. The materials collected for this purpose filled rather less than 160 volumes, which Larcius Licinus, the praetorian legate of Hispania Tarraconensis, vainly offered to purchase them for a sum equivalent to more than £3,200 (1911 estimated value) or £200,000 (2002 estimated value). Aside from minor finishing touches, the work in 37 books was completed in 77 CE.[22] Pliny dedicated the work to the emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus in 77. Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 77. ...


Vesuvius

Soon afterwards he received from Vespasian the appointment of praefect of the Roman Navy at Misenum. On August 24, 79 A.D., he was stationed at Misenum, at the time of the great eruption of Mount Vesuvius, which overwhelmed Pompeii and Herculaneum. A desire to observe the phenomenon directly, and also to rescue some of his friends from their perilous position on the shore of the Bay of Naples, led to his launching his galleys and crossing the bay to Stabiae (near the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia). His nephew, Pliny the Younger, provided an account of his death, and suggested that he collapsed and died through inhaling poisonous gases emitted from the volcano.[23] However, Stabiae was 16 km from the vent and his companions were apparently unaffected by the fumes, and so it is more likely that the corpulent[24] Pliny died through a different cause, such as a stroke or heart attack.[25] His body was found with no apparent injuries on 26 August, after the plume had dispersed sufficiently for daylight to return. The word prefect can refer to any of a number of types of official, including: in Latin, praefectus: a high-ranking military or civil official in the Roman Empire; the title now attaches to the heads of some departments of the Roman Curia, who are traditionally Cardinals, and if they... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 79. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio, Latin: Mons Vesuvius) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Gulf of Naples is located in Southern Italy. ... The city of Stabiae was at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, and therefore was one of the communities damaged by its eruption in 79 AD. Some few people got away from the initial lava, and told others of the coming erruption, but succumbed to the ash as it started to... Location of Castellammare di Stabia in the Gulf of Naples. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Stroke (or cerebrovascular accident or CVA) is the clinical designation for a rapidly developing loss of brain function due to an interruption in the blood supply to all or part of the brain. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The story of his last hours is told in an interesting letter addressed twenty-seven years afterwards to Tacitus by the Elder Pliny's nephew and heir, Pliny the Younger,[26] who also sends to another correspondent an account of his uncle's writings and his manner of life:[27]

"He began to work long before daybreak.…He read nothing without making extracts; he used even to say that there was no book so bad as not to contain something of value. In the country it was only the time when he was actually in his bath that was exempted from study. When travelling, as though freed from every other care, he devoted himself to study alone. In short, he deemed all time wasted that was not employed in study."

Pliny is still remembered in vulcanology where the term plinian (or plinean) refers to a very violent eruption of a volcano marked by columns of smoke and ash extending high into the stratosphere. The term ultra-plinian is reserved for the most violent type of plinian eruption such as the 1883 destruction of Krakatoa. Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related geological phenomena. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Krakatoa or Krakatau or Krakatao is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. ...


The Natural History

His only writings to have survived to modern times is the Naturalis historia. It was used as an authority over the following centuries by countless scholars, for natural history literally but also in its relation to ancient medicine. In his treatment of plants, he was able to compound medicinal herbal remedies and put them to use through internal fumigation (painful), clysters (healing liquids in orafices) and pessaries, as well as countless other means.


Literature

At the conclusion of his literary labours, as the only Roman besides Lucretius who had ever taken for his theme the whole realm of nature, he prays for the blessing of the universal mother on his completed work. Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ...


In literature he assigns the highest place next to Homer, Cicero and Virgil. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became...


He takes a keen interest in nature, and in the natural sciences, studying them in a way that was then new in Rome, while the small esteem in which studies of this kind were held does not deter him from endeavouring to be of service to his fellow countrymen.[28]


The scheme of his great work is vast and comprehensive, being nothing short of an encyclopedia of learning and of art so far as they are connected with nature or draw their materials from it. With a view to this work he studied the original authorities on each subject and was most assiduous in making excerpts from their pages. His indices auctorum are, in some cases, the authorities which he has actually consulted (though in this respect they are not exhaustive); in other cases, they represent the principal writers on the subject, whose names are borrowed second-hand for his immediate authorities. He frankly acknowledges his obligations to all his predecessors in a phrase that deserves to be proverbial,[29]

"plenum ingenni pudoris fateri per quos profeceris".

He had neither the temperament for original investigation, nor the leisure necessary for the purpose.


It was his scientific curiosity as to the phenomena of the eruption of Vesuvius that brought his life of unwearied study to a premature end; and any criticism of his faults of omission is disarmed by the candour of the confession in his preface:

"nec dubitamus multa esse quae et nos praeterierint; homines enim sumus et occupati officiis".

Style

His style betrays the influence of Seneca. It aims less at clearness and vividness than at epigrammatic point. It abounds not only in antitheses, but also in questions and exclamations, tropes and metaphors, and other mannerisms of the Silver Age. The rhythmical and artistic form of the sentence is sacrificed to a passion for emphasis that delights in deferring the point to the close of the period. The structure of the sentence is also apt to be loose and straggling. There is an excessive use of the ablative absolute, and ablative phrases are often appended in a kind of vague "apposition" to express the author's own opinion of an immediately previous statement, e.g. [30], Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... Antithesis (from the Greek anti = against and thesis = position) is a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences within a balanced grammatical structure. ... In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... In reference to Roman literature, the Silver age covers the first two centuries A.D. directly after the Golden age (which was the first century B.C., and the start of the first century A.D.) Literature from the Silver age has traditionally, perhaps unfairly, been considered inferior to that... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, which allows for very flexible word order. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ...

"dixit (Apelles) ... uno se praestare, quod manum de tabula sciret tollere, memorabili praecepto nocere saepe nimiam diligentiam".

Manuscripts

About the middle of the 3rd century an abstract of the geographical portions of Pliny's work was produced by Solinus; and early in the 4th century the medical passages were collected in the Medicina Plinii. Early in the 8th century we find Bede in possession of an excellent manuscript of the whole work. In the 9th century Alcuin sends to Charlemagne for a copy of the earlier books;[31] and Dicuil gathers extracts from the pages of Pliny for his own Mensura orbis terrae (ca. 825). // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished during the first half of the 3rd century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Rabanus Maurus (left), supported by Alcuin (middle), presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus or Ealhwine (c. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Dicuil was an Irish monk and geographer, born in the second half of the 8th century; date of death unknown. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ...


Pliny's work was held in high esteem in the Middle Ages. The number of extant manuscripts is about 200; but the best of the more ancient manuscripts, that at Bamberg, contains only books xxxii-xxxvii. Robert of Cricklade, prior of St. Frideswide's Priory at Oxford, dedicated to Henry II a Defloratio consisting of nine books of selections taken from one of the manuscripts of this class, which has been recently recognized as sometimes supplying us with the only evidence for the true text. Among the later manuscripts, the codex Vesontinus, formerly at Besançon (11th century), has been divided into three portions, now in Rome, Paris, and Leiden respectively, while there is also a transcript of the whole of this manuscript at Leiden. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... The priory of St Frideswide, Oxford was established as a priory of Augustinian regular canons, in 1122. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Leyden redirects here. ...


Highlights

A special interest attaches to his account of the manufacture of the papyrus,[32] and of the different kinds of purple dye,[33] while his description of the notes of the nightingale is an elaborate example of his occasional felicity of phrase.[34] Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Not to be confused with Violet (color). ... Binomial name Luscinia megarhynchos (Brehm, 1831) This article is about the bird. ...


Some of Pliny's wisest and most famous adages include:

"Among these things, one thing seems certain - that nothing certain exists and that there is nothing more pitiful or more presumptuous than man."
"Because of a curious disease of the human mind, it pleases us to enshrine in history records of bloodshed and slaughter, so that those ignorant of the facts of the world may become acquainted with the crimes of mankind."

Research after 1500

Sir Thomas Browne expressed a wholesome skepticism about Pliny's dependability in his Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1646):[35] Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Sir Thomas Brownes vast work refuting the common errors and superstitions of his age, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, first appeared in 1646 and went through five editions, the last revision occurring in 1672. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

"Now what is very strange, there is scarce a popular error passant in our days, which is not either directly expressed, or diductively contained in this Work; which being in the hands of most men, hath proved a powerful occasion of their propagation. Wherein notwithstanding the credulity of the Reader is more condemnable then the curiosity of the Author: for commonly he nameth the Authors from whom he received those accounts, and writes but as he reads, as in his Preface to Vespasian he acknowledgeth."

Most of the recent research on Pliny has been concentrated on the investigation of his authorities, especially those which he followed in his chapters on the history of art - the only ancient account of that subject which has survived. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


A carnelian inscribed with the letters C. PLIN. has been reproduced by Cades (v.211) from the original in the Vannutelli collection. It represents an ancient Roman with an almost completely bald forehead and a double chin; and is almost certainly a portrait, not of Pliny the Elder, but of Pompey the Great. Seated statues of both the Plinies, clad in the garb of scholars of the year 1500, may be seen in the niches on either side of the main entrance to the cathedral church of Como. Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The elder Pliny's anecdotes of Greek artists supplied Vasari with the subjects of the frescoes which still adorn the interior of his former home at Arezzo. Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ...


Pliny in popular culture

  • Pliny is a significant character in the novel Pompeii by Robert Harris.

Robert Harris is an English TV reporter and author, born in 1957 in the city of Nottingham. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Praef. §1
  2. ^ N.H. xxxvii.81
  3. ^ xiii.83
  4. ^ xiv.4; xxxiii.152
  5. ^ xxv.9
  6. ^ xvii.5
  7. ^ xxxvi.111
  8. ^ iii.119
  9. ^ xvi. 2 and 5
  10. ^ viii.162
  11. ^ xxx.40
  12. ^ Plin. Epp. iii.5, 4
  13. ^ Praef. §3
  14. ^ vi.40
  15. ^ xxxvi.111
  16. ^ 1.69
  17. ^ Epp. xiv.8
  18. ^ vii.37
  19. ^ Plin. Epp. iii.5, 9
  20. ^ N. H., Praef. 20
  21. ^ Ann. xiii.20, xv.53; Hist. iii.29
  22. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica 15th Edition (1977), Vol. 14, p. 572a
  23. ^ Derivation of the Name Plinian
  24. ^ Jules Janick, Purdue University (2002). Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman Agricultural Writers. History of Horticulture. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  25. ^ Derivation of the name "Plinian". The Volcano Information Center. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  26. ^ Epp. vi.16
  27. ^ iii.5
  28. ^ xxii.15
  29. ^ Praef. 21
  30. ^ xxxv.80
  31. ^ Epp. 103, Jaffé
  32. ^ xiii.68 seq.
  33. ^ ix.130
  34. ^ xxix.81 seq.
  35. ^ Available at the [1] University of Chicago site

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Como (Comm in the local dialect of Lombard language) is a city in Lombardy, Italy, 45 km north of Milan. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49′N 14°26′ E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Pliny the Elder
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Plinius maior

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Primary sources

  • A complete Latin transcription of the Naturalis Historia and a Complete 1855 English translation

Secondary material

  • Pliny the Elder Biography and summary of Natural History
  • Origin of the term Plinian with notes about Pliny's cause of death (UCSB Volcano Information Center)
  • The Death of Gaius Plinius Secundus article by Conway Zirkle in 1967 issue of ISIS (subscription required)
  • Pliny the Elder entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Beagon, Mary, translator (2005). The elder Pliny on the human animal: Natural History, Book 7. Oxford University press, 480 pages. ISBN 0198150652. 
  • Murphy, Trevor (2004). Pliny the Elder's Natural History: the Empire in the Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press, 320 pages. ISBN 0199262888. 
  • Ramosino, Laura Cotta (2004). Plinio il Vecchio e la tradizione storica di Roma nella Naturalis historia. Alessandria: Edizioni del'Orso, 428 pages. ISBN 8876946950.  Italian language book.
  • Carey, Sorcha (2006). Pliny's Catalogue of Culture: Art and Empire in the Natural history. Oxford University press, 222 pages. 
  • Healy, John F. (1999). Pliny the Elder on science and technology. Oxford University Press, 467 pages. ISBN 0198146876. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pliny the Elder, Pliny The Younger - Crystalinks (0 words)
Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23­79) better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient author and Natural philosopher of some importance who wrote Naturalis Historia.He was the son of a Roman eques by the daughter of the Senator Gaius Caecilius of Novum Comum.
Pliny was a Roman senator and the commander of the imperial fleet at the naval base of Misenum.
Pliny the Younger states that several earth tremors were felt at the time of the eruption and were followed by a very violent shaking of the ground.
Pliny the Elder (0 words)
Pliny the Elder or Gaius Plinius Secundus (23-79): Roman officer and encyclopedist, author of the Natural history.
Pliny, however, developed a liking of the military, and was soon promoted to prefect of a cavalry unit.
Pliny seems to have stayed in the Rhine army for some time, because in 50/51, he took part in the campaign against the Chatti, a tribe that lived opposite Mainz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m