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Encyclopedia > Pleistocene
Quaternary Period.

Pliocene
The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...

Gelasian
Pleistocene
Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
Olduwan culture
Acheulean culture
Clactonian culture
Middle Paleolithic
Mousterian culture
Aterian culture
Upper Paleolithic
Châtelperronian culture
Aurignacian culture
Gravettian culture
Solutrean culture
Magdalenian culture
Holocene

The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: /'plaɪstəsi:n/) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek πλεῖστος (pleistos "most") and καινός (kainos "new"). In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... Chopper with a Simple edge. ... Acheulean hand-axes from Kent. ... The Clactonian is the name given by archaeologists to an industry of European flint tool manufacture which dates to the early part of the interglacial period known as the Hoxnian, the Mindell-Riss or the Holstein interglacial (300,000-200,000 years ago). ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... The Aterian industry is a name given by archaeologists to a type of stone tool manufacturing dating to the middle Palaeolithic in the region around the Atlas Mountains and the north west Sahara. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Châtelperronian was the earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Solutrean industry was an advanced flint tool making style of the Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Magdalenian, also spelt Magdalénien, refers to one of the later culture of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


The Pleistocene epoch follows the Pliocene epoch and is followed by the Holocene epoch. The Pleistocene is the third epoch of the Neogene period or 6th epoch of the Cenozoic Era.[1] The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Pleistocene is divided into the Early Pleistocene, Middle Pleistocene and Late Pleistocene, and numerous faunal stages. Early Pleistocene (also known as Lower Pleistocene, or Calabrian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... The Middle Pleistocene is the central part of the Pleistocene Epoch from about 780,000 YA to the penultimate cold pulse at about 125,000 YA. Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs | Pleistocene ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...

Contents

Dating

The Pleistocene has been dated from 1.806 million (±5,000 years) to 11,550 years before present[2], with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years as 10,000 Carbon-14 years BP. It covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell. The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9600 BC (11550 calendar years BP). Raw radiocarbon measurements are usually reported as years before present (BP). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ...


The International Commission on Stratigraphy (a body of the International Union of Geological Sciences) has confirmed the time period for the Pleistocene but has not yet confirmed a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), for the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75º 06' N 42º 18' W.[3] The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ... IUGS logo The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology. ... A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon stratigraphic section which serves as the reference section for a particular boundary on the geologic time scale. ... A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon stratigraphic section which serves as the reference section for a particular boundary on the geologic timescale. ...


The type section GSSP for the start of the Pleistocene is in a reference section at Vrica, 4 km south of Crotone in Calabria, southern Italy, a location whose exact dating has recently been confirmed by analysis of strontium and oxygen isotopes as well as by planktonic foraminifera. km redirects here. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ...


The name was intended to cover the recent period of repeated glaciations; however, the start was set too late and some early cooling and glaciation are now reckoned to be in the Gelasian (end of the Pliocene). Some climatologists and geologists would therefore prefer a start date of around 2.58 million years BP.[4] The name Plio-Pleistocene has in the past been used to mean the last ice age. But since only a part of the Pliocene is involved, the Quaternary was subsequently redefined to start 2.58 Ma. as more consistent with the data.[5][4] In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ...


The continuous climatic history from the Pliocene into the Pleistocene and Holocene was one reason for the International Commission on Stratigraphy to propose discontinuance of the use of the term "Quaternary", this proposal was strongly objected to by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA). The ICS proposed that the "Quaternary" be considered a sub-era (sub-erathem) with its base at the base of the Pilocene Gelasian Stage GSSP at circa 2.6 Ma at Marine Isotope State 103. The boundary is not in dispute, but the sub-era status was rejected by INQUA. The matter remains under discussion with resolution expected to be reached by the ICS and INQUA in 2008.[6] Therefore, the Pleistocene is currently an epoch of both the longer Neogene and the shorter Quaternary. The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ... The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) was founded in 1928. ...


The proposal of INQUA is to extend the beginning of the Pleistocene to the beginning of the Gelasian Stage, shortening the Pliocene, and ending the Neogene with the revised end of the Pliocene.[4]


Paleogeography and climate

The maximum extent of glacial ice in the north polar area during Pleistocene time.
The maximum extent of glacial ice in the north polar area during Pleistocene time.

The modern continents were essentially at their present positions during the Pleistocene, the plates upon which they sit probably having moved no more than 100 km relative to each other since the beginning of the period. Image File history File links Pleistocene_north_ice_map. ... Image File history File links Pleistocene_north_ice_map. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Glacial features

Pleistocene climate was characterized by repeated glacial cycles where continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places. It is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earth's surface was covered by ice. In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America, and several hundred in Eurasia. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6°C; at the edge of the permafrost, 0°C. Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The 4 main circles of latitude on Earth A circle of latitude is an imaginary east-west circle on the Earth, that connects all locations with a given latitude. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1500–3000 m thick, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 m or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ...


The effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114 (7th)  - Product per capita  $33,243/person (8th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  489,600 (6th)  - Density  7. ... Mount Kenya is in central Kenya, northeast of Nyeri (click to enlarge map) Sunrise over Mount Kenya. ... Kilimanjaro, formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze, is an inactive stratovolcano in north-eastern Tanzania. ... The Ruwenzori Range, now officially called Rwenzori Mountains (the spelling having been changed in about 1980 to conform more closely with the local tribal name) is a small but spectacular mountain range of central Africa, often referred to as Mt. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ...


In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one. The Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest; the east was covered by the Laurentide. The Fenno-Scandian ice sheet rested on north Europe, including Great Britain; the Alpine ice sheet on the Alps. Scattered domes stretched across Siberia and the Arctic shelf. The northern seas were frozen. The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that covered, during glacial periods of the Quaternary, a large area of North America. ... The Laurentide ice sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, between ~ 90,000 and ~ 18,000 years before the present day. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...


South of the ice sheets large lakes accumulated because outlets were blocked and the cooler air slowed evaporation. North central North America was totally covered by Lake Agassiz. Over 100 basins, now dry or nearly so, were overflowing in the American west. Lake Bonneville, for example, stood where Great Salt Lake now does. In Eurasia, large lakes developed as a result of the runoff from the glaciers. Rivers were larger, had a more copious flow, and were braided. African lakes were fuller, apparently from decreased evaporation. A map of the extent of Lake Agassiz Lake Agassiz was an immense lake—bigger than all of the present-day Great Lakes combined—in the center of North America, which was fed by glacial runoff at the end of the last ice age. ... A butte in the Great Salt Lake Desert Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of North Americas Great Basin region. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ...


Deserts on the other hand were drier and more extensive. Rainfall was lower because of the decrease in oceanic and other evaporation.


Major events

Further information: Timeline of glaciation
Ice ages as reflected in atmospheric CO2, stored in bubbles from glacial ice of Antarctica

Four major glacial events have been identified, as well as many minor intervening events. A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial." Glacials are separated by "interglacials." During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor advances and retreats. The minor excursion is a "stadial"; times between stadials are "interstadials." There have been four major periods of glaciation in the Earths past. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (939x680, 48 KB)This graph shows the newest Ice Core data for Atmospheric CO2 from air bubbles in the ice. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (939x680, 48 KB)This graph shows the newest Ice Core data for Atmospheric CO2 from air bubbles in the ice. ...


These events are defined differently in different regions of the glacial range, which have their own glacial history depending on latitude, terrain and climate. There is a general correspondence between glacials in different regions. Investigators often interchange the names if the glacial geology of a region is in the process of being defined. However, it is generally incorrect to apply the name of a glacial in one region to another.


For most of the 20th century only a few regions had been studied and the names were relatively few. Today the geologists of different nations are taking more of an interest in Pleistocene glaciology. As a consequence, the number of names is expanding rapidly and will continue to expand.


The glacials in the following table are a simplification of a more complex cycle of variation in climate and terrain. Many of the advances and stadials remain unnamed. Also, the terrestrial evidence for some of them has been erased or obscured by larger ones, but evidence remains from the study of cyclical climate changes.

Four of the better known regions with the names of the glacials.
Region Glacial 1 Glacial 2 Glacial 3 Glacial 4
Alps Günz Mindel Riss Würm
North Europe Eburonian Elsterian Saalian Weichselian
British Isles Beestonian Anglian Wolstonian Devensian
Midwest U.S. Nebraskan Kansan Illinoian Wisconsin
The interglacials corresponding to prior glacials.
Region Interglacial 1 Interglacial 2 Interglacial 3
Alps Günz-Mindel Mindel-Riss Riss-Würm
North Europe Waalian Holsteinian Eemian
British Isles Cromerian Hoxnian Ipswichian
Midwest U.S. Aftonian Yarmouthian Sangamonian

Corresponding to the terms glacial and interglacial, the terms pluvial and interpluvial are in use (Latin: pluvia, rain). A pluvial is a warmer period of increased rainfall; an interpluvial, of decreased rainfall. Formerly a pluvial was thought to correspond to a glacial in regions not iced, and in some cases it does. Rainfall is cyclical also. Pluvials and interpluvials are widespread. The Beestonian stage is the name for an early Pleistocene glacial stage used in the British Isles. ... The Kansan Glaciation (known in UK as the Anglian Glaciation and sometimes referred to as the Illinoian Glaciation, Elster glaciation in northern Europe and the Mindel glaciation in the Alps) was a very severe glacial period in the Pleistocene. ... The Wolstonian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 200,000 and 125,000 years ago. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... The Cromerian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 700,000 and 450,000 years ago. ... The Hoxnian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... Two ice core temperature records; the Eemian is at a depth of about 1500-1800 meters in the lower graph The Eemian interglacial era (known as the Sangamon interglacial in North America, the Ipswichian interglacial in the UK, and the Riss-Würm interglacial in the Alps) is the second...


There is no systematic correspondence of pluvials to glacials, however. Moreover, regional pluvials do not correspond to each other globally. For example, some have used the term "Riss pluvial" in Egyptian contexts. Any coincidence is an accident of regional factors. Names for some pluvials in some regions have been defined.


Palaeocycles

The sum of transient factors acting at the Earth's surface is cyclical: climate, ocean currents and other movements, wind currents, temperature, etc. The waveform response comes from the underlying cyclical motions of the planet, which eventually drag all the transients into harmony with them. The repeated glaciations of the Pleistocene were caused by the same factors.


Milankovitch cycles

Glaciation in the Pleistocene was a series of glacials and interglacials, stadials and interstadials, mirroring periodic changes in climate. The main factor at work in climate cycling is now believed to be Milankovitch cycles. These are periodic variations in regional solar radiation caused by the sum of many repeating changes in the Earth's motion. Milankovitch cycles are the collective effect of changes in the Earths movements upon its climate, named after Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milanković. The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earths orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the...


Milankovitch cycles cannot be the sole factor since they do not explain the start and end of the Pleistocene ice age, or of repeated ice ages. They seem to work best within the Pleistocene, predicting a glaciation once every 100,000 years.


Oxygen isotope ratio cycles

In oxygen isotope ratio analysis, variations in the ratio of O-18 to O-16 (two isotopes of oxygen) by mass (measured by a mass spectrometer) present in the calcite of oceanic core samples is used as a diagnostic of ancient ocean temperature change and therefore of climate change. Cold oceans are richer in O-18, which is included in the shells of the microorganisms contributing the calcite. Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 18 to the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 16 present in calcite of the oceanic floor as determined by core samples. ... Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... A core sample is a cylindrical section of a naturally occurring medium consistent enough to hold a layered structure. ...


A more recent version of the sampling process makes use of modern glacial ice cores. Although less rich in O-18 than sea water, the snow that fell on the glacier year by year nevertheless contained O-18 and O-16 in a ratio that depended on the mean annual temperature.


Temperature and climate change are cyclical when plotted on a graph of temperature versus time. Temperature coordinates are given in the form of a deviation from today's annual mean temperature, taken as zero. This sort of graph is based on another of isotope ratio versus time. Ratios are converted to a percentage difference (d) from the ratio found in standard mean ocean water (SMOW).


The graph in either form appears as a waveform with overtones. One half of a period is a Marine isotopic stage (MIS). It indicates a glacial (below zero) or an interglacial (above zero). Overtones are stadials or interstadials. Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... Marine isotopic stages (MIS) are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earths palaeoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting temperature curves derived from data from deep sea core samples. ...


According to this evidence, Earth experienced 44 MIS stages beginning at about 2.4 MYA in the Pliocene. Pliocene stages were shallow and frequent. The latest were the most intense and most widely spaced. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


By convention, stages are numbered from the Holocene, which is MIS1. Glacials receive an even number; interglacials, odd. The first major glacial was MIS2-4 at about 850,000 YA. The largest glacials were 2, 6 and 12; the warmest interglacials, 1, 5, 9 and 11. For matching of MIS numbers to named stages, see under the articles for those names.


Fauna

See also: New World Pleistocene extinctions

Both marine and continental faunas were essentially modern. Introduction Eighteen thousand years ago at the height of the last ice age in North America the land not ice covered looks like a park with mixed trees and grass There are mastodons and mammoths whose young are being killed by massive lions and sabertooth cats. ...


The severe climatic changes during the ice age had major impacts on the fauna and flora. With each advance of the ice, large areas of the continents became totally depopulated, and plants and animals retreating southward in front of the advancing glacier faced tremendous stress. The most severe stress resulted from drastic climatic changes, reduced living space, and curtailed food supply. A major extinction event of large mammals (megafauna), which included mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, glyptodons, ground sloths, and short-faced bears, began late in the Pleistocene and continued into the Holocene. Neanderthals also became extinct during this period. The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... Species Mammuthus africanavus African mammoth Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus imperator Imperial mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus trogontherii Steppe mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus subplanifrons South African mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Woolly mammoth Mammuthus lamarmorae Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth A mammoth is any of a number of an... Mastodons or Mastodonts (meaning nipple-teeth) are members of the extinct genus Mammut of the order Proboscidea and form the family Mammutidae; they resembled, but were distinct from, the woolly mammoth which belongs to the family Elephantidae. ... Tribes Metailurini Homotheriini Smilodontini Machairodontinae is a subfamily of the Felidae (true cats). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Scelidotheriidae Mylodontidae Orophodontidae Megalonychidae Megatheriidae Ground sloths are extinct edentate (Order Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... Arctodus, also known as the Short-Faced Bear, is a genus of extinct bear. ... Binomial name King, 1864 Neanderthal range Synonyms Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (IPA: , also with , and ), (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia. ...

Pleistocene of South America showing Megatherium and two Glyptodon

The extinctions were especially severe in North America where native horses and camels were eliminated. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 642 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pleistocene of South America, by myself, D. Bogdanov, [email protected] ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 642 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pleistocene of South America, by myself, D. Bogdanov, [email protected] ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...


North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA) are Blancan (4.5–1.2), Irvingtonian (1.2–0.5) and Rancholabrean (0.5–0.01) in millions of years. The Blancan extends significantly back into the Pliocene. The Blancan North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the length of time, stage, from 4,750,000 to 1,808,000 years BP.[1][2] It is based upon North American faunal assemblages and is consistent with North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA). ...


South American Land Mammal Ages (SALMA) are Uquian (2.5–1.5), Ensenadan (1.5–0.3) and Lujanian (0.3–0.01) in millions of years. The Uquian extends significantly back into the Pliocene.


In Europe, the faunal stages are Calabrian (1.806–0.781), Sicilian (0.781–0.26) and Tyrrhenian (0.26–0.005).[7] Early Pleistocene (also known as Lower Pleistocene, or Calabrian) is a subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch of the Geologic time scale. ... The Tyrrhenian Stage is the last faunal stage of the Pleistocene in Europe. ...


Hominini during pleistocene

Scientific evidence indicates that humans evolved into their present form during the Pleistocene. In the beginning of the pleistocene Paranthropus -species are still present, as well as early human ancestors, but during lower palaeolithic period they disappear, and the only hominin species found in fossilic records is Homo erectus for much of the pleistocene. This species migrated through much of the old world, giving rise to many variations of human. Middle and upper palaeolithic sees the appearance of new types of human, as well as the development of more elaborate tools than previously present.¨According to mitochondrial timing techniques, the modern human species migrated from Africa after the Riss glaciation in the middle palaeolithic during the Eemian interglacial, spreading all over the ice-free world during the late pleistocene. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Species †Paranthropus aethiopicus †Paranthropus boisei †Paranthropus robustus The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus, were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). ... Binomial name †Homo erectus (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... The Wolstonian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 200,000 and 125,000 years ago. ... Two ice core temperature records; the Eemian is at a depth of about 1500-1800 meters in the lower graph The Eemian interglacial era (known as the Sangamon interglacial in North America, the Ipswichian interglacial in the UK, and the Riss-Würm interglacial in the Alps) is the second...


Deposits

Pleistocene continental deposits are found primarily in lakebeds, loess deposits and caves as well as in the large amounts of material moved about by glaciers. Pleistocene marine deposits are found primarily in areas within a few tens of kilometres of the modern shoreline. In a few geologically active areas such as the Southern California coast, Pleistocene marine deposits may be found at elevations of several hundred meters. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter. ... For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ...


See also

Northern Hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... List of fossil sites: // Afar Depression, Ethiopia, Pliocene Awash River, Afar Depression, Ethiopia, Australopithecus afarensis, Lucy, Pliocene, 3. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Pleistocene park in Sakha region in northern Siberia is an attempt initiated by Russian researcher Sergey Zimov to reproduce the ecosystem that flurished during the last ice age, with hopes to back his theory that hunting, and not climate change, destroyed the wildlife. ...

References

  1. ^ Gibbard, P. and van Kolfschoten, T. (2004) "The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs" Chapter 22PDF (2.96 MiB) In Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, James G., and Smith, A. Gilbert (eds.), A Geologic Time Scale 2004 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0521781426
  2. ^ Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D., (2004) “The Neogene Period”. In: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A.G. (Eds.), A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Svensson, A., S. W. Nielsen, S. Kipfstuhl, S. J. Johnsen, J. P. Steffensen, M. Bigler, U. Ruth, and R. Röthlisberger (2005) "Visual stratigraphy of the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP) ice core during the last glacial period" Journal of Geophysical Research 110: (D02108)
  4. ^ a b c Clague, John et al. (2006) "Open Letter by INQUA Executive Committee" Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary Research 16(1):PDF (1.30 MiB)
  5. ^ Pillans, Brad (2004) "Update on Defining the Quaternary" Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary Research 14(2):PDF (869 KiB)
  6. ^ Clague, John J. "INQUA, IUGS, and the 32nd International Geological Congress" Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary Research 14(2):PDF (869 KiB)
  7. ^ GeoWhen Database — Comparision of Regional Geologic Nomenclature;
  • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's) http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm Accessed April 30, 2006.

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems, in 1993, for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pleistocene
  • Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary at Vrica, Italy (Map)
Neogene period
Quaternary
Pliocene Pleistocene Holocene
← Neogene | Gelasian Early | Middle | Late  
Hominin species during pleistocene edit

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ... Early Pleistocene (also known as Lower Pleistocene, or Calabrian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... The Middle Pleistocene is the central part of the Pleistocene Epoch from about 780,000 YA to the penultimate cold pulse at about 125,000 YA. Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs | Pleistocene ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Genera Subtribe Panina Pan (chimpanzees) Subtribe Hominina Homo (humans) †Paranthropus †Australopithecus †Sahelanthropus †Orrorin †Ardipithecus †Kenyanthropus For an explanation of very similar terms see Hominid Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that only includes humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), and their extinct ancestors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pleistocene - definition of Pleistocene in Encyclopedia (501 words)
The Pleistocene epoch is part of the geologic timescale, usually dated as 1.8-1.6 million to 10,000 years before present, with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years.
The Pleistocene is the first of the two epochs of the Quaternary period or 6th epoch of the Cenozoic era.
Pleistocene continental deposits are found primarily in lakebeds and caves as well as in the large amounts of material moved about by glaciers.
Pleistocene - Free Encyclopedia (472 words)
The Pleistocene is the first of the two epochs of the Quaternary Era or 6th epoch of the Cenozoic Era.
The Pleistocene climate was characterized by repeated glacial cycles where continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in places.
Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene Period.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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