FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Pleconaril
Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 153168-05-09
ATC code J05AX06
PubChem 1684
Chemical data
Formula C18H18F3N3O3 
Mol. mass 381.35 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 70% (oral)
Protein binding >99%
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... seadonkey rules =P ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status
Routes Oral, intranasal

Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections.[1] Although the formulation used by Schering-Plough is a nasal spray, pleconaril is orally bioavailable, and is active against viruses in the Picornaviridae family, including Enterovirus[2] and Rhinovirus.[3] The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Schering-Plough Corporation is a pharmaceutical company started in Germany by Ernst Schering in 1851. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Nasal sprays are used for the nasal delivery of a drug or drugs, generally to alleviate cold or allergy symptoms. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ...


Pleconaril was originally developed by sanofi-aventis, and licensed to ViroPharma in 1997. ViroPharma developed it further, and submitted a New Drug Application to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2001. The application was rejected, and ViroPharma re-licensed it to Schering-Plough in 2003. As of 2007, it is in Phase II clinical trials.[1] Sanofi-aventis (Euronext: SAN, NYSE: SNY), headquartered in Paris, France, is one of the 3 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, along with Pfizer,GlaxoSmithKline. ... ViroPharma Incorporated, a pharmaceutical company, develops and sells drugs that address serious diseases treated by physician specialists and in hospital settings. ... The New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the U.S. The goals of the NDA are to provide enough information to permit FDA reviewer to reach the following: Is the drug... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is the application of the scientific method to human health. ...

Mechanism of action

Pleconaril binds to a hydrophobic pocket in VP1, the major protein which comprises the capsid (the outer "shell") of Picornaviruses. In enteroviruses, this prevents the virus from exposing its RNA, and in rhinoviruses it also prevents the virus from attaching itself to the host cell.[4] In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


  1. ^ a b Effects of Pleconaril Nasal Spray on Common Cold Symptoms and Asthma Exacerbations Following Rhinovirus Exposure (Study P04295AM2). ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Institutes of Health (March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  2. ^ Pevear D, Tull T, Seipel M, Groarke J (1999). "Activity of pleconaril against enteroviruses". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43 (9): 2109–15. PMID 10471549. 
  3. ^ Ronald B. Turner, J. Owen Hendley (2005). "Virucidal hand treatments for prevention of rhinovirus infection". J Antimicrob Chemother 56 (5): 805-807. PMID 16159927. 
  4. ^ Florea N, Maglio D, Nicolau D (2003). "Pleconaril, a novel antipicornaviral agent". Pharmacotherapy 23 (3): 339–48. PMID 12627933.  Free full text with registration

  Results from FactBites:
Pleconaril (449 words)
Pleconaril is thought to be able to cross the blood-brain barrier because of its lipophilic character.
Pleconaril was shown to have antiviral activity against 214 of 215 enteroviruses and antiviral activity in 95% of all picornaviruses.
The effects of pleconaril on enteroviral infections were a two day reduction in duration of headache, allowed patients to return to work two days earlier, and a two reduction in most other symptoms with the clinical benefit being noticed in 24 hours after the initial dose was given.
Pleconaril for treatment of the common cold? - Tips from Other Journals American Family Physician - Find Articles (554 words)
Pleconaril is a new oral drug that has been shown to inhibit viral replication in about 90 percent of rhinovirus serotypes and more than 99 percent of enteroviruses.
In both studies, treatment with pleconaril was associated with a shorter duration of cold symptoms in patients with documented picornavirus infection.
The authors conclude that the use of pleconaril within 24 hours of onset of the common cold was associated with a reduction in the duration and severity of cold symptoms.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m