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Encyclopedia > Plaza Mayor of Madrid
Plaza Mayor with the Casa de la Panadería to the left
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Plaza Mayor with the Casa de la Panadería to the left

The Plaza Mayor is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. The Plaza Mayor is only a few blocks away from another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, 129 by 94 meters, and is surrounded by three-floored residential buildings with 237 balconies. It has a total of nine entranceways. The Plaza Mayor was built during the Austrian period. The Casa de la Panadería, serving municpal and cultural functions, dominates the Plaza Mayor Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Madrid is the capital and largest city in Spain, as well as in the province and the autonomous community of the same name. ... Puerta del Sol The Puerta del Sol (Spanish for Sun Gate) is one of the most known and busy places in Madrid. ...

Contents


History

The origins of the Plaza go back to 1581 when Philip II of Spain asked Juan de Herrera, a renowned Renaissance architect, to devise a plan to remodel the busy and chaotic area of the old Plaza del Arrabal. Juan de Herrera was the architect who designed the first project in 1581 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but the construction didn't start until 1617, during the Philip III of Spain's reign. The king asked Juan Gomez de Mora to continue with the project, and he finished the porticoes in 1619. Nevertheless, the Plaza Mayor as we know it today is the work of the architect Juan de Villanueva who was entrusted with its reconstruction in 1790 after a spate of big fires. Juan de Bolonia's statue of Philip III on horseback in the center of the square dates back to 1616. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ...


Names

The name of the plaza has changed over time. Originally it was called the "Plaza del Arrabal" but became known as the "Plaza Mayor".


In 1812, following a decree all the major plazas of Spain were renamed "Plaza de la Constitución". The plaza had this name until 1814 when it became known as the "Plaza Real". The plaza once again held the name "Plaza de la Constitución" in the periods from 1820 to 1823, 1833 to 1835, and 1840 to 1843.


In 1873, the name changed to "Plaza de la República", and then back to "Plaza de la Constitución" from the restoration of Alfonso XII in 1876 to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in 1923. A proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic gave the plaza the name of "Plaza de la Constitución" until the end of the Spanish Civil War when the plaza was renamed the "Plaza Mayor," the name it bears to date. Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857 _ November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup detat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Primo de Rivera may refer to: Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, dictator of Spain from September 23 1923 to 1930, or his son, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the lawyer and son of Miguel Primo de Rivera who founded the extreme right-wing party Falange. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain -Visigoths -Al-Andalus -Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Flag of the... The Spanish Civil War (July 18th 1936–April 1st 1939) was a conflict in which the incumbent Second Spanish Republic and political left-wing groups fought against a right-wing nationalist insurrection led by General Francisco Franco, who eventually succeeded in ousting the Republican government and establishing a personal dictatorship. ...


Uses

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1683 painting by Francisco Ricci of an Auto de Fe in the Plaza Mayor on June 30, 1680

The Plaza Mayor has been the scene of multitudinous events: markets, bullfights, soccer games, public executions, and, during the Spanish Inquistion, "actos de fe" against supposed heretics and the executions of those condemned to death. The Plaza Mayor also has a ring of old and traditional shops and cafes under its porticoes. Celebrations for San Isidro, patron saint of Madrid, are aslo held here. The Plaza Mayor is now a major tourist attraction, visited by thousands of tourists a year. Pedro Berruguete. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... San Isidro is the name of a number of places: The town of San Isidro, Davao Oriental, Philippines the district of San Isidro, in Lima, Peru the district of San Isidro, in Buenos Aires, Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


References

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Plaza Mayor, Madrid
  • Text from Madrid and translated text from the Spanish Wikipedia article.

 
 

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