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Encyclopedia > Platinum
78 iridiumplatinumgold
Pd

Pt

Ds
General
Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d
Appearance grayish white
Standard atomic weight 195.084(9) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 21.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 19.77 g·cm−3
Melting point 2041.4 K
(1768.3 °C, 3214.9 °F)
Boiling point 4098 K
(3825 °C, 6917 °F)
Heat of fusion 22.17 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 469 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.28 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 870 kJ/mol
2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 177 pm
Covalent radius 128 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 105 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 71.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 8.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 2800 m·s−1
Young's modulus 168 GPa
Shear modulus 61 GPa
Bulk modulus 230 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.38
Mohs hardness 4 - 4.5
Vickers hardness 549 MPa
Brinell hardness 392 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-06-4
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of platinum
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
190Pt 0.014% 6.5×1011 y α 3.18 186Os
191Pt syn 2.96 d ε  ? 191Ir
192Pt 0.782% Pt is stable with 114 neutrons
193Pt syn 50 y ε  ? 193Ir
193mPt syn 4.33 d IT 0.1355e 193Pt
194Pt 32.967% Pt is stable with 116 neutrons
195Pt 33.832% Pt is stable with 117 neutrons
195mPt syn 4.02 d IT 0.1297e 195Pt
196Pt 25.242% Pt is stable with 118 neutrons
197Pt syn 19.8913 h β- 0.719 197Au
197mPt syn 1.59 h IT 0.3465 197Pt
198Pt 7.163% Pt is stable with 120 neutrons
References
This page is about platinum the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum (disambiguation).

Platinum (IPA: /ˈplætɪnəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the atomic symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78. A heavy, malleable, ductile, precious, grey-white transition metal, platinum is resistant to corrosion and occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits. Platinum is used in jewellery, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and automobile emissions control devices. Platinum bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT. This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... original image: media:Pt-TableImage-BIG.png File links The following pages link to this file: Platinum User:Femto/elements e9 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 10 elements are: Nickel (28) Palladium (46) Platinum (78) Darmstadtium (110) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Platinium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an atom or molecule is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Platinum (Pt) Standard atomic mass: 195. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... This article is about the chemical element. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... This article is about the chemical element. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... . Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts with an electron in one of the lower electron shells, causing the electron to be emitted from the atom. ... A conversion electron is an electron which results from interactions with metastable atomic nuclei, which results from radioactive decay processes. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... . Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts with an electron in one of the lower electron shells, causing the electron to be emitted from the atom. ... A conversion electron is an electron which results from interactions with metastable atomic nuclei, which results from radioactive decay processes. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... . Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts with an electron in one of the lower electron shells, causing the electron to be emitted from the atom. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Platinum can refer to: The chemical element Platinum, number 78. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

When pure, the metal appears greyish-white and firm. The metal is corrosion-resistant. The catalytic properties of the six platinum family metals are outstanding. For this catalytic property, platinum is used in catalytic converters, incorporated in automobile exhaust systems, as well as tips of spark plugs. This article is about metallic materials. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... The platinum group or platinum family is a group of six metal elements with similar physical and chemical properties. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ...


Platinum's wear- and tarnish-resistance characteristics are well suited for making fine jewellery. Platinum is more precious than gold. The price of platinum changes along with its availability, but its price is normally slightly less than twice that of gold. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king.[1] For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...


Platinum possesses high resistance to chemical attack, excellent high-temperature characteristics, and stable electrical properties. All these properties have been exploited for industrial applications. Platinum does not oxidize in air at any temperature, but can be corroded by cyanides, halogens, sulfur, and caustic alkalis. This metal is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but does dissolve in the mixture known as aqua regia (forming chloroplatinic acid). Common oxidation states of platinum include +2, and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... Chloroplatinic Acid Please see dihydrogen hexachloroplatinate (IV) hexahydrate ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ...


Applications

  • As a catalyst in the catalytic converter, an optional (though often mandatory by law) component of the gasoline-fueled automobile exhaust system (see "Notable characteristics" in this article).
  • As a catalyst in fuel cells. Reducing the amount of platinum required (and thus cost) is a major focus of fuel cell research.
  • Certain platinum-containing compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are licensed examples of this class of drugs.
  • Platinum resistance thermometers.
  • Electrodes for use in electrolysis.
  • In the Clark polarographic electrode for measuring oxygen tension.
  • A wide range of jewelery
  • As a catalyst in the curing of silicone elastomers.
  • As a catalyst in glow plugs in some model engines.
  • Crucibles for high temperature melting of glass (for example) up to 1500°C better if alloyed with rhodium (10–40% of Rh).
  • In photography, it is sometimes used for archival printmaking. Platinum prints display a greater range of tones than other Black and White printing methods. Additionally platinum's chemical stability makes for extremely long-lasting prints. The disadvantage of this method, in addition to the high cost, is that platinum is less light sensitive and prints must be contact printed at the same size as the negative. Therefore, enlargements can only be made by making an enlarged negative.

Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cisplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug in the same family as cisplatin and carboplatin. ... Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. ... An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... Clark-type electrode: (A) Pt- (B) Ag/AgCl-electrode (C) KCl electrolyte (D) teflon membrane (E) rubber ring (F) voltage supply (G) galvanometer The Clark electrode [1][2] is an electrode that measures oxygen on a catalytic platinum surface using the reaction: O2 + 2 e− + 2 H2O → H2O2 + 2 OH... Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

History

Naturally-occurring platinum and platinum-rich alloys have been known for a long time. Though the metal was used by pre-Columbian Native Americans, the first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger (14841558) as a description of a mysterious metal found in Central American mines between Darién (Panama) and Mexico ("up until now impossible to melt by any of the Spanish arts"). The word platinum comes from the Spanish word platina, meaning "little silver." The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558), humanist scholar. ... Year 1484 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...


Platinum was discussed by astronomer Antonio de Ulloa and Don Jorge Juan y Santacilia (17131773), both appointed by King Philip V to join a geographical expedition in Peru that lasted from 1735 to 1745. Amongst other things, Ulloa observed the platina del pinto, the unworkable metal found with gold in New Granada (Colombia). British privateers intercepted Ulloa's ship on the return voyage. Though he was well-treated in England, and even made a member of the Royal Society he was prevented from publishing a reference to the unknown metal until 1748. Before that could happen Charles Wood independently isolated the element in 1741. Major finds were discovered in Russia in 1819, which produced around 90% of the global Platinum production at the turn of the 20th century.[2] An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... // The French Geodesic Mission (also called the First Geodesic Mission and the Spanish-French Geodesic Mission) was an 18th-century expedition to Ecuador carried out for the purpose of measuring the roundness of the Earth and measuring the length of a degree of longitude at the Equator. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Sir Charles Wood was a British chemist who is credited with the independent discovery of platinum circa 1741. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius...


Due to its rarity, greater difficulty to work with and the need to alloy it with (at the time) an even more expensive metal iridium, platinum was only used in a limited way in jewelry at the end of the 19th century. This changed at beginning of the 20th century when most diamond ring mountings and most exclusive jewelry were almost completely made of platinum.[2]


Occurrence

Platinum ore
Platinum ore
Platinum output in 2005
Platinum output in 2005

Platinum is an extremely rare metal, occurring as only 5 ppb in the Earth's crust. In 2005, South Africa was the top producer of platinum with almost 80% world share followed by Russia, and Canada, reports the British Geological Survey.[3] Platinum ore Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Platinum ore Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of platinum output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (South Africa - 168 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of platinum output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (South Africa - 168 tonnes). ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and alloyed with iridium as platiniridium. The platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. The rare sulfide mineral cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S, contains platinum along with palladium and nickel. Cooperite occurs in the Merensky Reef within the Bushveld complex, Gauteng, South Africa. An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... An arsenide ion is an arsenic atom with three extra electrons and charge -3. ... Sperrylite is a platinum arsenide mineral with formula: PtAs2. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Cooperite is a grey mineral consisting of platinum sulfide (PtS), general in combinations with sulfides of other elements such as palladium and nickel (PdS and NiS). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... For all real structures the volume increases with increasing temperatures is depicted in Figure 33 for PtSb2. ... The Bushveld igneous complex contains one of the richest ore deposits on Earth. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ...


Platinum, often accompanied by small amounts of other platinum family metals, occurs in alluvial placer deposits in the Witwatersrand of South Africa, Colombia, Ontario, the Ural Mountains, and in certain eastern American states. The platinum group or platinum family is a group of six metal elements with similar physical and chemical properties. ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... Witwatersrand is a low mountain range which runs through Gauteng in South Africa. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Platinum is produced commercially as a by-product of nickel ore processing in the Sudbury deposit. The huge quantities of nickel ore processed makes up for the fact that platinum is present as only 0.5 ppm in the ore. For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


Platinum exists in relatively higher abundances on the Moon and in asteroids - much terrestrial platinum is mined where asteroids have hit.[citation needed]


Precautions

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts "may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat" and long-term exposure "may cause both respiratory and skin allergies." The current OSHA standard is 0.002 milligram per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift.[4]


Certain platinum complexes are used in chemotherapy and show good anti-tumor activity for some tumours. Cisplatin is particularly effective against testicular cancer; cure rate was improved from 10% to 85%.[5] However, the side effects are severe. Cisplatin causes cumulative, irreversible kidney damage and deafness.[6]


As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports), the possibility that platinum free radicals could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. The FDA and other countries have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.[7] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Silicone rubber is a polymer that has a backbone of silicon oxygen linkages, the same bond that is found in quartz, glass and sand. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ...


Rarity and color

An assortment of native platinum nuggets
An assortment of native platinum nuggets

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. "Platinum" credit cards have greater privileges than do "gold" ones. "Platinum awards" are the second highest possible, ranking above gold, silver and bronze, but below "Diamond". For example, a musical album that has sold more than 1,000,000 copies, will be credited as "platinum,” whereas an album that sold more than 10,000,000 copies will be certifed as “diamond.” And some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white color are identified as "platinum". Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. The frame of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, manufactured for her Coronation as Consort of King George VI, is made of platinum. It was the first British crown to be made of that metal. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (816x439, 124 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Platinum Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (816x439, 124 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Platinum Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... The Crown of Queen Elizabeth is the platinum crown manufactured for, and worn by, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the queen consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom at their coronation in Westminster Abbey in 1937. ...

The alchemical symbol for platinum (shown right) was made by joining the symbols of silver and gold.
The alchemical symbol for platinum (shown right) was made by joining the symbols of silver and gold.

Alchemical symbol for platinum. ... Alchemical symbol for platinum. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...

Production

In order to obtain pure platinum, the ore is crushed, made into a slurry, and then mixed with a detergent containing 'collector' molecules. Air is then blown through the mixture, enabling the grains of metal minerals to be separated from the rest of the mixture. This process is called "flotation" or "mineral beneficialness". The next step is smelting. Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


In 2006, world supply of platinum was of about 217,700 kg or 7 million troy ounces.[8][9] Average Platinum price in 2006 was of US$1200 per troy ounce (~$40/g), representing a significant increase from the 2005 average of US$900 per troy oz.[3][10]


See also

Platinum coins are an old form of money. ... The platinum group or platinum metals is the collective name sometimes used for six chemical elements within the periodic table. ... Platinum, and platinum group metals, in Africa, are produced in Zimbabwe and the Republic of South Africa. ... For all real structures the volume increases with increasing temperatures is depicted in Figure 33 for PtSb2. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Platinum. Minerals Zone. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  2. ^ a b Smith, Marcell (1913). Diamonds, Pearls and Precious Stones (for the trade). Boston, Grifftih-Stillings Press. , pages 39-40
  3. ^ a b PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  4. ^ Occupational Health Guideline for Soluble Platinum Salts (as Platinum) (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  5. ^ Einhorn LH. (1990). "Treatment of testicular cancer: a new and improved model". J. Clin. Oncol. 8 (11): 1777–81. 
  6. ^ Von Hoff DD, et al (1979). "Toxic effects of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) in man". Cancer Treat. Rep. 63 (9–10): 1527–31. 
  7. ^ FDA Backgrounder on Platinum in Silicone Breast Implants. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  8. ^ Johnson Matthey 2006 supply and demand charts
  9. ^ "Green curbs hit platinum supply", BBC News, May 20, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-08-19. 
  10. ^ Historical Platinum Charts and Data — London Fix

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Platinum today: Where can I find a history of platinum? (1224 words)
One of the principal new uses of platinum was in the petroleum industry, where platinum catalysts were introduced to increase the octane rating of gasoline and to manufacture important primary feedstocks for the growing plastics industry.
During the 1960s, demand for platinum in jewellery experienced a spectacular rise in Japan, appealing to the Japanese public by virtue of its purity, colour, prestige and value.
By the 1990s, platinum was growing in use as a medical treatment against certain forms of cancer and the same decade saw a multiplication in the uses of machined platinum alloy components to treat cardiac and other disease.
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Part I, published in the July 2007 issue of Platinum Metals Review, described the initial research and development for the process, and its commercialisation.
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Platinum Metals Review is published here by Johnson Matthey PLC, refiner and fabricator of the precious metals and sole marketing agent for the six platinum group metals produced by Anglo Platinum Limited, South Africa.
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