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Encyclopedia > Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that uses a number of surgical and nonsurgical techniques to change the appearance and function of a person's body.[1] Plastic surgery procedures include both cosmetic enhancements as well as functionally reconstructive operations. In the former case, where aesthetics are considered more important than functionality, plastic surgery is sometimes referred to as cosmetic surgery. Most procedures involve both aesthetic and functional elements. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Huntingtons hang it up. ... Plastic Surgery is an album by the Huntingtons released in 2000 on Tooth & Nail Records. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


The word "plastic" derives from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape; its use here is not connected with the synthetic polymer material known as plastic. Plastic surgeons typically mold and reshape the following tissues of the body: bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, and skin. For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Introduction

The basic goals of plastic surgery include the following:

  • correction of perceived disfigurement
  • restoration of impaired function
  • improvement of physical appearance

During plastic surgery the following procedures are common:

  • Tissue may be moved to fill a depression, to cover a wound, or to improve appearance.
  • Tissue may be completely removed to alter the contours of a feature.

The benefits of plastic surgery include:

  • correction of a congenital or acquired deformity.
  • correction of a perceived physical imperfection.
  • psychological benefits.

History

The history of plastic surgery reaches back to the 700s BCE. Physicians in ancient India including Sushruta were utilizing skin grafts for reconstructive work as early as the 8th century BC. In his work Sushruta Samhita describes rhinoplasty and otoplasty. This knowledge of plastic surgery existed in India up to the late 18th century as can be seen from the reports published in Gentleman's Magazine (October 1794).[2][3] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... Skin Graft is an influential contemporary no wave, noise rock, art punk, rock label based in Chicago. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text on surgery, attributed to Sushruta (lived in ca. ... For the album by Primus, see Rhinoplasty (album). ... Otoplasty cosmetic surgery to change the appearance of a persons external ears. ...


The Romans were able to perform simple techniques such as repairing damaged ears from around the 1st century BC. In mid-15th century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt described a process "to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it" by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that such surgery became commonplace. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Up until the techniques of anesthesia became established, all surgery on healthy tissues involved great pain. Infection from surgery was reduced once sterile technique and disinfectants were introduced. The invention and use of antibiotics beginning with sulfa drugs and penicillin was another step in making elective surgery possible. Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Elective surgery is surgery that is not urgently required due to an emergency. ...


Chopart in 1791 performed operative procedure of a lip using a flap from the neck. Joseph Carpue in 1814 successfully performed operative procedure in a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. Carl Von Graefe the German surgeon in 1818 published his major work entitled "Rhinoplastik." Carl Von Graefe modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicle flap.In 1845 Dieffenbach wrote a comprehensive text on rhinoplasty , entitled "Operative Chirurgie." He introduced the concept of reoperation to improve the cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed nose. In 1891 John Roe, an American otorhinolaryngologist presented an example of his work, a young woman on whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications. In 1892 Robert Weir experimented unsuccessfully with xenografts (duck sternum) in the reconstruction of sunken noses. In 1896 James Israel, a urological surgeon from Germany, and In 1889 George Monks of the United States each described the successful use of heterogeneous free-bone grafting to reconstruct saddle nose defects. In 1898 Jacques Joseph, the German orthopaedic-trained surgeon, published his first account of reduction rhinoplasty . In 1928 Jacques Joseph published Nasenplastik und Sonstige Gesichtsplastik.


The U.S.'s first plastic surgeon was Dr. John Peter Mettauer. He performed the first cleft palate operation in 1827 with instruments that he designed himself. The New Zealander Sir Harold Gillies an otolaryngologist developed many of the techniques of modern plastic surgery in caring for those who suffered facial injuries in World War I; he is considered to be the father of modern plastic surgery. His work was expanded upon during World War II by one of his former students and cousin, Archibald McIndoe, who pioneered treatments for RAF aircrew suffering from severe burns. McIndoe's radical, experimental treatments, lead to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club. Plastic surgery as a specialty evolved tremendously during the 20th Century in the United States. One of the founders of the specialty – Dr. Vilray Blair – served as the first chief of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Washington University in St. Louis. In one of his many areas of clinical expertise, Blair treated World War I soldiers with complex maxillofacial injuries, and his paper on “Reconstructive Surgery of the Face” set the standard for craniofacial reconstruction. He was also one of the first non-oral surgeons elected to the American Association of Oral and Plastic Surgery (later renamed the American Association of Plastic Surgeons) and taught many surgeons who became leaders in the field of plastic surgery[1]. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... John Peter Mettauer (1787-1875) was an American surgeon and gynecologist. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Harold Gillies in 1916 Sir Harold Delf Gillies (June 17, 1882 - September 10, 1960) was a New Zealand-born, and later Londoner, otolaryngologist widely considered as the father of plastic surgery. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sir Archibald McIndoe (May 4, 1900 - April 11, 1960) was a plastic surgeon who worked for the Royal Air Force during World War II who greatly improved the treatment and rehabilitation of badly burned aircrew. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Guinea Pig Club was formed of patients of Archibald McIndoe at Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, Sussex who underwent reconstructive plastic surgery during the World War II generally after receiving burn injuries in aircraft. ...


Techniques and procedures

Common techniques used in plastic surgery are:

  • incision
  • excision
  • microsurgery
  • chemosurgery
  • electrosurgery
  • laser surgery
  • dermabrasion
  • liposuction

In plastic surgery the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is one of the most common procedures. (In traditional surgery a “graft” is a piece of living tissue, organ, etc., that is transplanted.

  • Autografts: Skin grafts taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be:
    • Cultured Sheets of epithelial cells in vitro.
    • Synthetic compounds (e.g., Integra--a 2 layered dermal substitute consisting superficially of silicone and deeply of bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans).
  • Allografts: Skin grafts taken from a donor of the same species.
  • Xenografts: Skin grafts taken from a donor of a different species.

Usually, good results are expected from plastic surgery that emphasizes:

  • Careful planning of incisions so that they fall in the line of natural skin folds or lines.
  • Appropriate choice of wound closure.
  • Use of best available suture materials.
  • Early removal of exposed sutures so that the wound is held closed by buried sutures.

Reconstructive plastic surgery

Reconstructive Plastic Surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by:

  • burns
  • traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures
  • congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip, or cleft palate
  • developmental abnormalities
  • infection or disease
  • removal of cancers or tumors, such as a mastectomy

Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. It is generally covered by insurance coverage but this may change according to the procedure required.


Common reconstructive surgical procedures are: breast reconstruction for women who have had a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors; one of the complication of severe burns.[2] [3]) , creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent, and closing skin and mucosa defects after removal of tumors in the head and neck region. Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. ... In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... Contracture can refer to: Dupuytrens contracture Volkmanns contracture Capsular contracture This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Burn. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ...


Plastic surgeons developed the use of microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Tissue flaps comprised of skin, muscle, bone, fat or a combination, may be removed from the body, moved to another site on the body and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as 1-2 mm in diameter. Microsurgery is a type of surgery where an operation microscope is required in order to perform opératoire precision acts. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery is a very popular form of plastic surgery. As an example, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons reported that in 2006 nearly 11 million cosmetic plastic surgeries were performed in the United States alone.[4]


Within the U.S,. critics of plastic surgery note that it is legal for any doctor, regardless of speciality, to perform cosmetic surgery. It is thus important to distinguish the terms "plastic surgery" and "cosmetic surgery": Plastic Surgery is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties as the subspecialty dedicated to the surgical repair of defects of form or function -- this includes cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery, as well as reconstructive surgery. The term "cosmetic surgery" however, refers to surgery that is designed to improve cosmetics, or appearance. In several countries including Australia, many doctors who are not qualified as surgeons also perform cosmetic procedures.[5] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures are listed below. Most of these types of surgery are more commonly known by their "common names." These are also listed when pertinent.

In recent years, a growing number of patients seeking cosmetic surgery have visited other countries to find doctors with lower costs. These medical tourists get their procedures done for up 50 percent or more cost savings in countries including Cuba, Thailand, Argentina, India, and some areas of eastern Europe. The risk of complications and the lack of after surgery support are often overlooked by those simply looking for the cheapest option. Abdominoplasty or tummy tuck is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen more firm. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Blepharoplasty is a cosmetic plastic surgical procedure intended to reshape the upper eyelid or lower eyelid by the removal and/or repositioning of excess tissue as well as by reinforcement of surrounding muscles and tendons. ... Asian blepharoplasty is a type of plastic surgery where the skin around the eyes is reshaped. ... Cheek implants usually made of solid silicone which is inserted generally through the mouth and secured above the cheekbones to give more facial definition and improve the face. ... A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a womans breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty enlargement, augmentation mammoplasty or the common slang term boob job) for cosmetic reasons; to reconstruct the breast (e. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is a surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of breasts by excising fat, skin, and glandular tissue; it may also involve a procedure to counterract drooping of the breasts. ... There are two types of Buttock Augmentation: The Surgical enlargement of the Buttocks through the insertion of a Synthetic Implant. ... Bith buttocks. ... A chemical peel is a body treatment technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the facial skin using a chemical solution that causes the skin to blister and eventually peel off. ... Chickenpox is the common name for Varicella zoster, classically one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... A wrinkle is a ridge or crease of a surface. ... Liver spots are blemishes on the skin associated with ageing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation from the sun. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Phenol or carbolic acid is a white crystalline solid, with a chemical formula of C6H5OH, a melting point of 43 C, and a boiling point of 182 C at the pressure of 1 atmosphere (or 101080 Pa). ... In organic chemistry, the chloroethanoic acids (trivial name chloroacetic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids: chloroethanoic acid (chloroacetic acid), CH2ClCOOH dichloroethanoic acid (dichloroacetic acid), CHCl2COOH trichloroethanoic acid (trichloroacetic acid), CCl3COOH As the number of chlorine atoms increases, the electronegativity of that end of the molecule increases, and the molecule... Glycolic acid (or hydroxyacetic acid) is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA). ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Mastopexy or breast lift surgery refers to a group of elective surgical operations designed to lessen the degree of breast ptosis (the droop of the breasts). ... Labiaplasty (sometimes spelled labioplasty) is plastic surgery of the Labia majora and/or the Labia minora, the external folds of the vulva. ... Parts of a vulva The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (also sometimes called the pudenda). ... For the album by Primus, see Rhinoplasty (album). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... Otoplasty cosmetic surgery to change the appearance of a persons external ears. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (literally, surgical removal of wrinkles), is a procedure used in plastic surgery to give a more youthful appearance. ... Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (fat modeling), liposculpture or suction lipectomy (suction-assisted fat removal) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. ... Chin augmentation using surgical implants can alter the underlying structure of the face, providing better balance to the facial features. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Genioplasty/Mentoplasty is a type of cosmetic surgery that is used to improve the appearance of a persons chin. ... Cheek augmentation is a cosmetic surgical procedure that is intended to pronounce the cheekbones in a persons face. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Medical tourism is a term that has risen from the rapid growth of the industry where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical, dental, and surgical care while at the same time touring, vacationing, and fully experiencing the attractions of the countries that...


Plastic surgery sub-specialities

Plastic surgery is a broad field, and may be subdivided further. Plastic surgery training and approval by the American Board of Plastic Surgery includes mastery of the following as well: The American Board of Plastic Surgery, Inc. ...

  • Craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of pediatric congenital anomalies, such as cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and other disturbances in facial growth and development. This field is also practiced by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Because these children have multiple issues, the best approach to providing care to them is an interdisciplinary approach which also includes otolaryngologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists and geneticists.
  • Hand surgery is a field that is also practiced by general surgeons and orthopedic surgeons (see Hand surgeon). Plastic surgeons receive training in hand surgery, with some trainees deciding even to do an additional full-year hand fellowship afterwards (this fellowship can also be pursued by general surgeons and orthopedic surgeons). In particular, plastic surgeons receive training in microvascular surgery, which is needed to replant an amputated hand or digit. Many hand operations (such as reconstruction of injuries, replantations, rheumatoid surgery and surgery of congenital defects) are performed by plastic surgeons.
  • Burn Surgery
  • Pediatric Plastic Surgery. Children often face medical issues unique from the experiences of an adult patient. Many birth defects or syndromes present at birth are best treated in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons specialize in treating these conditions in children. Many have additional training in Pediatric care, including doing residencies in some of the nation's top pediatric plastic surgery programs. Conditions commonly treated by pediatric plastic surgeons include craniofacial anomalies, cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities. Some of the nation's top pediatric hospitals have well established departments of Pediatric Plastic Surgery.

Craniofacial surgery is a subset of plastic surgery that deals with congenital and aquired deformities of the skull, face, and jaws. ... Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder). ... A surgeon operating General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on surgical treatment of abdominal organs, e. ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a teardrop fracture is one of the conditions treated by orthopaedic surgeons. ... Hand Surgeons are a surgical subspecialty specializing in the care and treatment of problems relating to the hand, wrist, and elbow. ... A fellow in its broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade. ... Microsurgery is a type of surgery where an operating microscope is used. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ... A craniofacial team is a team of medical specialists that treat children and adults who have facial deformities such as Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, and Cleft Lip with Cleft Palate. ... Look up cleft lip and palate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Related disciplines

Plastic surgery overlaps with other medical specialties that are distinct specialties certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties, including Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology. These sub-specialties require separate sub-specialty fellowship training after complete speciality residency training. Unfortunately, these sub-specialists continue to use the term "general plastic surgeon" on their educational and mission statements to make "general plastic surgeons" seem less qualified to perform operations of the face or eyes. This is not true, as there is no such term as "general plastic surgery", there is only "plastic surgery", which is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties, the governing board of physicians in the USA, whereas "facial plastic surgery" and "oculoplastic surgery" are not recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties. For instance, a layperson wishing plastic surgery of his or her face would think a "facial plastic surgeon" sounds more appropriate than a "general plastic surgeon" if given only those two choices, whereas the distinction between "facial plastic surgeon" and "plastic surgeon" sounds more similar -- this is an example of how the term "general plastic surgery" is deceptive and should be avoided. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

  • Facial plastic surgery is plastic & reconstructive surgery of the head & neck region. Traditionally developed as a post-cancer reconstruction specialty, the field of facial plastic surgery pioneered many cosmetic procedures that are utilized by many plastic surgeons, including the rhinoplasty and the deep-plane facelift. Specialists in this group have completed a one year fellowship after a traditional otolaryngology or maxillofacial surgery residency program.
  • Ophthalmic plastic surgery (also known as oculoplastic surgery) is plastic & reconstructive surgery of the region around the eyes. Traditionally developed as a specialty that developed techniques to reconstruct eyelids and to surgically treat the orbit and lachrymal system, the field of ophthalmic plastic surgery pioneered many cosmetic procedures that are utilized by many plastic surgeons, including the blepharoplasty and mid-face lift. Specialists in this group have completed a two year fellowship after a traditional ophthalmology surgical residency program.

Maxillofacial surgery is part of a regional surgical specialty called Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. ... Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, is a subspecialty of ophthalmology that includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face. ... Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, is a subspecialty of ophthalmology that includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face. ...

Further reading

  • Fraser, Suzanne (2003). Cosmetic surgery, gender and culture. Palgrave. ISBN 1-4039-1299-8. 
  • Gilman, Sander (2005). Creating Beauty to Cure the Soul: Race and Psychology in the Shaping of Aesthetic Surgery. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2144-0. 
  • Haiken, Elizabeth (1997). Venus Envy: A History of Cosmetic Surgery. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5763-5. 

Sander L. Gilman (born 1944) is an American cultural and literary historian, who is particularly well-known for his contributions to Jewish studies. ...

References

  1. ^ Johnson D, Whitworth I (2002). "Recent developments in plastic surgery.". BMJ 325 (7359): 319-22. PMID 12169510. 
  2. ^ Rana RE, Arora BS (Jan-Mar 2002). "History of plastic surgery in India.". J Postgrad Med (India) 48 (1): 76-8. PMID 12082339. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 
  3. ^ Paul O'Keeffe. Rhinoplasty Overview. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  4. ^ 2006: Nearly 11 Million Cosmetic Surgeries in U.S.. March 22, 2007.
  5. ^ Anderson, Laurence (2006). Looking Good, the Australian guide to skin care, cosmetic medicine and cosmetic surgery. Sydney: AMPCo. ISBN 0-85557-044-X.. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. ... Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is a surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of breasts by excising fat, skin, and glandular tissue; it may also involve a procedure to counterract drooping of the breasts. ... A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a womans breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty enlargement, augmentation mammoplasty or the common slang term boob job) for cosmetic reasons; to reconstruct the breast (e. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Facial feminization surgery (FFS) refers to surgical procedures that alter the human face to increase its femininity. ... Microsurgery is a type of surgery where an operation microscope is required in order to perform opératoire precision acts. ... Operation Smile is a private, not-for-profit volunteer medical services organization providing reconstructive surgery and related health care to indigent children and young adults in developing countries and the United States. ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a teardrop fracture is one of the conditions treated by orthopaedic surgeons. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plastic Surgery (1333 words)
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