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Encyclopedia > Plastic
Household items made out of plastics materials.
Household items made out of plastics materials.

Plastics is the general term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. They are composed of organic condensation or addition polymers and may contain other substances to improve performance or reduce costs. There are many natural polymers generally considered to be "plastics". Plastics can be formed into many different types of objects, or films, or fibers. Their name is derived from the malleability, or plasticity, of many of them. The "s" in "plastics" is there to distinguish between the polymer and the way a material deforms. For example, aluminum is a ductile material and can undergo "plastic" deformation when the material undergoes stress from a force and results in a strain of which it will not return. "Plastics" refers to the polymer material.[citation needed] The word derives from the Greek πλαστικός (plastikos), "fit for molding", from πλαστός (plastos) "molded"[1][2]. Look up plastic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Plastic_household_items. ... Image File history File links Plastic_household_items. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... An artificial membrane, also called a synthetic membrane, is a membrane prepared for separation tasks in laboratory and industry. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ...

Contents

Overview

Plastics can be classified in many ways, but most commonly by their polymer backbone (polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and other acrylics, silicones, polyurethanes, etc.). Other classifications include thermoplastic, thermoset, elastomer, engineering plastic, addition or condensation or polyaddition (depending on polymerization method used), and glass transition temperature or Tg.[3] PVC redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... The acryl group is one of the functional groups sorted in the chemical class of acryl where one of four hydrogen atoms in ethene is replaced with a different functional group. ... Silicones, or polysiloxanes, are inorganic polymers consisting of a silicon-oxygen backbone (...-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-...) with side groups attached to the silicon atoms. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials that exhibit superior mechanical and thermal properties in a wide range of conditions over and above more commonly used ‘commodity’ plastics. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ...


Some plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both a melting point (the temperature at which the attractive intermolecular forces are overcome) and one or more glass transitions (temperatures above which the extent of localized molecular flexibility is substantially increased). So-called semi-crystalline plastics include polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl chloride), polyamides (nylons), polyesters and some polyurethanes. Many plastics are completely amorphous, such as polystyrene and its copolymers, poly (methyl methacrylate), and all thermosets. Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In physics, chemistry, and biology, intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules or between functional groups of macromolecules. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ...


Plastics are polymers: long chains of atoms bonded to one another. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 in molecular mass, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. These chains are made up of many repeating molecular units, known as "repeat units", derived from "monomers"; each polymer chain will have several 1000's of repeat units. The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone. (Some of commercial interest are silicon based.) The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To vary the properties of plastics, both the repeat unit with different molecular groups "hanging" or "pendant" from the backbone, (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before linking monomers together to form the polymer chain). This customization by repeat unit's molecular structure has allowed plastics to become such an indispensable part of twenty first-century life by fine tuning the properties of the polymer. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ...

Molded plastic food replicas on display outside a restaurant in Japan.
Molded plastic food replicas on display outside a restaurant in Japan.

People experimented with plastics based on natural polymers for centuries. In the nineteenth century a plastic material based on chemically modified natural polymers was discovered: Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization of rubber (1839) and Alexander Parkes, English inventor (1813—1890) created the earliest form of plastic in 1855. He mixed pyroxylin, a partially nitrated form of cellulose (cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls), with alcohol and camphor[citation needed]. This produced a hard but flexible transparent material, which he called "Parkesine." The first plastic based on a synthetic polymer was made from phenol and formaldehyde, with the first viable and cheap synthesis methods invented by Leo Hendrik Baekeland in 1909, the product being known as Bakelite. Subsequently poly (vinyl chloride), polystyrene, polyethylene (polyethene), polypropylene (polypropene), polyamides (nylons), polyesters, acrylics, silicones, polyurethanes were amongst the many varieties of plastics developed and have great commercial success. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1027x629, 198 KB) Japanese molded plastic food replicas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1027x629, 198 KB) Japanese molded plastic food replicas. ... For other persons named Charles Goodyear, see Charles Goodyear (disambiguation). ... Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... This article is about the polymeric material. ... The first Celluloids were invented in Birmingham England by Alexander Parkes although he did not live to see their full impact on film. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. ... Formaldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO. It is the simplest aldehyde-- an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group: it consists of exactly one carbonyl. ... Leo Hendrik Baekeland (November 14, 1863 - February 23, 1944) was a Belgian chemist. ... Bakelite is a material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian-American Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... The acryl group is one of the functional groups sorted in the chemical class of acryl where one of four hydrogen atoms in ethene is replaced with a different functional group. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ...


The development of plastics has come from the use of natural materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified natural materials (e.g., natural rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., epoxy, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene). For the post-punk band, see Shellac (band). ... This article is about the polymeric material. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... PVC redirects here. ...


In 1959, Koppers Company in Pittsburgh, PA had a team that developed the expandable polystyrene (EPS) foam.


The polystyrene foam cup

On this team was Edward J. Stoves who made the first commercial foam cup. The experimental cups were made of puffed rice glued together to form a cup to show how it would feel and look. The chemistry was then developed to make the cups commercial. Today, the cup is used throughout the world in countries desiring fast food, such as the United States, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Freon was never used in the cups, as Stoves said[citation needed]: "We didn't know freon was bad for the ozone, but we knew it was not good for people so the cup never used freon to expand the beads." However, for many years polystyrene foam

"was 'expanded' with CFC gases, probably because CFCs were cheap, easily available and easy to use. As concerns with ozone depletion emerged, producers of polystyrene foam in industrialized nations joined aerosol packagers in switching to safer gases (principally nitrogen) for propellant and expansion of polystyrene foam."[4]

The foam cup can be buried, and it is as stable as concrete and brick. No plastic film is required to protect the air and underground water. If it is properly incinerated at high temperatures, the only chemicals generated are water, carbon dioxide, some volatile compounds and carbon soot[4]. If properly burned, one ton of foam cups product 0.2 ounces of ash. Paper cups, when incinerated, produces an average of 200 pounds of ash. Polystyrene burned without enough oxygen or at lower temperatures (as in a campfire or household fireplace) can produce polycyclic aromatic compounds , carbon black and carbon monoxide in addition to styrene monomers.[4][5] EPS can be recycled to make park benches, flower pots and toys. Paper cups, which often have more oil in them than a foam cup, cannot be recycled if they are coated.


It is relatively easy to make the cups biodegradable. One has only to mix rice flour in the polystyrene. When the micro-organisms eat the rice, they also ingest the polystyrene. But there are three reasons to not make the cups biodegradable: 1. The time frame cannot be set. You don't want the cup disappearing on the grocer's shelf or when you have coffee in it; 2. The products of degradation are not food-grade approved; 3. If people know the material is biodegradable, they throw more cups carelessly away.


Photodegradable is superior but they have to be thrown into sunny places. If you throw the cups under a tree, they will not degrade. Manufacturers of the cups say[citation needed], "If you can teach people to throw the cups into the sunlight, you can teach them to throw them into the trash."


Cellulose-based plastics: celluloid and rayon

All Goodyear had done with vulcanization was improve the properties of a natural polymer. The next logical step was to use a natural polymer, cellulose, as the basis for a new material. Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ...


Inventors were particularly interested in developing synthetic substitutes for those natural materials that were expensive and in short supply, since that meant a profitable market to exploit. Ivory was a particularly attractive target for a synthetic replacement. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


An Englishman from Birmingham named Alexander Parkes developed a "synthetic ivory" named "pyroxlin", which he marketed under the trade name "Parkesine", and which won a bronze medal at the 1862 World's fair in London. Parkesine was made from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent. The output of the process hardened into a hard, ivory-like material that could be molded when heated. However, Parkes was not able to scale up the process reliably, and products made from Parkesine quickly warped and cracked after a short period of use. This article is about the British city. ... The first Celluloids were invented in Birmingham England by Alexander Parkes although he did not live to see their full impact on film. ... Parkesine is the trade-name for the first man-made plastic. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...


Englishmen Daniel Spill and the American John Wesley Hyatt both took up where Parkes left off. Parkes had failed for lack of a proper softener, but they independently discovered that camphor[citation needed] would work well. Spill launched his product as Xylonite in 1869, while Hyatt patented his "Celluloid" in 1870, naming it after cellulose. Rivalry between Spill's British Xylonite Company and Hyatt's American Celluloid Company led to an expensive decade-long court battle, with neither company being awarded rights, as ultimately Parkes was credited with the product's invention. As a result, both companies operated in parallel on both sides of the Atlantic. Daniel Spill was born in Winterbourne in Gloucestershire, England on 11 February 1832. ... John Wesley Hyatt (November 28, 1837 – 1920) was a U.S. inventor. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Celluloid (disambiguation). ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... For other uses, see Celluloid (disambiguation). ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ...


Celluloid/Xylonite proved extremely versatile in its field of application, providing a cheap and attractive replacement for ivory, tortoiseshell, and bone, and traditional products such as billiard balls and combs were much easier to fabricate with plastics. Some of the items made with cellulose in the nineteenth century were beautifully designed and implemented. For example, celluloid combs made to tie up the long tresses of hair fashionable at the time are now highly-collectable jewel-like museum pieces. Such pretty trinkets were no longer only for the rich. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tortoiseshell can refer to: a Tortoiseshell cat a pattern used in clothing and jewellery the Small Tortoiseshell, a butterfly the Hawksbill turtle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


Hyatt was something of an industrial genius who understood what could be done with such a shapeable, or "plastic", material, and proceeded to design much of the basic industrial machinery needed to produce good-quality plastic materials in quantity. Some of Hyatt's first products were dental pieces, and sets of false teeth built around celluloid proved cheaper than existing rubber dentures. However, celluloid dentures tended to soften when hot, making tea drinking tricky, and the camphor taste tended to be difficult to suppress.


Celluloid's real breakthrough products were waterproof shirt collars, cuffs, and the false shirtfronts known as "dickies", whose unmanageable nature later became a stock joke in silent-movie comedies. They did not wilt and did not stain easily, and Hyatt sold them by trainloads. Corsets made with celluloid stays also proved popular, since perspiration did not rust the stays, as it would if they had been made of metal. A dickie (sometimes known as a tuxedo front or tux front) is a type of false shirt-front designed to be worn with a tuxedo, usually attached to the collar and then tucked into the cummerbund. ...


Celluloid could also be used in entirely new applications. Hyatt figured out how to fabricate the material in a strip format for movie film. By the year 1900, movie film was a major market for celluloid.


However, celluloid still tended to yellow and crack over time, and it had another more dangerous defect: it burned very easily and spectacularly, unsurprising given that mixtures of nitric acid and cellulose are also used to synthesize smokeless powder. Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


Ping-pong balls, one of the few products still made with celluloid, sizzle and burn if set on fire, and Hyatt liked to tell stories about celluloid billiard balls exploding when struck very hard. These stories might have had a basis in fact, since the billiard balls were often celluloid covered with paints based on another, even more flammable, nitrocellulose product known as "collodion". If the balls had been imperfectly manufactured, the paints might have acted as primer to set the rest of the ball off with a bang. Billiard (as a noun, adjective or verb) may refer to: A type of shot in cue sports (such as pool, carom billiards and snooker) The traditional European name for the number 1015 in mathematics (called quadrillion in modern science) A dynamical system of particle trajectories within a closed reflective boundary... // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ...


Cellulose was also used to produce cloth. While the men who developed celluloid were interested in replacing ivory, those who developed the new fibers were interested in replacing another expensive material, silk. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


In 1884, a French chemist, the Comte de Chardonnay, introduced a cellulose-based fabric that became known as "Chardonnay silk". It was an attractive cloth, but like celluloid it was very flammable, a property completely unacceptable in clothing. After some ghastly accidents, Chardonnay silk was taken off the market.


In 1894, three British inventors, Charles Cross, Edward Bevan, and Clayton Beadle, patented a new "artificial silk" or "art silk" that was much safer. The three men sold the rights for the new fabric to the French Courtauld company, a major manufacturer of silk, which put it into production in 1905, using cellulose from wood pulp as the "feedstock" material.


Art silk, technically known as Cellulose Acetate, became well known under the trade name "rayon", and was produced in great quantities through the 1930s, when it was supplanted by better artificial fabrics. It still remains in production today, often in blends with other natural and artificial fibers. It is cheap and feels smooth on the skin, though it is weak when wet and creases easily. It could also be produced in a transparent sheet form known as "cellophane". Cellulose Acetate became the standard substrate for movie and camera film, instead of its very flammable predecessor. Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose. ...


Bakelite (phenolic)

Main article: Bakelite

The limitations of cellulose led to the next major advance, known as "phenolic" or "phenol-formaldehyde" plastics. A chemist named Leo Hendrik Baekeland, a Belgian-born American living in New York state, was searching for an insulating shellac to coat wires in electric motors and generators. Baekeland found that mixtures of phenol (C6H5OH) and formaldehyde (HCOH) formed a sticky mass when mixed together and heated, and the mass became extremely hard if allowed to cool. He continued his investigations and found that the material could be mixed with wood flour, asbestos, or slate dust to create "composite" materials with different properties. Most of these compositions were strong and fire resistant. The only problem was that the material tended to foam during synthesis, and the resulting product was of unacceptable quality. Bakelite is a material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian-American Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. ... Leo Hendrik Baekeland (November 14, 1863 - February 23, 1944) was a Belgian chemist. ... Belgian-Americans are citizens of the United States who are of Belgian ancestry. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. ... Formaldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO. It is the simplest aldehyde-- an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group: it consists of exactly one carbonyl. ...


Baekeland built pressure vessels to force out the bubbles and provide a smooth, uniform product. He publicly announced his discovery in 1912, naming it bakelite. It was originally used for electrical and mechanical parts, finally coming into widespread use in consumer goods in the 1920s. When the Bakelite patent expired in 1930, the Catalin Corporation acquired the patent and began manufacturing Catalin plastic using a different process that allowed a wider range of coloring. Bakelite is a material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian-American Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... Catalin is a brand name for a thermosetting plastic popular in the 1930s. ...


Bakelite was the first true plastic. It was a purely synthetic material, not based on any material or even molecule found in nature. It was also the first thermosetting plastic. Conventional thermoplastics can be molded and then melted again, but thermoset plastics form bonds between polymers strands when cured, creating a tangled matrix that cannot be undone without destroying the plastic. Thermoset plastics are tough and temperature resistant. Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ...


Bakelite was cheap, strong, and durable. It was molded into thousands of forms, such as radios, telephones, clocks, and billiard balls. The U.S. government even considered making one-cent coins out of it when World War II caused a copper shortage.


Phenolic plastics have been largely replaced by cheaper and less brittle plastics, but they are still used in applications requiring its insulating and heat-resistant properties. For example, some electronic circuit boards are made of sheets of paper or cloth impregnated with phenolic resin. Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ...


Phenolic sheets, rods and tubes are produced in a wide variety of grades under various brand names. The most common grades of industrial phenolic are Canvas, Linen and Paper.


Polystyrene and PVC

Plastic piping and firestops being installed at Nortown Casitas, North York (Now Toronto), Ontario, Canada. Certain plastic pipes can be used in some noncombustible buildings, provided they are firestopped properly and that the flame spread ratings comply with the local building code.
Plastic piping and firestops being installed at Nortown Casitas, North York (Now Toronto), Ontario, Canada. Certain plastic pipes can be used in some noncombustible buildings, provided they are firestopped properly and that the flame spread ratings comply with the local building code.

After the First World War, improvements in chemical technology led to an explosion in new forms of plastics. Among the earliest examples in the wave of new plastics were "polystyrene" (PS) and "polyvinyl chloride" (PVC), developed by IG Farben of Germany. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 312 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3508 × 6744 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 312 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3508 × 6744 pixel, file size: 2. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... PVC redirects here. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ...


Polystyrene is a rigid, brittle, inexpensive plastic that has been used to make plastic model kits and similar knickknacks. It would also be the basis for one of the most popular "foamed" plastics, under the name "styrene foam" or "Styrofoam". Foam plastics can be synthesized in an "open cell" form, in which the foam bubbles are interconnected, as in an absorbent sponge, and "closed cell", in which all the bubbles are distinct, like tiny balloons, as in gas-filled foam insulation and flotation devices. In the late 1950s "High Impact" styrene was introduced, which was not brittle. It finds much current use as the substance of toy figurines and novelties. Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ...

PVC has side chains incorporating chlorine atoms, which form strong bonds. PVC in its normal form is stiff, strong, heat and weather resistant, and is now used for making plumbing, gutters, house siding, enclosures for computers and other electronics gear. PVC can also be softened with chemical processing, and in this form it is now used for shrink-wrap, food packaging, and raingear. Image File history File links Styrene_polymerization. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ...

Image File history File links Vinylchloride_polymerization. ...

Nylon

Main article: Nylon

The real star of the plastics industry in the 1930s was "polyamide" (PA), far better known by its trade name nylon. Nylon was the first purely synthetic fiber, introduced by Du Pont Corporation at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ... E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (NYSE: DD) was founded in July 1802 as a gun powder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont on Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware. ... Trylon, Perisphere and Helicline photo by Sam Gottscho The 1939 New York Worlds Fair, located on the current site of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964 New York Worlds Fair), was one of the largest worlds fairs of all time. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In 1927, Du Pont had begun a secret development project designated "Fiber66", under the direction of Harvard chemist Wallace Carothers and chemistry department director Elmer Keiser Bolton. Carothers had been hired to perform pure research, and he worked to understand the new materials' molecular structure and physical properties. He took some of the first steps in the molecular design of the materials. Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... Elmer Keiser Bolton (1886-1968) was a prominent American and one of the first industrial research directors. ...


His work led to the discovery of synthetic nylon fiber, which was very strong but also very flexible. The first application was for bristles for toothbrushes. However, Du Pont's real target was silk, particularly silk stockings. Carothers and his team synthesized a number of different polyamides including polyamide6.6 and 4.6, as well as polyesters. The toothbrush is a brush used to clean teeth. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... A pair of dark grey nylon stockings. ...

General condensation polymerization reaction for nylon
General condensation polymerization reaction for nylon

It took Du Pont twelve years and US$27 million to refine nylon, and to synthesize and develop the industrial processes for bulk manufacture. With such a major investment, it was no surprise that Du Pont spared little expense to promote nylon after its introduction, creating a public sensation, or "nylon mania". Nylon mania came to an abrupt stop at the end of 1941 when the USA entered World War II. The production capacity that had been built up to produce nylon stockings, or just "nylons", for American women was taken over to manufacture vast numbers of parachutes for fliers and paratroopers. After the war ended, Du Pont went back to selling nylon to the public, engaging in another promotional campaign in 1946 that resulted in an even bigger craze, triggering the so called "nylon riots". Image File history File links Condensation_polymerization_diacid_diamine. ... Image File history File links Condensation_polymerization_diacid_diamine. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The nylon riots refer to a series of publicized disturbances at American stores created by a nylon stocking shortage between August 1945 and March 1946. ...


Subsequently polyamides 6, 10, 11, and 12 have been developed based on monomers which are ring compounds, e.g. caprolactam.nylon 66 is a material manufactured by condensation polymerisation


Nylons still remain important plastics, and not just for use in fabrics. In its bulk form it is very wear resistant, particularly if oil-impregnated, and so is used to build gears, bearings, bushings, and because of good heat-resistance, increasingly for under-the-hood applications in cars, and other mechanical parts. A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Synthetic rubber

Main article: Synthetic rubber

A polymer that was critical to the war effort was "synthetic rubber", which was produced in a variety of forms. Synthetic rubbers are not plastics. Synthetic rubbers are elastic materials. Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ...


The first synthetic rubber polymer was obtained by Lebedev in 1910. Practical synthetic rubber grew out of studies published in 1930 written independently by American Wallace Carothers, Russian scientist Lebedev and the German scientist Hermann Staudinger. These studies led in 1931 to one of the first successful synthetic rubbers, known as "neoprene", which was developed at DuPont under the direction of E.K. Bolton. Neoprene is highly resistant to heat and chemicals such as oil and gasoline, and is used in fuel hoses and as an insulating material in machinery. Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev ( July 25, 1874 - May 1, 1934) - Russian Chemist, Inventor of synthetic rubber. ... Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev ( July 25, 1874 - May 1, 1934) - Russian Chemist, Inventor of synthetic rubber. ... Hermann Staudinger (March 23, 1881 in Worms- Sept. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... Elmer Keiser Bolton (1886-1968) was a prominent American and one of the first industrial research directors. ... Petro redirects here. ... Petrol redirects here. ...


In 1935, German chemists synthesized the first of a series of synthetic rubbers known as "Buna rubbers". These were "copolymers", meaning that their polymers were made up from not one but two monomers, in alternating sequence. One such Buna rubber, known as "GR-S" (Government Rubber Styrene), is a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, became the basis for U.S. synthetic rubber production during World War II.


Worldwide natural rubber supplies were limited and by mid-1942 most of the rubber-producing regions were under Japanese control. Military trucks needed rubber for tires, and rubber was used in almost every other war machine. The U.S. government launched a major (and largely secret) effort to develop and refine synthetic rubber. A principal scientist involved with the effort was Edward Robbins. Edward Hutchinson Robbins (February 9, 1758 - December 17, 1837) served as the lieutendant governor of Massachusetts from 1802 to 1806. ...


By 1944 a total of 50 factories were manufacturing it, pouring out a volume of the material twice that of the world's natural rubber production before the beginning of the war.


After the war, natural rubber plantations no longer had a stranglehold on rubber supplies, particularly after chemists learned to synthesize isoprene. GR-S remains the primary synthetic rubber for the manufacture of tires.


Synthetic rubber would also play an important part in the space race and nuclear arms race. Solid rockets used during World War II used nitrocellulose explosives for propellants, but it was impractical and dangerous to make such rockets very big. For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ...


During the war, California Institute of Technology (Caltech) researchers came up with a new solid fuel, based on asphalt fuel mixed with an oxidizer, such as potassium or ammonium perchlorate, plus aluminium powder, which burns very hot. This new solid fuel burned more slowly and evenly than nitrocellulose explosives, and was much less dangerous to store and use, though it tended to flow slowly out of the rocket in storage and the rockets using it had to be stockpiled nose down. The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


After the war, the Caltech researchers began to investigate the use of synthetic rubbers instead of asphalt as the fuel in the mixture. By the mid-1950s, large missiles were being built using solid fuels based on synthetic rubber, mixed with ammonium perchlorate and high proportions of aluminium powder. Such solid fuels could be cast into large, uniform blocks that had no cracks or other defects that would cause nonuniform burning. Ultimately, all large military rockets and missiles would use synthetic rubber based solid fuels, and they would also play a significant part in the civilian space effort. Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


Plastics explosion: acrylic, polyethylene, etc.

Other plastics emerged in the prewar period, though some would not come into widespread use until after the war.


By 1936, American, British, and German companies were producing Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), better known as acrylic glass. Although acrylics are now well known for their use in paints and synthetic fibers, such as fake furs, in their bulk form they are actually very hard and more transparent than glass, and are sold as glass replacements under trade names such as "Perspex", "Plexiglas" and "Lucite". These were used to build aircraft canopies during the war, and its main application now is large illuminated signs such as are used in shop fronts or inside large stores, and for the manufacture of vacuum-formed bath-tubs. Structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ...


Another important plastic, Polyethylene (PE), sometimes known as polythene, was discovered in 1933 by Reginald Gibson and Eric Fawcett at the British industrial giant Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). This material evolved into two forms, low density polyethylene (LDPE), and high density polyethylene (HDPE). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eric Fawcett (August 23, 1927-September 2, 2000, was a professor of physics at the University of Toronto for 23 years. ... HDPE has SPI resin ID code 2 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. ...

PEs are cheap, flexible, durable, and chemically resistant. LDPE is used to make films and packaging materials, while HDPE is used for containers, plumbing, and automotive fittings. While PE has low resistance to chemical attack, it was found later that a PE container could be made much more robust by exposing it to fluorine gas, which modified the surface layer of the container into the much tougher polyfluoroethylene. Image File history File links Ethylene_polymerization. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ...


Polyethylene would lead after the war to an improved material, Polypropylene (PP), which was discovered in the early 1950s by Giulio Natta. It is common in modern science and technology that the growth of the general body of knowledge can lead to the same inventions in different places at about the same time, but polypropylene was an extreme case of this phenomenon, being separately invented about nine times. The ensuing litigation was not resolved until 1989. Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... Giulio Natta (February 26, 1903 – May 2, 1979) was an Italian chemist. ...


Polypropylene managed to survive the legal process and two American chemists working for Phillips Petroleum, J. Paul Hogan and Robert Banks, are now generally credited as the "official" inventors of the material. Polypropylene is similar to its ancestor, polyethylene, and shares polyethylene's low cost, but it is much more robust. It is used in everything from plastic bottles to carpets to plastic furniture, and is very heavily used in automobiles. ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) was founded by the merger of the Conoco Inc. ... J. Paul Hogan was born on August 7, 1919 in Lowes, Kentucky. ... Robert Banks was born on November 24, 1921 in Piedmont. ...

Polyurethane (PU) was invented by Friedrich Bayer & Company in 1937, and would come into use after the war, in blown form for mattresses, furniture padding, and thermal insulation. It is also one of the components (in non-blown form) of the fiber spandex. Image File history File links Propylene_polymerization. ... A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ...


In 1939, IG Farben filed a patent for polyepoxide or epoxy. Epoxies are a class of thermoset plastic that form cross-links and cure when a catalyzing agent, or hardener, is added. After the war they would come into wide use for coatings, adhesives, and composite materials. IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ...


Composites using epoxy as a matrix include glass-reinforced plastic, where the structural element is glass fiber, and carbon-epoxy composites, in which the structural element is carbon fiber. Fiberglass is now often used to build sport boats, and carbon-epoxy composites are an increasingly important structural element in aircraft, as they are lightweight, strong, and heat resistant. It has been suggested that Fiber-reinforced plastic be merged into this article or section. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


Two chemists named Rex Whinfield and James Dickson, working at a small English company with the quaint name of the "Calico Printer's Association" in Manchester, developed polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) in 1941, and it would be used for synthetic fibers in the postwar era, with names such as polyester, dacron, and "Terylene". Sir James Robert Dickson KCMG (30 November, 1832 - 10 January, 1901) was an Australian politician and businessman, the 13th Premier of Queensland and a member of the first federal ministry. ... PETE redirects here. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ...


PET is less gas-permeable than other low-cost plastics and so is a popular material for making bottles for Coca-Cola and other carbonated drinks, since carbonation tends to attack other plastics, and for acidic drinks such as fruit or vegetable juices. PET is also strong and abrasion resistant, and is used for making mechanical parts, food trays, and other items that have to endure abuse. PET films are used as a base for recording tape. The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) polyester film is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation. ...


One of the most impressive plastics used in the war, and a top secret, was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), better known as Teflon, which could be deposited on metal surfaces as a scratch-proof and corrosion-resistant, low-friction protective coating. The polyfluoroethylene surface layer created by exposing a polyethylene container to fluorine gas is very similar to Teflon. In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ...


A Du Pont chemist named Roy Plunkett discovered Teflon by accident in 1938. During the war, it was used in gaseous-diffusion processes to refine uranium for the atomic bomb, as the process was highly corrosive. By the early 1960s, Teflon adhesion-resistant frying pans were in demand. Roy J. Plunkett (June 26, 1910 - May 12, 1994) was the chemist who accidentally invented Teflon in 1938. ...

Teflon was later used to synthesize the breathable fabric Gore-Tex, which can be used to manufacture wet weather clothing that is able to "breathe". Its structure allows water vapour molecules to pass, while not permitting water as liquid to enter. Gore-Tex is also used for surgical applications such as garments and implants; Teflon strand is used to make dental floss; and Teflon mixed with fluorine compounds is used to make decoy flares dropped by aircraft to distract heat-seeking missiles. Image File history File links Tetrafluoroethylene_polymerization. ... Goretex redirects here. ... The term implant has different meanings: in Scientology, see Implant (Scientology) in medicine, see prosthesis This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dental hygienist flossing a patients teeth Dental floss is either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (teflon or polyethylene) ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. ...


After the war, the new plastics that had been developed entered the consumer mainstream in a flood. New manufacturing were developed, using various forming, molding, casting, and extrusion processes, to churn out plastic products in vast quantities. American consumers enthusiastically adopted the endless range of colorful, cheap, and durable plastic gimmicks being produced for new suburban home life. For the process that creates volcanic rock, see extrusive (geology). ...


One of the most visible parts of this plastics invasion was Earl Tupper's Tupperware, a complete line of sealable polyethylene food containers that Tupper cleverly promoted through a network of housewives who sold Tupperware as a means of bringing in some money. The Tupperware line of products was well thought out and highly effective, greatly reducing spoilage of foods in storage. Thin-film plastic wrap that could be purchased in rolls also helped keep food fresh. Earl Silas Tupper (July 28, 1907–October 5, 1983) was the inventor of Tupperware, an airtight plastic container for storing food. ... Tupperware logo A Tupperware storage container. ... A roll of LDPE plastic wrap in a box. ...


Another prominent element in 1950s homes was Formica, a plastic laminate that was used to surface furniture and cabinetry. Formica was durable and attractive. It was particularly useful in kitchens, as it did not absorb, and could be easily cleaned of stains from food preparation, such as blood or grease. With Formica, a very attractive and well-built table could be built using low-cost and lightweight plywood with Formica covering, rather than expensive and heavy hardwoods like oak or mahogany. Formica is a brand of plastic laminate containing melamine resin. ... A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. ...


Composite materials like fiberglass came into use for building boats and, in some cases, cars. Polyurethane foam was used to fill mattresses, and Styrofoam was used to line ice coolers and make float toys.


Plastics continue to be improved. General Electric introduced Lexan, a high-impact polycarbonate plastic, in the 1970s. Du Pont developed Kevlar, an extremely strong synthetic fiber that was best known for its use in ballistic rated clothing and combat helmets. Kevlar was so impressive that its manufacturer, DuPont, deemed it necessary to release an official statement denying alien involvement. [6] GE redirects here. ... For similar products offered by other companies, see polycarbonates. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


Negative health effects

Some plastics have been associated with negative health effects.


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains numerous toxic chemicals called adipates and phthalates ("plasticizers"), which are used to soften brittle PVC into a more flexible form. PVC is commonly used to package foods and liquids, ubiquitous in children's toys and teethers, plumbing and building materials, and in everything from cosmetics to shower curtains. Traces of these chemicals can leach out of PVC when it comes into contact with food. The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized the chemical used to make PVC, vinyl chloride, as a known human carcinogen[7]. The European Union has banned the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), the most widely used plasticizer in PVC, and in children's toys. PVC redirects here. ... Adipate (-OOC-(CH2)4-COO-) is the ionized form of adipic acid. ... R,R=CnH2n+1; n=4-15 Phthalates are a group of chemical compounds that are mainly used as plasticizers -- substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility. ... WHO redirects here. ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also BEHP, di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, DEHP, or dioctyl phthalate, DOP) is a phthalate , a branched-chain dioctyl ester of phthalic acid. ...


Polystyrene (PS) is one of the toxins the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) monitors in America's drinking water. Prior to the ban on the use of CFCs in extrusion of polystyrene (and general use, except in life-critical fire suppression systems; see Montreal Protocol), the production of polystyrene contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer; however, non-CFCs are currently used in the extrusion process. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers interfere with hormone functions. It is a possible human carcinogen[7]. For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... “EPA” redirects here. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...


Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers, whose primary building block is bisphenol A (BPA), a hormone disrupter that releases into food and liquid[7] and acts like estrogen. Research in Environmental Health Perspectives finds that BPA (leached from the lining of tin cans, dental sealants and polycarbonate bottles) can increase body weight of lab animals' offspring, as well as impact hormone levels. A more recent animal study suggests that even low-level exposure to BPA results in insulin resistance, which can lead to inflammation and heart disease. Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


The environment

Plastics are durable and degrade very slowly. In some cases, burning plastic can release toxic fumes. Also, the manufacturing of plastics often creates large quantities of chemical pollutants. Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


By 1995, plastic recycling programs were common in the United States and elsewhere. Thermoplastics can be remelted and reused, and thermoset plastics can be ground up and used as filler, though the purity of the material tends to degrade with each reuse cycle. There are methods by which plastics can be broken back down to a feedstock state. Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ...


To assist recycling of disposable items, the Plastic Bottle Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry devised a now-familiar scheme to mark plastic bottles by plastic type. A plastic container using this scheme is marked with a triangle of three "chasing arrows", which encloses a number giving the plastic type: The Society of the Plastics Industry developed symbols for plastics so that they could be recycled easier. ...

1-PETE 2-HDPE 3-PVC 4-LDPE 5-PP 6-PS 7-Other Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-1-PETE.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-2-HDPE.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-3-V.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-4-LDPE.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-5-PP.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-6-PS.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Resin-identification-code-7-OTHER.svg‎ Self made from PNG. File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Plastics type marks: the Resin identification code
  1. PET (PETE), polyethylene terephthalate: Commonly found on 2-liter soft drink bottles, cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jars.
  2. HDPE, high-density polyethylene: Commonly found on detergent bottles, milk jugs.
  3. PVC, polyvinyl chloride: Commonly found on plastic pipes, outdoor furniture, shrink-wrap, water bottles, salad dressing and liquid detergent containers.
  4. LDPE, low-density polyethylene: Commonly found on dry-cleaning bags, produce bags, trash can liners, food storage containers.
  5. PP, polypropylene: Commonly found on bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers.
  6. PS, polystyrene: Commonly found on "packing peanuts", cups, plastic tableware, meat trays, take-away food clamshell containers
  7. OTHER, other: This plastic category, as its name of "other" implies, is any plastic other than the named #1–#6, Commonly found on certain kinds of food containers, Tupperware, and Nalgene bottles.

Unfortunately, recycling plastics has proven difficult. The biggest problem with plastic recycling is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic waste, and so it is labor intensive. Typically, workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin identification code, though common containers like soda bottles can be sorted from memory. Other recyclable materials, such as metals, are easier to process mechanically. However, new mechanical sorting processes are being utilized to increase plastic recycling capacity and efficiency. Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... PETE redirects here. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... HDPE has SPI resin ID code 2 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. ... PVC redirects here. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Tupperware logo A Tupperware storage container. ... Nalgene (sometimes referred to as Nalge Nunc International) is a distributor and manufacturer of plastic laboratory containers that has diversified into the field of containers for outdoor sports. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ...


While containers are usually made from a single type and color of plastic, making them relatively easy to sort out, a consumer product like a cellular phone may have many small parts consisting of over a dozen different types and colors of plastics. In a case like this, the resources it would take to separate the plastics far exceed their value and the item is discarded. However, developments are taking place in the field of Active Disassembly, which may result in more consumer product components being re-used or recycled. Recycling certain types of plastics can be unprofitable, as well. For example, polystyrene is rarely recycled because it is usually not cost effective. These unrecyclable wastes can be disposed of in landfills, incinerated or used to produce electricity at waste-to-energy plants. Active Disassembly (AD) is a developing technology which is associated with the term Active Disassembly using Smart Materials (ADSM) // Outline Smart materials such as Shape memory alloys are now offering the possibility of allowing complex items to be disassembled easily and in a cost-effective manner. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Landfill can also refer to Land reclamation. ... For other forms of waste plant that produce energy, see waste-to-energy. ... A waste-to-energy plant is a waste management facility which combusts wastes to produce electricity. ...


Bioplastics and biodegradable plastics

Main article: Biodegradable plastic

Research has been done on biodegradable plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight (e.g. ultra-violet radiation), water or dampness, bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and some instances rodent pest or insect attack are also included as forms of biodegradation or environmental degradation. It is clear some of these modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is exposed at the surface, while other modes will only be effective if certain conditions are found in landfill or composting systems. Starch powder has been mixed with plastic as a filler to allow it to degrade more easily, but it still does not lead to complete breakdown of the plastic. Some researchers have actually genetically engineered bacteria that synthesize a completely biodegradable plastic, but this material, such as Biopol, is expensive at present[citation needed]. The German chemical company BASF makes Ecoflex, a fully biodegradable polyester for food packaging applications. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ... Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)is a polymer produced by some bacteria when they have extra energy, then used as an energy source when needed. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...


A potential disadvantage of biodegradable plastics is that the carbon that is locked up in them is released into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas carbon dioxide when they degrade, though if they are made from natural materials, such as vegetable crop derivatives or animal products, there is no net gain in carbon dioxide emissions, although concern will be for a worse greenhouse gas, methane release. Of course, incinerating non-biodegradable plastics will release carbon dioxide as well, while disposing of it in landfills will release methane when the plastic does eventually break down. Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


So far, these plastics have proven too costly and limited for general use, and critics have pointed out that the only real problem they address is roadside litter, which is regarded as a secondary issue. When such plastic materials are dumped into landfills, they can become "mummified" and persist for decades even if they are supposed to be biodegradable. The International Tidy Man[1] For other meanings of litter, see Litter (disambiguation). ... Landfill can also refer to Land reclamation. ...


There have been some success stories. The Courtauld concern, the original producer of rayon, came up with a revised process for the material in the mid-1980s to produce "Tencel". Tencel has many superior properties over rayon, but is still produced from "biomass" feedstocks, and its manufacture is extraordinarily clean by the standards of plastic production. Lyocell is a fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ...


Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana have been working on developing biodegradable resins, sheets and films made with zein (corn protein).[1]PDF (96.7 KiB) Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Recently, however, a new type of biodegradable resin has made its debut in the United States, called Plastarch Material (PSM). It is heat, water, and oil resistant and sees a 70% degradation in 90 days. Biodegradable plastics based on polylactic acid (once derived from dairy products, now from cereal crops such as maize) have entered the marketplace, for instance as polylactates as disposable sandwich packs. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Plastarch Material (PSM) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic resin. ... Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... A disposable product is a product designed for cheapness and short-term convenience rather than medium to long-term durability, with most products only intended for single use. ...


An alternative to starch-based resins are additives such as Bio-Batch an additive that allows the manufacturers to make PE, PS, PP, PET, and PVC totally biodegradable in landfills where 94.8% of most plastics end up, according to the EPA's latest MSW report located under "Municipal Solid Waste in the United States": 2003 Data Tables. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with bioplastic. ... EPA redirects here. ...


It is also possible that bacteria will eventually develop the ability to degrade plastics. This has already happened with nylon: two types of nylon eating bacteria, Flavobacteria and Pseudomonas, were found in 1975 to possess enzymes (nylonase) capable of breaking down nylon. While not a solution to the disposal problem, it is likely that bacteria will evolve the ability to use other synthetic plastics as well. In 2008, a 16-year-old boy reportedly isolated two plastic-consuming bacteria.[8] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... // Original Discovery In 1975 a team of Japanese scientists discovered a strain of Flavobacterium living in ponds containing waste water from a factory producing nylon that was capable of digesting certain byproducts of nylon-6 manufacture, such as, 6-aminohexanoate linear dimer, even though those byproducts had not existed prior... Orders Flavobacteriales The class Flavobacteria is composed of a single order of environmental bacteria[1]. ^ Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... // Original Discovery In 1975 a team of Japanese scientists discovered a strain of Flavobacterium living in ponds containing waste water from a factory producing nylon that was capable of digesting certain byproducts of nylon-6 manufacture, such as, 6-aminohexanoate linear dimer, even though those byproducts had not existed prior...


The latter possibility was in fact the subject of a cautionary novel by Kit Pedler and Gerry Davis (screenwriter), the creators of the Cybermen, re-using the plot of the first episode of their Doomwatch series. The novel, "Mutant 59: The Plastic Eater", written in 1971, is the story of what could happen if a bacterium were to evolve—or be artificially cultured—to eat plastics, and be let loose in a major city. Dr. Kit Pedler was the Head of the Electron Microscopy Department at the University of London. ... Gerry Davis was a British television writer, best known for his contributions to the science-fiction genre. ... The Cybermen - 1966 vintage (from The Moonbase). ... Doomwatch was a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC, which ran on the BBC1 channel for thirty-seven fifty-minute episodes, plus one unshown, and one part made, in three seasons transmitted on Mondays from 9 February 1970 to 14 August 1972. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


Bioplastics

Main article: Bioplastic

Some plastics can be obtained from biomass, including: Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from plant sources such as hemp oil, soy bean oil and corn starch rather than traditional plastics which are derived from petroleum. ...

For other uses and abbreviations, see PEA. Binomial name L. A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ... Trigger may refer to: Trigger, a mechanism to actuate the following devices gun crossbow animal trap Trigger, the cause of an event Triggering the precipitation of a dissolved material in a supersaturated solution Triggering an allergic reaction by exposure to an allergen Trigger, a thought, experience or an event that...

Price, environment, and the future

The biggest threat to the conventional plastics industry is most likely to be environmental concerns, including the release of toxic pollutants, greenhouse gas, litter, biodegradable and non-biodegrable landfill impact as a result of the production and disposal of petroleum and petroleum-based plastics. Of particular concern has been the recent accumulation of enormous quantities of plastic trash in ocean gyres, particularly the North Pacific Gyre, now known informally as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch or the Pacific Trash Vortex. Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... The currents of the North Pacific Gyre The North Pacific Gyre (also known as North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) is a clockwise-swirling vortex of ocean currents comprising most of the northern Pacific Ocean. ... The North Pacific Gyre is one of five major oceanic gyres The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is an area of marine debris in the North Pacific Gyre, and is also known as the Plastic soup, the Eastern Garbage Patch, and the Pacific Trash Vortex. ...


For decades one of the great appeals of plastics has been their low price. Yet in recent years the cost of plastics has been rising dramatically. A major cause is the sharply rising cost of petroleum, the raw material that is chemically altered to form commercial plastics. Petro redirects here. ...


With some observers suggesting that future oil reserves are uncertain, the price of petroleum may increase further. Therefore, alternatives are being sought. Oil shale and tar oil are alternatives for plastic production but are expensive. Scientists are seeking cheaper and better alternatives to petroleum-based plastics, and many candidates are in laboratories all over the world. One promising alternative may be fructose [11]. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Open pit mining Tar sands, also referred to as oil sand or bituminous sand, is a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. ...


Common plastics and uses

Polypropylene (PP) 
Food containers, appliances, car fenders (bumpers).
Polystyrene (PS) 
Packaging foam, food containers, disposable cups, plates, cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.
High impact polystyrene (HIPS) 
fridge liners, food packaging, vending cups.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 
Electronic equipment cases (e.g., computer monitors, printers, keyboards).
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 
carbonated drinks bottles, jars, plastic film, microwavable packaging.
Polyester (PES) 
Fibers, textiles.
Polyamides (PA) (Nylons
Fibers, toothbrush bristles, fishing line, under-the-hood car engine mouldings.
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) 
Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames, flooring.
Polyurethanes (PU) 
cushioning foams, thermal insulation foams, surface coatings, printing rollers. (Currently 6th or 7th most commonly used plastic material, for instance the most commonly used plastic found in cars).
Polycarbonate (PC) 
Compact discs, eyeglasses, riot shields, security windows, traffic lights, lenses.
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran
Food packaging.
Polyethylene (PE) 
Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.
Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) 
A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger plastic. :Car Interior and exterior parts

Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... Monomers in ABS polymer ABS plastic pipes in use in a wet basement of a paper mill, in Sault Ste. ... PETE redirects here. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... PVC redirects here. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... CD redirects here. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... Polyvinylidene chloride is a polymer derived from vinylidene chloride. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Special-purpose plastics

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 
contact lenses, glazing (best known in this form by its various trade names around the world, e.g., Perspex, Oroglas, Plexiglas) fluorescent light diffusers, rear light covers for vehicles.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (trade name Teflon) 
Heat-resistant, low-friction coatings, used in things like non-stick surfaces for frying pans, plumber's tape and water slides.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) (Polyetherketone)
Strong, chemical- and heat-resistant thermoplastic, biocompatibility allows for use in medical implant applications, aerospace mouldings. One of the most expensive commercial polymers.
Polyetherimide (PEI) (Ultem) 
A high temperature, chemically stable polymer that does not crystallize.
Phenolics (PF) or (phenol formaldehydes) 
high modulus, relatively heat resistant, and excellent fire resistant polymer. Used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures, paper laminated products (e.g. "Formica"), thermally insulation foams. It is a thermosetting plastic, with the familiar trade name Bakelite, that can be moulded by heat and pressure when mixed with a filler-like wood flour or can be cast in its unfilled liquid form or cast as foam, e.g. "Oasis". Problems include the probability of mouldings naturally being dark colours (red, green, brown), and as thermoset difficult to recycle.
Urea-formaldehyde (UF
one of the aminoplasts and used as multi-colorable alternative to Phenolics. Used as a wood adhesive (for plywood, chipboard, hardboard) and electrical switch housings.
Melamine formaldehyde (MF
one of the aminoplasts, and used a multi-colorable alternative to phenolics, for instance in mouldings (e.g. break-resistance alternatives to ceramic cups, plates and bowls for children) and the decorated top surface layer of the paper laminates (e.g. "Formica").
Polylactic acid 
a biodegradable, thermoplastic, found converted into a variety of aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid which in turn can be made by fermentation of various agricultural products such as corn starch, once made from diary products.
Plastarch material 
biodegradable and heat resistant, thermoplastic composed of modified corn starch.

Perspex redirects here. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... This article is about the resin. ... For other uses, see PEEK (disambiguation). ... Biocompatibility is the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. ... Polyetherimide ( PEI ) is an amorphous, amber transparent, high-performance thermoplastic with the characteristics similar to PEEK. Relative to PEEK, it is less temperature-resistant, less expensive, and lower in impact strength. ... This article is about a Canadian province. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... pf is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... The international symbol for recycling. ... Urea-formaldehyde is a transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such as ammonia or pyridine. ... Century Tower, University of Florida. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ... MF, Mf, or mf could be an abbreviation for: Medium frequency mezzo-forte mossy fiber (in neuroscience) Multi-Frequency (in telephony) motherfucker Thousand Feet (MF) (an IT term for cable length; based on roman numeral M for Thousand and F for Feet) Mainframe M/F (a novel by Anthony Burgess... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... The skeletal formula of polylactic acid Polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the U.S.) or sugarcanes (rest of world). ... Plastarch Material (PSM) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic resin. ...

See also

A conductive polymer is an organic polymer semiconductor, or an organic semiconductor. ... Corn, or maize, has a number of uses. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... 5 different types of flexible mold compounds in significant use today. ... Injection molding (British variant spelling: moulding) is a manufacturing technique for making parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials in production. ... An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a thin-film light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive layer is an organic compound. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... Plastics engineering encompasses the processing, design, development, and manufacture of plastics products. ... Plastic extruder with barrel cut open to show the screw Plastics extrusion is a high volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. ... The term plasticulture covers all use of plasticts in agriculture, from plastic pots to silage bags, but is most often used to describe all kinds of plastic plant coverings. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) are polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC...

References

  1. ^ Plastikos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  2. ^ Plastic, Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ Classification of Plastics
  4. ^ a b c Polystyrene Foam Burning Danger
  5. ^ Burning Polystyrene Foam
  6. ^ History of Plastics and Plastic Packaging Products - Polyethylene, Polypropylene, and More
  7. ^ a b c McRandle, P.W. (March/April 2004). Plastic Water Bottles. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  8. ^ WCI student isolates microbe that lunches on plastic bags
  9. ^ CORDIS: Search CORDIS: Projects
  10. ^ Spain: Scientists Close To Making Biofuel From Algae
  11. ^ 'Sugar plastic' could reduce reliance on petroleum
  • Substantial parts of this text originated from An Introduction To Plastics v1.0 / 1 March 2001 / greg goebel / public domain

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Plastics

The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... R,R=CnH2n+1; n=4-15 Phthalates are a group of chemical compounds that are mainly used as plasticizers -- substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility. ... Dibutyl phthalate is a chemical used in some nail polishes. ... bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also BEHP, di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, DEHP, or dioctyl phthalate, DOP) is a phthalate , a branched-chain dioctyl ester of phthalic acid. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Adipate (-OOC-(CH2)4-COO-) is the ionized form of adipic acid. ... DEHA can refer to: Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate Diethylhydroxylamine This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Dioctyl adipate or DOA is a plasticizer. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Endocrine disruptors are substances which interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking, blocking or otherwise disrupting the function of hormones. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Proposition 65 is a law in California created to promote clean drinking water and keep toxic substances that cause cancer and birth defects out of consumer products. ... There are numerous health hazards that can affect people in their natural environment. ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plastic Surgeon - Plastic Surgeon Information (113 words)
A Plastic Surgeon is a surgeon/medical doctor who specializes in reducing, repairing, and reconstructing scarring or disfigurement resulting from accidents, birth defects, or treatments of diseases such as skin cancer and other similar skin conditions.
This type of surgical reconstruction is referred to as Plastic Surgery.
Plastic Surgeons also perform specialized types of cosmetic surgeries to improve an individual’s physical appearance when patients are unhappy with certain parts of their body, i.e.
Plastic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5361 words)
Plastic can be classified in many ways but most commonly by their polymer backbone (polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, acrylic, silicone, urethane, etc.).
Many plastics are partially crystalline and partially amorphous in molecular structure, giving them both a melting point (the temperature at which the covalent bonds dissolve) and one or more glass transitions (temperatures at which the degree of cross-linking is substantially reduced).
The vast majority of plastics are composed of polymers of carbon alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in the backbone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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