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Encyclopedia > Plasmodium
Plasmodium

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Aconoidasida
Order: Haemosporida
Family: Plasmodiidae
Genus: Plasmodium
Species

Plasmodium accipiteris
Plasmodium achiotense
Plasmodium achromaticum
Plasmodium acuminatum
Plasmodium adunyinkai
Plasmodium aegyptensis
Plasmodium aeuminatum
Plasmodium agamae
Plasmodium alloelongatum
Plasmodium anasum
Plasmodium anomaluri
Plasmodium arachniformis
Plasmodium ashfordi
Plasmodium atheruri
Plasmodium aurulentum
Plasmodium australis
Plasmodium attenuatum
Plasmodium azurophilum
Plasmodium balli
Plasmodium bambusicolai
Plasmodium basilisci
Plasmodium beebei
Plasmodium beltrani
Plasmodium berghei
Plasmodium bertii
Plasmodium bigueti
Plasmodium biziurae
Plasmodium booliati
Plasmodium bouillize
Plasmodium bowiei
Plasmodium brodeni
Plasmodium brasilianum
Plasmodium brasiliense
Plasmodium brumpti
Plasmodium brucei
Plasmodium brygooi
Plasmodium bubalis
Plasmodium bucki
Plasmodium buteonis
Plasmodium capistrani
Plasmodium cathemerium
Plasmodium cephalophi
Plasmodium cercopitheci
Plasmodium chabaudi
Plasmodium chalcidi
Plasmodium chiricahuae
Plasmodium circularis
Plasmodium circumflexum
Plasmodium clelandi
Plasmodium cordyli
Plasmodium cnemaspi
Plasmodium cnemidophori
Plasmodium coatneyi
Plasmodium coggeshalli
Plasmodium colombiense
Plasmodium columbae
Plasmodium corradettii
Plasmodium coturnixi
Plasmodium coulangesi
Plasmodium cuculus
Plasmodium cyclopsi
Plasmodium cynomolgi
Plasmodium diminutivum
Plasmodium diploglossi
Plasmodium dissanaikei
Plasmodium divergens
Plasmodium dominicana
Plasmodium draconis
Plasmodium durae
Plasmodium egerniae
Plasmodium elongatum
Plasmodium eylesi
Plasmodium fabesia
Plasmodium fairchildi
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium falconi
Plasmodium fallax
Plasmodium fieldi
Plasmodium fischeri
Plasmodium foleyi
Plasmodium formosanum
Plasmodium forresteri
Plasmodium floridense
Plasmodium fragile
Plasmodium galbadoni
Plasmodium garnhami
Plasmodium gallinaceum
Plasmodium giganteum
Plasmodium giovannolai
Plasmodium girardi
Plasmodium gonderi
Plasmodium georgesi
Plasmodium gologoense
Plasmodium gracilis
Plasmodium griffithsi
Plasmodium guangdong
Plasmodium gundersi
Plasmodium guyannense
Plasmodium heischi
Plasmodium hegneri
Plasmodium hermani
Plasmodium heteronucleare
Plasmodium hexamerium
Plasmodium holaspi
Plasmodium huffi
Plasmodium hylobati
Plasmodium icipeensis
Plasmodium iguanae
Plasmodium inconstans
Plasmodium inopinatum
Plasmodium inui
Plasmodium japonicum
Plasmodium jefferi
Plasmodium jiangi
Plasmodium josephinae
Plasmodium joyeuxi
Plasmodium juxtanucleare
Plasmodium kempi
Plasmodium knowlesi
Plasmodium kentropyxi
Plasmodium lacertiliae
Plasmodium lainsoni
Plasmodium landauae
Plasmodium leanucteus
Plasmodium lemuris
Plasmodium lepidoptiformis
Plasmodium lionatum
Plasmodium lophurae
Plasmodium loveridgei
Plasmodium lutzi
Plasmodium lygosomae
Plasmodium mabuiae
Plasmodium mackerrasae
Plasmodium maculilabre
Plasmodium maior
Plasmodium majus
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium marginatum
Plasmodium matutinum
Plasmodium melanipherum
Plasmodium mexicanum
Plasmodium michikoa
Plasmodium minasense
Plasmodium morulum
Plasmodium murinus
Plasmodium necatrix
Plasmodium nucleophilium
Plasmodium octamerium
Plasmodium odocoilei
Plasmodium osmaniae
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium paddae
Plasmodium papernai
Plasmodium paranucleophilum
Plasmodium parvulum
Plasmodium pedioecetii
Plasmodium pelaezi
Plasmodium percygarnhami
Plasmodium pessoai
Plasmodium petersi
Plasmodium pifanoi
Plasmodium pinotti
Plasmodium pinorrii
Plasmodium pitheci
Plasmodium pitmani
Plasmodium polare
Plasmodium pulmophilum
Plasmodium reichenowi
Plasmodium relictum
Plasmodium rhadinurum
Plasmodium rhodaini
Plasmodium robinsoni
Plasmodium rouxi
Plasmodium sandoshami
Plasmodium sasai
Plasmodium saurocaudatum
Plasmodium schweitzi
Plasmodium scorzai
Plasmodium semiovale
Plasmodium semnopitheci
Plasmodium shortii
Plasmodium silvaticum
Plasmodium simium
Plasmodium tanzaniae
Plasmodium tenue
Plasmodium tejerai
Plasmodium telfordi
Plasmodium tomodoni
Plasmodium torrealbai
Plasmodium traguli
Plasmodium tribolonoti
Plasmodium tropiduri
Plasmodium tumbayaensis
Plasmodium tyrio
Plasmodium uilenbergi
Plasmodium uluguruense
Plasmodium uncinatum
Plasmodium uzungwiense
Plasmodium watteni
Plasmodium wenyoni
Plasmodium vacuolatum
Plasmodium vastator
Plasmodium vaughani
Plasmodium vautieri
Plasmodium vinckei
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium volans
Plasmodium voltaicum
Plasmodium yoelii
Plasmodium youngi
Plasmodium zonuriae
Image File history File links Malaria. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... Orders Haemosporida Piroplasmida The Aconoidasida are a class of Apicomplexan parasites. ... The Haemosporida are an order of the class Aconoidasida and include the protozoa responsible for the disease malaria. ... The Plasmodiidae are a family of apicomplexan parasites, including the type genus Plasmodium, which is responsible for malaria. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium achromaticum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium aegyptensis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium aeuminatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium agamae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium, subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium anasum is a species of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium arachniformis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium ashfordi is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. ... Plasmodium atheruri is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium anasum is a species of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium australis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium attenuatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium azurophilum is a species of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium balli is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium bambusicolai is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. ... Plasmodium basilisci is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium beebei is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium beltrani is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Binomial name Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium berghei is a unicellular parasite (protozoan) and is one of the many species of malaria parasites that infect mammals other than humans. ... Plasmodium bertii is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. ... Plasmodium bigueti is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium biziurae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium booliatie is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium bouillize is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium brodeni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Plasmodium brygooi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium bubalis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium bucki is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium capistrani is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium cephalophi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium cercopitheci is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium chabaudi is an Apicomplexa protozoan that causes malaria in rodents. ... Plasmodium chiricahuae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Lacertaemoba. ... Plasmodium circularis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium clelandi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium . ... Plasmodium cnemaspi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium cnemidophori is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium coggeshalli is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Haemamoeba. ... Plasmodium colombiense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium corradettii is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. ... Plasmodium coulangesi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium cuculus is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium . ... Plasmodium cyclopsi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium diminutivum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium diploglossi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium dissanaikei is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium dominicana is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium draconis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Asiamoeba. ... Plasmodium durae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium egerniae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium eylesi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium fairchildi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Plasmodium fallax is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium fischeri is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium foleyi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium floridense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Lacertaemoba. ... Plasmodium garnhami is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium gallinaceum is an Apicomplexa protozoan that causes malaria in poultry. ... Plasmodium giganteum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium gologoense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium gracilis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium gundersi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium guyannense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium heischi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium hegneri is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium holaspi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium icipeensis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium iguanae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium inopinatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium japonicum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium jiangi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella . ... Plasmodium josephinae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium joyeuxi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Binomial name Plasmodium knowlesi Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium lainsoni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium lemuris is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium lepidoptiformis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium lionatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium lutzi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium mackerrasae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium maculilabre is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ... Plasmodium marginatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium melanipherum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium mexicanum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium michikoa is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium minasense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium octamerium is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium osmaniae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Plasmodium papernai is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. ... Plasmodium paranucleophilum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium pelaezi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium percygarnhami is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium pessoai is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium pifanoi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Paraplasmodium. ... Plasmodium pinotti is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Plasmodium polare is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. ... Binomial name Avian malaria is most notably caused by Plasmodium relictum, a protist that infects birds in tropical regions. ... Plasmodium rhadinurum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium robinsoni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium sasai is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ... Plasmodium saurocaudatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium scorzai is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium semnopitheci is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium tanzaniae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium tenue is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium achiotense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium tomodoni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium tribolonoti is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium tumbayaensis is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium tyrio is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium uilenbergi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium uzungwiense is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium watteni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium wenyoni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium vacuolatum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Plasmodium vastator is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Asiamoeba. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Plasmodium volans is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium sugenus Carinamoeba. ... Plasmodium voltaicum is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. ... Plasmodium yoelii is a species of the genus Plasmodium which can infect rodents. ... Plasmodium zonuriae is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. ...

Plasmodium is a genus of parasitic protozoa. Infection with this genus is known as malaria. The parasite always has two hosts in its life cycle: a mosquito vector and a vertebrate host. At least ten species infect humans. Other species infect other animals, including birds, reptiles and rodents. Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ...

Contents

Taxonomy and host range

The genus Plasmodium was created in 1885 by Marchiafava and Celli and there are over 175 species currently recognized. New species continue to be described. [1] For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The genus is currently (2006) in need of reorganization as it has been shown that parasites belonging to the genera Haemocystis and Hepatocystis appear to be closely related to Plasmodium. It is likely that other species such as Haemoproteus meleagridis will be included in this genus once it is revised. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Host range among the mammalian orders is non uniform. At least 29 species infect non human primates; rodents outside the tropical parts of Africa are rarely affected; a few species are known to infect bats, porcupines and squirrels; carnivores, insectivores and marsupials are not known to act as hosts. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... This article is about the rodent mammal. ... This article is about the animal. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... This article is about mammals. ...


In 1898 Ronald Ross demonstrated the existence of Plasmodium in the wall of the midgut and salivary glands of a Culex mosquito. For this discovery he won the Nobel Prize in 1902. However credit must also be given to the Italian professor Giovanni Battista Grassi, who showed that human malaria could only be transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. It is worth noting, however, that for some species the vector may not be a mosquito. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ronald Ross Sir Ronald Ross (May 13, 1857 – September 16, 1932) was a Scottish physician. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Giovanni Battista Grassi (1854-1925) was an Italian zoologist, known for work demonstrating that mosquitos carry the malaria plasmodium in their digestive tract, on the embryological development of honey bees, on parasites, particularly the vine parasite phylloxera, migrations and metamorphosis in eels, and on termites. ... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis...


Mosquitoes of the genera Culex, Anopheles, Culiceta, Mansonia and Aedes may act as vectors. The currently known vectors for human malaria (> 100 species) all belong to the genus Anopheles. Bird malaria is commonly carried by species belonging to the genus Culex. Only female mosquitoes bite. Aside from blood both sexes live on nectar, but one or more blood meals are needed by the female for egg laying as the protein content of nectar is very low. The life cycle of Plasmodium was discovered by Ross who worked with species from the genus Culex. Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ... Some Species Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles barberi Anopheles beklemishevi Anopheles coustani Anopheles crypticus Anopheles culicifacies Anopheles earlei Anopheles farauti Anopheles fluviatilis Anopheles forattinii Anopheles funestus Anopheles gambiae Anopheles grabhamii Anopheles hailarensis Anopheles halophylus Anopheles hyrcanus Anopheles introlatus Anopheles kosiensis Anopheles latens Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles minimus Anopheles moucheti Anopheles nili Anopheles ovengensis... Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


The life cycle of Plasmodium is very complex. Sporozoites from the saliva of a biting female mosquito are transmitted to either the blood or the lymphatic system[2] of the recipient. The sporozoites then migrate to the liver and invade hepatocytes. This latent or dormant stage of the Plasmodium sporozoite in the liver is called the hypnozoite. In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with plasmodium. ...


The development from the hepatic stages to the erythrocytic stages has until very recently been obscure. In 2006[3] it was shown that the parasite buds off the hepatocytes in merosomes containing hundreds or thousands of merozoites. These merosomes have been subsequently shown[4] to lodge in the pulmonary capilaries and to slowly disintergrate there over 48-72 hours releasing merozoites. Erythrocyte invasion is enhanced when blood flow is slow and the cells are tightly packed: both of these conditions are found in the alveolar capilaries.


Within the erythrocytes the merozoite grow first to a ring-shaped form and then to a larger trophozoite form. In the schizont stage, the parasite divides several times to produce new merozoites, which leave the red blood cells and travel within the bloodstream to invade new red blood cells. Most merozoites continue this replicative cycle, but some merozoites differentiate into male or female sexual forms (gametocytes) (also in the blood), which are taken up by the female mosquito. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ...


In the mosquito's midgut, the gametocytes develop into gametes and fertilize each other, forming motile zygotes called ookinetes. The ookinetes penetrate and escape the midgut, then embed themselves onto the exterior of the gut membrane. Here they divide many times to produce large numbers of tiny elongated sporozoites. These sporozoites migrate to the salivary glands of the mosquito where they are injected into the blood of the next host the mosquito bites. The sporozoites move to the liver where they repeat the cycle. A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... For other meanings see Zygote (disambiguation). ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ...


Reactivation of the hypnozoites has been reported for up to 30 years after the initial infection in humans. The factors precipating this reactivation are not known. In the species Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites have been shown to occur. Reactivation does not occur in infections with Plasmodium falciparum. It is not known if hypnozoite reactivaction may occur with any of the remaining species that infect humans but this is presumed to be the case. Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ...


Evolution

This life cycle is best understood in terms of its evolution. This article is about evolution in biology. ...


The Apicomplexa - the phylum to which Plasmodium belongs - are thought to have originated within the Dinoflagellates - a large group of photosynthetic protozoa. It is currently thought that the ancestors of the Apicomplexa were originally prey organisms that evolved the ability to invade the intestinal cells and subsequently lost their photosynthetic ability. Some extant dinoflagelates, however, can invade the bodies of jellyfish and continue to photosynthesize, which is possible because jellyfish bodies are almost transparent. In other organisms with opaque bodies this ability would most likely rapidly be lost. Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ...


It is thought that Plasmodium evolved from a parasite spread by the orofaecal route which infected the intestinal wall. At some point this parasite evolved the ability to infect the liver. This pattern is seen in the genus Cryptosporidium to which Plasmodium is distantly related. At some later point this ancestor developed the ability to infect blood cells and to survive and infect mosquitoes. Once mosquito transmission was firmly established the previous orofecal route of transmission was lost. The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


Current (2007) theory suggests that the genera Plasmodium, Hepatocystis and Haemoproteus evolved from Leukocytozoon species. Parasites of the genus Leukocytozoan infect white blood cells (leukocytes), liver and spleen cells and are transmitted by 'black flies' (Simulium species) - a large genus of flies related to the mosquitoes. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Leukocytozoon is a genus of parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexia. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Lots of information about Simulium can be found at: Blackfly Web Pages ...


Leukocytes, hepatocytes and most spleen cells actively phagocytose particulate matter making entry into the cell easier for the parasite. The mechanism of entry of Plasmodium species into erythrocytes is still very unclear taking as it does less than 30 seconds. It is not yet known if this mechanism evolved before mosquitoes became the main vectors for transmission of Plasmodium. Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... In phagocytosis (literally, cell eating), large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a food vacuole. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ...


Plasmodium evolved about 130 million years ago. This period is coincidental with the rapid spread of the angiosperms (flowering plants). This expansion in the angiosperms is thought to be due to at least one genomic duplication event. It seems probable that the increase in the number of flowers led to an increase in the number of mosquitoes and their contact with vertebrates. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ...


Mosquitoes evolved in what is now South America about 230 million years ago. There are over 3500 species recognised but to date their evolution has not been well worked out so a number of gaps in our knowledge of the evolution of Plasmodium remain. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Presently it seems probable that birds were the first group infected by Plasmodium followed by the reptiles - probably the lizards. At some point primates and rodents became infected. The remaining species infected outside these groups seem likely to be due to relatively recent events.


At the present time (2007) DNA sequences are available from fewer than sixty species and most of these are from species infecting either rodent or primate hosts. The evolution proposed here should be regarded as speculative and subject to revision as data becomes available.


Reproduction

The pattern of alternation of sexual and asexual reproduction which may seem confusing at first is a very common pattern in parasitic species. The evolutionary advantages of this type of life cycle were recognised by Mendel. Mendel is the last name of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), often called the father of Genetics. ...


Under favourable conditions asexual reproduction is superior to sexual as the parent is well adapted to its environment and its descendents share these genes. Transferring to a new host or in times of stress, sexual reproduction is generally superior as this produces a shuffling of genes which on average at a population level will produce individuals better adapted to the new environment. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Molecular biology

All the species examined to date have 14 chromosomes, one mitochondrion and one plastid. The chromosomes vary from 500 kilobases to 3.5 megabases in length. It is presumed that this is the pattern throughout the genus. This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ...


The plastid unlike those found in algae is not photosynthetic. Its function is not known but there is some suggestive evidence that it may be involved in reproduction. Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... Leaf. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...


On a molecular level, the parasite damages red blood cells using plasmepsin enzymes - aspartic acid proteases which degrade hemoglobin. Plasmepsins are a class of at least 10 enzymes produced by the plasmodium parasite. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Diagnostic characteristics of the genus Plasmodium

  • Forms gamonts in erythrocytes
  • Merogony occurs in erythrocytes and in other tissues
  • Hemozoin is present
  • Vectors are either mosquitos or sandflies
  • Vertebrate hosts include mammals, birds and reptiles

Taxonomy

Plasmodium belongs to the family Plasmodiidae (Levine, 1988), order Haemosporidia and phylum Apicomplexa. There are currently 450 recognised species in this order. Many species of this order are undergoing reexamination of their taxonomy with DNA analysis. It seems likely that many of these species will be re assigned after these studies have been completed.[5][6] For this reason the entire order is outlined here. For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... The Plasmodiidae are a family of apicomplexan parasites, including the type genus Plasmodium, which is responsible for malaria. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The Plasmodiidae are a family of apicomplexan parasites, including the genus Plasmodium, which is responsible for malaria. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Family Haemoproteidae The Haemosporida are an order of the class Aconoidasida and include the protozoa responsible for the disease malaria. ... Bioccala is a genus of parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexia. ...

  • Genus Haemoproteus
    • Subgenus Parahaemoproteus
    • Subgenus Haemoproteus


Family Garniidae

  • Genus Fallisia
    • Subgenus Plasmodioides


Family Leucocytozoidae


Family Plasmodiidae Leukocytozoon is a genus of parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexia. ... Akiba Also pronounced Akiva can refer to: The Aramaic form of the name Jacob. ... The Plasmodiidae are a family of apicomplexan parasites, including the type genus Plasmodium, which is responsible for malaria. ...

  • Genus Billbraya
  • Genus Dionisia
  • Genus Hepatocystis
  • Genus Mesnilium
  • Genus Nycteria
  • Genus Plasmodium
    • Subgenus Asiamoeba
    • Subgenus Bennettinia
    • Subgenus Carinamoeba
    • Subgenus Giovannolaia
    • Subgenus Haemamoeba
    • Subgenus Huffia
    • Subgenus Lacertaemoba
    • Subgenus Laverania
    • Subgenus Novyella
    • Subgenus Plasmodium
    • Subgenus Paraplasmodium
    • Subgenus Sauramoeba
    • Subgenus Vinckeia
  • Genus Polychromophilus
  • Genus Rayella
  • Genus Saurocytozoon


Notes: Dionisia is a genus of parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexia. ...


The genera Plasmodium, Fallisia and Saurocytozoon all cause malaria in lizards. All are carried by Dipteria (roughly speaking the flies). Pigment is absent in the Garnia. Non pigmented gametocytes are typically the only forms found in Saurocytozoon: pigmented forms may be found in the leukocytes occasionally. Fallisia produce non pigmented asexual and gametocyte forms in leukocytes and thrombocytes.


Subgenera

The full taxonomic name of a species includes the subgenus but this is often omitted. The full name indicates some features of the morphology and type of host species.


The only two species in the sub genus Laverania are P. falciparum and P. reichenowi. Laverania is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium. ...


Species infecting monkeys and apes (the higher primates) with the exceptions of P. falciparum and P. reichenowi are classified in the subgenus Plasmodium. Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ...


Parasites infecting other mammals including lower primates (lemurs and others) are classified in the subgenus Vinckeia. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a group of primates known as prosimians. ... Vinckeia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ...


The distinction between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi and the other species infecting higher primates was based on the morphological findings but have since been confirmed by DNA analysis. Vinckeia while previously considered to be something of a taxonomic 'rag bag' has been recently shown - perhaps rather surprisingly - to form a coherent grouping.


The remaining groupings here are based on the morphology of the parasites. Revisions to this system are likely to occur in the future as more species are subject to analysis of their DNA. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


The four subgenera Giovannolaia, Haemamoeba, Huffia and Novyella were created by Corradetti et al[7] for the known avian malarial species. A fifth - Bennettinia - was created in 1997 by Valkiunas.[8] The relationships between the subgenera are the matter of current investigation. Martinsen et al 's recent (2006) paper outlines what is currently (2007) known.[9] Giovanolaia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium created by Corradetti et al in 1963. ... Haemamoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ... Huffia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parasitic protozoa. ... Species See text. ... Bennettinia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


P. juxtanucleare is currently (2007) the only known member of the subgenus Bennettinia. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Unlike the mammalian and bird malarias those affecting reptiles have been more difficult to classify. In 1966 Garnham classified those with large schizonts as Sauramoeba, those with small schizonts as Carinamoeba and the single then known species infecting snakes (Plasmodium wenyoni) as Ophidiella.[10] He was aware of the arbitrariness of this system and that it might not prove to be biologically valid. Telford in 1988 used this scheme as the basis for the currently accepted (2007) system.[11] Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Sauramoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ... Carinamoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ... Plasmodium wenyoni is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ... Ophidiella is a defunct subgenus of the genus Plasmodium. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...



Classification criteria


Avian species:


Species in the subgenus Bennettinia have the following characteristics: Bennettinia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ...

  • Schizonts contain scant cytoplasm, are often round, do not exceed the size of the host nucleus and stick to it.
  • Gametocytes while varying in shape tend to be round or oval, do not exceed the size of the nucleus and stick to it.

Species in the subgenus Giovannolaia have the following characteristics: Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametes. ... Giovanolaia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium created by Corradetti et al in 1963. ...

  • Schizonts contain plentiful cytoplasm, are larger than the host cell nucleus and frequently displace it. They are found only in mature erythrocytes.
  • Gametocytes are elongated.
  • Exoerythrocytic schizogony occurs in the mononuclear phagocyte system.

Species in the subgenus Haemamoeba have the following characteristics: Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Haemamoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ...

  • Mature schizonts are larger than the host cell nucleus and commonly displace it.
  • Gametocytes are large, round, oval or irregular in shape and are substantially larger than the host nucleus.

Species in the subgenus Huffia have the following characteristics: Huffia is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parasitic protozoa. ...

  • Mature schizonts, while varying in shape and size, contain plentiful cytoplasm and are commonly found in immature erthryocytes.
  • Gametocytes are elongated.

Species in the subgenus Novyella have the following characteristics: Species See text. ...

  • Mature schisonts are either smaller than or only slightly larger than the host nucleus. They contain scanty cytoplasm.
  • Gametocytes are elongated. Sexual stages in this subgenus resemble those of Haemoproteus.
  • Exoerythrocytic schizogony occurs in the mononuclear phagocyte system


Reptile species:


Species in the subgenus Carinamoeba have the following characteristics: Carinamoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ...

  • Infect lizards
  • Schizonts normally give rise to less than 8 merozoites

Species in the subgenus Sauramoeba have the following characteristics: Sauramoeba is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parastic protozoa. ...

  • Infect lizards
  • Schizonts normally give rise to more than 8 merozoites


Notes

  • The erythrocytes of both reptiles and birds retain their nucleus, unlike those of mammals. The reason for the loss of the nucleus in mammalian erythocytes remains unknown.
  • The presence of elongated gametocytes in several of the avian subgenera and in Laverania in addition to a number of clinical features suggested that these might be closely related. This is is no longer thought to be the case.
  • The subgenera Haemamoeba, Huffia, and Bennettinia currently (2007) appear to be monphylitic. Novyella appears to be well defined with occasional exceptions. The subgenus Giovannolaia needs revision. [12]

Species listed by subgenera

Plasmodium (Asiamoeba) draconis
Plasmodium (Asiamoeba) vastator


Plasmodium (Bennettinia) juxtanucleare


Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) basilisci
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) clelandi
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) lygosomae
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) mabuiae
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) minasense
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) rhadinurum
Plasmodium (Carinamoeba) volans


Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) anasum
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) circumflexum
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) dissanaikei
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) fallax
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) formosanum
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) gabaldoni
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) garnhami


Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) gundersi
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) hegneri
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) lophurae
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) pedioecetii
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) pinnotti
Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) polare


Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) coggeshalli
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) coturnixi
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) elongatum
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) gallinaceum
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) giovannolai
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) lutzi
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) matutinum
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) paddae
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) parvulum
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) relictum
Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejera


Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum
Plasmodium (Huffia) hermani


Plasmodium (Lacertaemoba) floridense
Plasmodium (Lacertaemoba) tropiduri


Plasmodium (Laverania) falciparum
Plasmodium (Laverania) reichenowi


Plasmodium (Novyella) ashfordi
Plasmodium (Novyella) bertii
Plasmodium (Novyella) bambusicolai
Plasmodium (Novyella) columbae
Plasmodium (Novyella) corradettii
Plasmodium (Novyella) dissanaikei
Plasmodium (Novyella) hexamerium
Plasmodium (Novyella) jiangi
Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi
Plasmodium (Novyella) nucleophilum
Plasmodium (Novyella) papernai
Plasmodium (Novyella) paranucleophilum
Plasmodium (Novyella) rouxi
Plasmodium (Novyella) vaughani


Plasmodium (Paraplasmodium) chiricahuae
Plasmodium (Paraplasmodium) mexicanum
Plasmodium (Paraplasmodium) pifanoi


Plasmodium (Plasmodium) bouillize
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) brasilianum
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) cercopitheci
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) coatneyi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) cynomolgi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) eylesi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) fieldi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) fragile
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) georgesi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) girardi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) gonderi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) inui
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) jefferyi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) joyeuxi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) knowlei
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) hyobati
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) malariae
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) ovale
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) petersi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) pitheci
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) rhodiani
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) schweitzi
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) semiovale
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) semnopitheci
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) silvaticum
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) simium
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) vivax
Plasmodium (Plasmodium) youngi


Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) achiotense
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) adunyinkai
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) aeuminatum
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) agamae
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) beltrani
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) brumpti
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) cnemidophori
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) diploglossi
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) giganteum
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) josephinae
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) pelaezi
Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) zonuriae


Plasmodium (Vinckeia) achromaticum
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) aegyptensis
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) anomaluri
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) atheruri
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) berghei
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) booliati
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) brodeni
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) bubalis
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) bucki
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) caprae
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) cephalophi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) chabaudi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) coulangesi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) cyclopsi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) foleyi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) girardi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) inopinatum
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) lemuris
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) melanipherum
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) odocoilei
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) percygarnhami
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) sandoshami
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) traguli
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) tyrio
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) uilenbergi
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) vinckei
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) watteni
Plasmodium (Vinckeia) yoelli



Notes


Ophidiella was a subgenus created by Garnham in 1966 for the species infecting snakes. Presently (2007) it is no longer in use. Ophidiella is a defunct subgenus of the genus Plasmodium. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Species infecting humans

Red blood cell infected with malaria
Red blood cell infected with malaria

The species of Plasmodium that infect humans include: Red blood cell infected with This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Red blood cell infected with This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...

  • Plasmodium brasilianum
  • Plasmodium cynomolgi
  • Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii
  • Plasmodium inui
  • Plasmodium rhodiani
  • Plasmodium schweitzi
  • Plasmodium semiovale
  • Plasmodium simium

The first four listed here are the most common species that infect humans. With the use of the polymerase chain reaction additional species have been and are still being identified that infect humans. Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti 1890 The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign, but recurring (tertian), malaria. ... Binomial name Stephens 1922 Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. ... Binomial name Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi, 1889 Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in dogs. ... Binomial name Plasmodium knowlesi Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia. ... “PCR” redirects here. ...


One possible experimental infection has been reported with Plasmodium eylesi. Fever and low grade parasitemia were apparent at 15 days. The volunteer (Dr Bennett) had previously been infected by Plasmodium cynomolgi and the infection was not transferable to a gibbon (P. eylesi 's natural host) so this cannot be regarded as definitive evidence of its ability to infect humans. A second case has been reported that may have been a case of P. eylesi but the author was not certain of the infecting species.[13] Plasmodium eylesi is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Plasmodium. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ...


A possible infection with Plasmodium tenue has been reported. [14] This report described a case of malaria in a three year old black girl from Georgia, USA who had never been outside the US. She suffered from both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria and while forms similar to those described for P. tenue were found in her blood even the author was skeptical about the validity of the diagnosis. Plasmodium tenue is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ...


Confusingly Plasmodium tenue was proposed in the same year (1914) for a species found in birds. The human species is now considered to be likely to have been a misdiagnosis and the bird species is described on the Plasmodium tenue page. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Plasmodium tenue is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. ...


Notes:


The only known host of P. falciparum are humans; neither is any other host currently known for P. malariae.


P. vivax will infect chimpanzees. Infection tends to be low grade but may be persistent and remain as source of parasites for humans for some time.


P. vivax is also known to infect orangutans.[15] This article is about the primate. ...


Like P. vivax, P. ovale has been shown to be transmittable to chimpanzees. P. ovale has a unusual distribution pattern being found in Africa, the Philippines and New Guinea. In spite of its admittedly poor transmission to chimpanzees given its discontigous spread, it is suspected that P. ovale may in fact be a zooenosis with an as yet unidentified host. If this is actually the case, the host seems likely to be a primate. Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The remaining species capable of infecting humans all have other primate hosts.


Plasmodium shortii and Plasmodium osmaniae are now considered to be junior synonyms of Plasmodium inui


Species no longer recognised as valid


Taxonomy in parasitology until the advent of DNA based methods has always been a problem and revisions in this area are continuing. A number of synonoms have been given for the species infecting humans that are no longer recognised as valid.[16] Since perusal of the older literature may be confusing some of these are listed here.


P. camerense
P. causiasium
P. golgi
P. immaculatum
P. laverani var. tertium
P. laverani var. quartum
P. malariae var. immaculatum
P. malariae var. incolor
P. malariae var. irregularis
P. malariae var. parva
P. malariae var. quartanae
P. malariae var. quotidianae
P. perniciosum
P. pleurodyniae
P. praecox
P. quartana
P. quotidianum
P. sedecimanae
P. tenue
P. undecimanae
P. vegesio-tertaniae
P. vivax-minuta


Infections in primates

Listing


The species that infect primates other than humans include: P. bouillize, P. brasilianum, P. bucki, P. cercopitheci,P. coatneyi, P. coulangesi, P. cynomolgi, P. eylesi, P. fieldi, P. foleyi, P. fragile, P. girardi, P. georgesi, P. gonderi, P. hylobati, P. inui, P. jefferyi, P. joyeuxi, P. knowlesi, P. lemuris, P. percygarnhami, P. petersi, P. reichenowi, P. rodhaini, P. sandoshami, P. semnopitheci, P. silvaticum, P. simiovale, P. simium, P. uilenbergi, P. vivax and P. youngei.


Host records - Most if not all Plasmodium species infect more than one host: the host records shown here should be regarded as being incomplete.

  • P. bouillize - Cercopithecis campbelli
  • P. bucki - Lemur macaco macaco
  • P. cercopitheci - Cercopithecis nictitans
  • P. coulangesi - Lemur macaco macaco
  • P. foleyi - Lemur fulvus rufus
  • P. georgesi - Cercocebus albigena
  • P. girardi - Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur macaco macaco
  • P. joyeuxi - Cercopithecis callitricus
  • P. lemuris - the lemur Lemur collaris, Lemur macaco macaco
  • P. percygarnhami - Lemur macaco macaco
  • P. petersi - Cercocebus albigena
  • P. reichenowi - chimpanzee (Pan) species and gorilla (Gorilla) species
  • P. rodhaini - chimpanzee (Pan) species and gorilla (Gorilla) species
  • P. semnopitheci - Semnopithecus entellus
  • P. schwetzi - chimpanzee (Pan) species and gorilla (Gorilla) species
  • P. uilenbergi - Lemur fulvus fulvus

Binomial name Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812) The Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta guariba, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, that lives in Argentina and Brazil. ... Binomial name Alouatta palliata (Gray, 1849) The Mantled Howler (Alouatta palliata), or sometimes the Golden-mantled Howling Monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, from Central and South America. ... Type species Simia trivirgata Humboldt, 1811 Species Aotus lemurinus Aotus hershkovitzi Aotus trivirgatus Aotus vociferans Aotus miconax Aotus nancymae Aotus azarae The Night monkeys, also known as the Owl monkeys or Douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae). ... Aotus is both a plant and an animal: It is one of the genera for the golden peas in Fabaceae (bean family) It is the genus for the night monkeys in Nyctipithecidae The name means earless in both cases: the monkey is missing external ears, and the pea is missing... Binomial name Ateles fusciceps Gray, 1866 The Black-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps, is a species of spider monkey, a type of New World monkey, from Central and South America. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820 Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Geoffroys Spider Monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, is a spider monkey species from Central America. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820 Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Geoffroys Spider Monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, is a spider monkey species from Central America. ... Binomial name Ateles paniscus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-faced Spider Monkey, Ateles paniscus, is a species of spider monkey, a type of New World monkey found from Brazil to Guyana and French Guiana. ... Binomial name Ateles paniscus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-faced Spider Monkey, Ateles paniscus, is a species of spider monkey, a type of New World monkey found from Brazil to Guyana and French Guiana. ... Binomial name Ateles paniscus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-faced Spider Monkey, Ateles paniscus, is a species of spider monkey, a type of New World monkey found from Brazil to Guyana and French Guiana. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Southern Muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, is a muriqui (woolly spider monkey) species endemic to Brazil. ... Binomial name Callicebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg, 1807) The Collared Titi, Callicebus torquatus, is a titi monkey species from South America. ... Binomial name Cebus albifrons (Humboldt, 1812) The White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons), is a New World primate, from six different countries in South America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. ... Binomial name Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) The Tufted Caphuchin (Cebus apella), also known as Brown Capuchin or Black-capped Capuchin is a New World primate from South America. ... Binomial name Cebus capucinus Linnaeus, 1758 The White_headed Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the White_faced Capuchin or White_throated Capuchin, is a small New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. ... Binomial name Cebus capucinus Linnaeus, 1758 The White_headed Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the White_faced Capuchin or White_throated Capuchin, is a small New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. ... Binomial name Cebus capucinus Linnaeus, 1758 The White_headed Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the White_faced Capuchin or White_throated Capuchin, is a small New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Chiropotes chiropotes (Humboldt, 1811) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Red-backed Bearded Saki, Chiropotes chiropotes, is a bearded saki species from South America. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Gray Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix cana, is a woolly monkey species from South America. ... Binomial name Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt, 1812) The Brown Woolly Monkey or Common Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix lagothricha, is a woolly monkey from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. ... Binomial name Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) is a small New World primate from the Cebidae family, and native from ten different countries of South America: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela and Puerto Rico. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca arctoides (I. Geoffroy, 1831) The Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides), also called the Bear Macaque, is a macaque living in China, India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Thailand. ... Binomial name Macaca cyclopis (Swinhoe, 1862) The Formosan Rock Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is a macaque living in Taiwan and has been introduced to Japan. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Binomial name Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) The Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey endemic to the subtropical/dry forests of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. ... Binomial name Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) The Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) is a macaque living in India. ... Binomial name Macaca sinica (Linnaeus, 1771) The Toque Macaque (Macaca sinica) is a redish-brown color monkey enedemic to Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the primate. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name Hylobates lar (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) The Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey endemic to the subtropical/dry forests of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Binomial name Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) The Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) is a macaque living in India. ... Binomial name Macaca sinica (Linnaeus, 1771) The Toque Macaque (Macaca sinica) is a redish-brown color monkey enedemic to Sri Lanka. ... Binomial name (Oudemans, 1890) The Black Crested Mangabey or Black Mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. ... Species Lophocebus albigena Lophocebus aterrimus Lophocebus opdenboschi Lophocebus kipunji Cercocebus atys Cercocebus torquatus Cercocebus agilis Cercocebus chrysogaster Cercocebus galeritus Cercocebus sanjei Mangabeys are West-African monkeys, belonging to the either of the genera Cercocebus and Lophocebus. ... Binomial name (Oudemans, 1890) The Black Crested Mangabey or Black Mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. ... Binomial name Cercocebus atys (Audebert, 1797) The Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), also called the White-collared Mangabey, is an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mandrillus leucophaeus Linnaeus, 1758 The Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a primate of the Cercopithecidae (Old-world Monkeys) family, closely related to the baboons and even more closely to the Mandrill. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name Hylobates lar (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates moloch (Audebert, 1798) The Silvery Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Map of Sulawesi pictures by Julianto Halim Sulawesi (or Celebes) is a large Indonesian island. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Binomial name Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) The Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey endemic to the subtropical/dry forests of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. ... Binomial name Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) The Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) is a macaque living in India. ... Species 11, see text The surilis are a group of Old World monkeys and make up the entirety of the genus Presbytis. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) The Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey endemic to the subtropical/dry forests of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. ... This article is about the Java island. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a group of primates known as prosimians. ... Binomial name (Oudemans, 1890) The Black Crested Mangabey or Black Mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. ... This article is about the primate. ... ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a group of primates known as prosimians. ... Binomial name Galeopterus variegatus (Audebert, 1799) The Sunda Flying Lemur (Galeopterus variegatus), also known as the Malayan Flying Lemur, is a species of Colugo. ... Binomial name (Dufresne, 1797) The Northern Plains Gray Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Binomial name Macaca sinica (Linnaeus, 1771) The Toque Macaque (Macaca sinica) is a redish-brown color monkey enedemic to Sri Lanka. ... Binomial name Macaca radiata (E. Geoffroy, 1812) The Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) is a macaque living in India. ... Binomial name Macaca sinica (Linnaeus, 1771) The Toque Macaque (Macaca sinica) is a redish-brown color monkey enedemic to Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the primate. ... ... Species Brachyteles arachnoides Brachyteles hypoxanthus Woolly spider monkeys, or muriqui, are the monkeys of the genus Brachyteles, which is closely related to the spider monkeys and the woolly monkeys. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Southern Muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, is a muriqui (woolly spider monkey) species endemic to Brazil. ... Species Alouatta belzebul Alouatta caraya Alouatta coibensis Alouatta fusca Alouatta palliata Alouatta pigra Alouatta sara Alouatta seniculus The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Mycetinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. ... Species Alouatta belzebul Alouatta caraya Alouatta coibensis Alouatta fusca Alouatta palliata Alouatta pigra Alouatta sara Alouatta seniculus The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Mycetinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. ... Binomial name Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812) The Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta guariba, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, that lives in Argentina and Brazil. ... This article is about the primate. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Saimiri boliviensis (I. Geoffroy and Blainville, 1834) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Black-capped Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) is a South American squirrel monkey, found in Bolivia, Brazil and Peru. ... Binomial name Aotus lemurinus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1843 The Gray-bellied Night Monkey (Aotus lemurinus), also called the Lemurine Owl Monkey or Night Monkey, is a small New World monkey of the family Nyctipithecidae. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Saguinus mystax (Spix, 1803) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Moustached Tamarin, Saguinus mystax, is a tamarin from South America. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Saguinus fuscicullis (Spix, 1823) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Brown-mantled Tamarin, Saguinus fuscicullis, is a species of tamarin from South America. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Binomial name Hylobates lar (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ...

Primate mosquito vectors

  • Anopheles albimanus - P. vivax
  • Anopheles culicifacies - P. vivax
  • Anopheles dirus - P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. vivax
  • Anopheles farauti - P. coatneyi, P. vivax[19]
  • Anopheles freeborni - P. vivax[20]
  • Anopheles funestus - P. falciparum
  • Anopheles maculatus - P. youngei, P. vivax
  • Anopheles maculipennis - P. vivax
  • Anopheles punctipennis - P. vivax
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus - P. vivax
  • Anopheles stephensi - P. cynomogli, P. inui, P. vivax
  • Anopheles sundaicus - P. youngei
  • Anopheles tessellatus - P. falciparum, P. vivax

Binomial name Giles, 1901 Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Anopheles gambiae Giles Anopheles gambiae, refers to a complex of morphologically indistinguishable mosquitoes in the Anopheles genus, which contain the most important vectors of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the most efficient malaria vectors in the world. ... Binomial name Anopheles latens Sallum, Peyton, Wilkerson, 2005 The Anopheles latens mosquito (part of the A. leucosphyrus group)[1] is an important vector for the transmission of malaria in humans and monkeys in Southeast Asia. ...

Primate subspecies

  • P. cynomolgi - P. cynomolgi bastianelli and P. cynomolgi ceylonensis.
  • P. inui - P. inui inui and P. inui shortii
  • P. knowlesi - P. knowlesi edesoni and P. knowlesi knowlesi.
  • P. vivax - P. vivax hibernans, P. vivax chesson and P. vivax multinucleatum.

Interrelatedness - The evolution of these species is still being worked out and the relationships given here should be regarded as tentative. This grouping, while originally made on morphological grounds, now has considerable support at the DNA level. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

  • P. brasilianum, P. inui and P. rodhaini are similar to P. malariae
  • P. cynomolgi, P. fragile, P. knowlesi, P. simium and P. schwetzi are similar to P. vivax
  • P. fieldi and P. simiovale are similar to P. ovale
  • P. falciparum is closely related to P. reichenowi.

Notes

  • P. kochi has been described as a parasite of monkeys. This species is currently classified as Hepatocystis kochi. This may be subject to revision.
  • P. brasilianum and P. rodhaini seem likely to be the same species as P. malariae.
  • P. lemuris may actually belong to the Haemoproteus genus. Clarification of this point awaits DNA examination.
  • P. shortii is currently (2007) regarded as a junior synonym of P. inui.

Infections in non primate mammals

The subgenus Vinckeia was created by Garnham to accommodate the mammalian parasites other than those infecting primates. Species infecting lemurs have also been included in this subgenus.


P. aegyptensis, P. bergei, P. chabaudi, P. inopinatum, P. yoelli and P. vinckei infect rodents. P. bergei, P. chabaudi, P. yoelli and P. vinckei have been used to study malarial infections in the laboratory. Other members of this subgenus infect other mammalian hosts. Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


Host records

  • P. aegyptensis - Egyptian grass rat (Arvicanthis noloticus)[22]
  • P. berghei - the thicket rat (Grammomys surdaster)
  • P. booliati - Malayan giant flying squirrel[23]
  • P. brodeni - elephant shrews (Petrodomus teradactylus)
  • P. cyclopsi - the bat (Hipposideros cyclops)[25]
  • P. sandoshami - the Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus)
  • P. tyrio - the anteater (Manus pentadactyla)
  • P. voltaicum - the fruit bat (Roussettus smithi)
  • P. watteni - Formosan giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista grandis)[26]

Vectors A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the rodent mammal. ... Binomial name Atherurus africanus (Gray, 1842) The African Brush-Tailed Porcupine (Atherurus africanus) is a species of rat-like Old World porcupine called brush-tailed porcupines. The brush-tailed porcupines live in forests, usually at high elevations. ... This article is about the rodent. ... Binomial name Calomys callosus Rengger, 1830 The Large Vesper Mouse, Calomys callosus, is a rodent species from South America. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1867 Meriones unguiculatus is a rodent belonging to subfamily Gerbillinae. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Water Buffalo is a very large ungulate and a member of the bovine subfamily. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, also known as the Gray or Bush Duiker, is a small antelope with small horns found in west, central, east, and southern Africa- essentially everywhere in africa south of the Sahara, excluding the horn of africa and the rainforests... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1853) The Cyclops Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cyclops) is a species of bat in the Hipposideridae family. ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia Deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America far south as Peru. ... Binomial name (Audebert, 1799) Range map in red The Sunda Flying Lemur (Galeopterus variegatus), also known as the Malayan Flying Lemur, is a species of Colugo. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer, make up the family Tragulidae. ... Formosa is a place name which comes from Portuguese (*from Latin formosus, meaning beautiful). The following places bear the name: The island of Taiwan was historically known as Formosa, the name given by Portuguese sailors due to the beauty of its coasts. ...

  • Anopheles stephensi - P. atheruri, P berghei, P. chabaudi, P. yoelii

Subspecies

  • P. berghei - P. berghei yoelii
  • P. chabaudi - P. chabaudi adami and P. chabaudi chabaudi
  • P. melanipherum - P. melanipherum monosoma
  • P. vinkei - P. vinckei brucechwatti, P. vinckei petteri and P. vinckei vinckei.
  • P. yoellii - P. yoelli nigeriensis and P. yoelli yoelli.

Notes

  • Calomys callosus seems unlikely to be a natural host for P. atheruri as P. atheruri is found in Africa and Calomys callosus in South America.

Less well documented species A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The species listed here from taken from Courtney et al.[16]. should be regarded as dubious.


P. achromaticum - the bat (Achromaticatus vesperuginis)
“Chiroptera” redirects here. ...


P. brodini - the jumping rat (Petrodromus tetradactylus)
This article is about rats. ... Binomial name Peters, 1846 The Four-toed Elephant Shrew or Four-toed Sengi (Petrodromus tetradactylus) is a species of elephant shrew in the Macroscelididae family. ...


P. melanipherum - Schreiber's bat (Miniopterus schreibersi)
Binomial name Miniopterus schreibersi (Kuhl, 1817) The Schreibers Bat (Miniopterus schreibersi) is a species of bat found throughout the Old World, from Europe and Japan to sub-Saharan Africa and Australia. ...


P. melanipherum monosoma - the bat (Vesperugo abramus)


P. murinum - the bat (Vespertilio murinus)
“Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Binomial name Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758 The Parti-coloured Bat (Vespertilio murinus) is a species of bats in the family of Vesper bats. ...


Reclassification


The literature is replete with species initially classified as Plasmodium that have been subsequently reclassified. With DNA taxonomy some of these may be once again be classified as Plasmodium. Some of these species are listed here for completness.


P. epomophori of the bat (Hypsignathus monstruosus) has been reclassified as Hepatocystis epomophori. “Chiroptera” redirects here. ...


Infections in birds

Species in five of these subgenera infect birds - Bennettinia, Giovannolaia, Haemamoeba, Huffia and Novyella.[27] Giovannolaia appears to be a polyphytic group and may be sudivided in the future.[28] For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Parasite listing


Species infecting birds include: P. accipiteris, P. alloelongatum, P. anasum, P. ashfordi, P. bambusicolai, P. bigueti, P. biziurae, P. buteonis, P. cathemerium, P. circumflexum, P. coggeshalli, P. corradettii, P. coturnix, P. dissanaikei, P. durae, P. elongatum, P. fallax, P forresteri, P. gallinacium, P. garnhami, P. giovannolai, P. griffithsi, P. gundersi, P. guangdong, P. hegneri, P. hermani, P. hexamerium, P. huffi, P. jiangi, P. juxtanucleare, P. kempi, P. lophurae, P.lutzi, P. matutinum, P. nucleophilum, P. papernai, P. paranucleophilum, P. parvulum, P. pediocetti, P. paddae, P. pinotti, P. polare, P. relictum, P. rouxi, P. tenue, P. tejerai, P. tumbayaensis and P. vaughani.


Avian host records

  • P. durae - turkeys (Meleagris species), the common peafowl (Pavo cristatus), francolins (Franoclinus leucoscepus and Franoclinus levialanti levialanti), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and Lady Amherst pheasents (Chrysophus amherstiae)
  • P. garnhami - the rain quail (Coturnix coromendalica)
  • P. griffithsi - wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia)
  • P. guangdong - Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus)
  • P. jiangi - the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus)
  • P. paranucleophilum - South American tanager
  • P. parvulum - vanga species
  • P. pinotti - the Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola), Euneornis campestris, Loxipasser anoxanthus, the black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor)
  • P. tenue - a babbler (Garrulax canorus taewanus) and the Pekin Robin (Leiothrix luteus)
  • P. tumbayaensis - the thrush (Planethicus anthracinus)

Binomial name Accipiter brevipes (Severtzov, 1850) The Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes) is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ... Binomial name Accipiter brevipes (Severtzov, 1850) The Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes) is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World sparrow family Passeridae, and is, somewhat controversially, considered a relative of the Weaver Finch Family. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... Binomial name Biziura lobata (Shaw, 1796) Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are highly aquatic, stiff-tailed ducks native to southern Australia. ... Binomial name Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) is a bird of prey from the Old World. ... Binomial name Bubo virginianus (Gmelin,, 1788) The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a very large owl. ... Binomial name Carpodacus mexicanus (Müller, 1776) The House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) is a medium-sized finch. ... (This article is about the bird. ... Binomial name Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Catharus mustelinus The Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina, is a medium-sized thrush, the only member of the genus Hylocichla. ... Binomial name Melospiza melodia (Wilson, 1810) The Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia, is a medium-sized American sparrow. ... Binomial name Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, is the mockingbird commonly found in North America. ... Binomial name Molothrus ater (Boddaert, 1783) The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a small icterid. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small songbird in the finch family. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), or European Starling, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name Troglodytes aedon (Vieillot, 1809) The House Wren, Troglodytes aedon, is a small songbird of the wren family. ... Binomial name Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. ... Binomial name Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) The White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, is a passerine bird of the American sparrow family Emberizidae. ... Binomial name Accipiter striatus The Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus, is a small hawk. ... Binomial name Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1766 The Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) is the best known of the guineafowl bird family, Numididae. ... Binomial name Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae, found in most of North America. ... (This article is about the bird. ... Binomial name Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin, 1789) The Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina , is a small New World warbler. ... Binomial name Melospiza melodia (Wilson, 1810) The Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia, is a medium-sized American sparrow. ... Binomial name Molothrus ater (Boddaert, 1783) The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a small icterid. ... Binomial name Sturnus malabaricus (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Sturnia malabarica The Chestnut-tailed Starling or Grey-headed Myna, Sturnus malabaricus, is a member of the starling family of birds. ... Binomial name Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. ... Binomial name Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) The White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, is a passerine bird of the American sparrow family Emberizidae. ... Budgerigar Parakeets A parakeet is a term for any one of a large number of unrelated small parrot species. ... Binomial name Psittacula krameri (Scopoli, 1769) The Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is a parrot which breeds in north and central Africa, and tropical Asia across to southern China. ... Species Meleagris gallopavo Meleagris ocellata A turkey is either of two species of large birds in the gamebird family with fan-shaped tails and wattled necks. ... Binomial name Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, is a species of bird in the peafowl genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... Binomial name Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 The Japanese Quail, Coturnix japonica is a species of quail found in East Asia. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ... Binomial name Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Red_tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, is a large North American hawk. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ... Binomial name Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a raptor that is indigenous to North America, and is the national symbol of the United States of America. ... Binomial name Megascops asio (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eastern Screech Owl (Megascops asio) is a small owl. ... Binomial name Spheniscus demersus (Linnaeus, 1758) The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus), also known as the Jackass Penguin (after its donkey-like braying call), is found on the south-western coast of Africa. ... Binomial name Glaucidium passerinum (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Pygmy Owl, Glaucidium passerinum, is the smallest owl in Europe. ... Species Meleagris gallopavo Meleagris ocellata A turkey is either of two species of large birds in the gamebird family with fan-shaped tails and wattled necks. ... Binomial name Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1766 The Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) is the best known of the guineafowl bird family, Numididae. ... Binomial name Megascops asio (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eastern Screech Owl (Megascops asio) is a small owl. ... Binomial name Bubo virginianus (Gmelin,, 1788) The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a very large owl. ... Binomial name Strix varia Barton, 1799 The Barred Owl, Strix varia, is a large typical owl. ... Binomial name Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a raptor that is indigenous to North America, and is the national symbol of the United States of America. ... Binomial name Buteo lineatus (Gmelin, 1788) The Red_shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus, is a medium_sized hawk. ... Binomial name Buteo platypterus (Vieillot, 1823) The Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus, is a small hawk. ... Binomial name Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Red_tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, is a large North American hawk. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), a tropical member of the Pheasant family, is the direct ancestor of the domestic chicken. ... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-billed Chough, or just Chough (pronounced ), Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... For the reconnaissance aircraft, see SR-71 Blackbird. ... Binomial name Megascops asio (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eastern Screech Owl (Megascops asio) is a small owl. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, is a member of the bulbul family. ... Binomial name Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Teal or Teal (Anas crecca) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northernmost areas of Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is a large gamebird, one of a number of species of turkey. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ... Species Sialia sialis Sialia mexicana Sialia currucoides Mountain Bluebird Western Bluebird The bluebirds are medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Sialia of the thrush family Turdidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, is a member of the bulbul family. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), a tropical member of the Pheasant family, is the direct ancestor of the domestic chicken. ... Binomial name Spheniscus demersus (Linnaeus, 1758) The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus), also known as the Jackass Penguin (after its donkey-like braying call), is found on the south-western coast of Africa. ... Binomial name Crossoptilon crossoptilon (Hodgson, 1838) The Szechuan White-eared Pheasant, Crossoptilon crossoptilon crossoptilon, is a galliform bird native to the Szechuan region of China. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is a large gamebird, one of a number of species of turkey. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ... Binomial name Alectoris graeca (Meisner, 1804) The Rock Partridge, Alectoris graeca, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1766 The Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) is the best known of the guineafowl bird family, Numididae. ... Binomial name Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, is a species of bird in the peafowl genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small songbird in the finch family. ... This article is about the Mallard duck. ... Binomial name Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758 The Greylag Goose (Anser anser) is a bird of exceedingly wide range in the Old World, apparently breeding where suitable localities are to be found in most European countries from Lapland to Spain and Bulgaria. ... This article is about the Mallard duck. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Binomial name Parus major Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Tit, Parus major, is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. ... Binomial name Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) is a medium-sized perching bird of the Mimid family and the only member of genus Dumetella. ... Binomial name Ramphastos swainsonii Gould, 1833 The Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, or Swainson’s Toucan, Ramphastos swainsonii, is a near-passerine bird which breeds from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia. ... Binomial name Vidua macroura (Pallas, 1764) The Pin-tailed Whydah, Vidua macroura, is a small songbird. ... Binomial name Padda oryzivora (Linnaeus, 1758) The Java Sparrow, or Java Finch (Padda oryzivora ) is a small passerine bird. ... Genera many: see text The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. ... Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. ... Binomial name Tympanuchus pallidicinctus (Ridgway, 1873) The Lesser Prairie Chicken, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, is slightly smaller and paler than its near relative the Greater Prairie Chicken. ... Binomial name (G. R. Gray, 1867) The Darwins Nothura Nothura darwinii is a type of Tinamou commonly found in high altitude temperate grassland habitats up to 4,300 m altitude. ... Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... Binomial name Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola, is a passerine bird, the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and the family Coerebidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Orangequit (Euneornis campestris) is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family. ... Binomial name (Gosse, 1847) The Yellow-shouldered Grassquit (Loxipasser anoxanthus) is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Black-faced Grassquit, Tiaris bicolor, is a small bird formerly placed with the Emberizidae. ... Binomial name Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a raptor that is indigenous to North America, and is the national symbol of the United States of America. ... Binomial name Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758 The Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a small migratory passerine bird found in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. ... Binomial name Motacilla flava (Linnaeus, 1758) The Blue-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws. ... Binomial name Vieillot, 1817 The Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) is a member of the passerine bird family Hirundinidae — the swallows and martins. ... Binomial name Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) The Little Owl (Athene noctua) is a bird which is resident in much of the temperate and warmer parts of Europe, Asia east to Korea, and north Africa. ... Binomial name Coturnix chinensis Linnaeus, 1766 The Asian Blue Quail, Coturnix chinensis also known as Chinese Painted Quail or Blue-breasted Quail is in the same family as the pheasants Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... // Binomial name Falco rusticolus Linnaeus, 1758 The Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), also spelled Gyr Falcon (The g is pronounced as j in jar), is the largest of all falcons. ... Binomial name Lanius collurio Linnaeus, 1758 The Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) is a member of the shrike family Laniidae. ... Genera Telespiza Psittirostra (extinct?) Dysmorodrepanis (extinct) Loxioides Rhodacanthis (extinct) Chloridops (extinct) Orthiospiza (extinct) Xestospiza (extinct) Pseudonestor Hemignathus Magumma (disputed) Akialoa (disputed; extinct) Heterorhynchus (disputed) Oreomystis Paroreomyza Vangulifer (extinct) Aidemedia (extinct) Loxops Ciridops (extinct) Vestiaria Drepanis (extinct) Palmeria Himatione Melamprosops (extinct?) Hawaiian honeycreepers are small passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. ... Binomial name Motacilla flava (Linnaeus, 1758) The Blue-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World sparrow family Passeridae, and is, somewhat controversially, considered a relative of the Weaver Finch Family. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-billed Chough, or just Chough (pronounced ), Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, breeds over most of Europe and Siberia, and allied forms occur in other parts of Asia. ... Binomial name Parus major Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Tit, Parus major, is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bearded Reedling, Panurus biarmicus, is a unique small passerine bird. ... Binomial name Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster, 1781) The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is a South American penguin, breeding in coastal Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands, with some migrating to Brazil. ... Binomial name Spheniscus demersus (Linnaeus, 1758) The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus), also known as the Jackass Penguin (after its donkey-like braying call), is found on the south-western coast of Africa. ... Binomial name Tragopan satyra (Linnaeus, 1758) The Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra also known as the crimson horned pheasant is a pheasant found in the Himalayan reaches of India, Nepal and Bhutan. ... Binomial name Gmelin, 1789 The White-eyed Thrush (Turdus jamaicensis) is a species of bird in the Turdidae family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris olivacea, is a passerine bird which breeds from central Mexico to Colombia and northwestern Venezuela, and also on the Greater Antilles. ... For other uses, see Partridge (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Hwamei or Melodious Laughingthrush (Garrulax canorus) is a passerine bird of eastern Asia. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is a large gamebird, one of a number of species of turkey. ... (This article is about the bird. ... Binomial name Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family, but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae. ... Binomial name Leiothrix lutea (Scopoli, 1786) The Red-billed Leiothrix Leiothrix lutea is a member of the Old World babbler family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), or European Starling, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... Binomial name Sturnella magna (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna, is a medium-sized blackbird, very similar in appearance to the Western Meadowlark. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), or European Starling, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Black-faced Grassquit, Tiaris bicolor, is a small bird formerly placed with the Emberizidae. ... Binomial name Gmelin, 1789 The White-eyed Thrush (Turdus jamaicensis) is a species of bird in the Turdidae family. ...

Vectors of avian malaria

  • Culex fatigans - P. relictum
  • Culex pipiens - P. cathermerium, P. paddae
  • Culex pipiens pipiens - P. kempi
  • Culex nigripalpus - P. elongatum, P. hermani
  • Culex quinquefasciatus - P. relictum
  • Culex restuans - P. elongatum
  • Culex salinarius - P. elongatum, P. hermani
  • Culex stigmatastoma - P. relictum
  • Culex tarsalis - P. kempi, P. hexamerium, P. relictum
  • Mansonia species:
  • Mansionia crassipes - P. gallinacium

Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ...

Subspecies of avian malaria

  • P. relictum has been divded into subspecies: P. relictum capistranoae, P. relicturn matutinum and P. relictum relictum.
  • P. nucleophilum has at least one subspecies - P. nucleophilum toucani

Interelatedness

  • P. durae is related to P. asanum, P. circumflexum, P. fallax, P. formosanum, P. gabaldoni, P. hegneri, P. lophrae, P. lophrae, P. pediocetti, P. pinotti, and P. polare.
  • P. gallinacium is related to P. griffithsi
  • P. relictum is related to P. cathemerium, P. giovannolai and P. matutinum. P. relictum may be difficult to distinguish from P. giovannolai on either morphological grounds or on the basis of host species.
  • P. hexamerium is related to P. vaughni.
  • P. ashfordi is related to P. vaughni.

Avian malaria notes

  • P. relictum is known to infect over 70 bird families and 359 wild bird species so the record here should be regarded as incomplete. Additional host species can be found under the link Plasmodium relictum. It is likely that this species has been responsible for more bird extinctions than any other protist.
  • P. vaughani is the second commonest species of avian malaria parasites after P. relictum.
  • P. inconstans, P. irae, P. praecox, P. subpraecox and P. wasielewski have been re classified as P. relictum. P. subpraecox was described by Grassi and Feletti in 1892. P. wasielewski was described by Brumpt in 1909.
  • P. elongatum infects 21 bird families and 59 species of bird. Additional host species are given under the link P. elongatum.
  • P. dominicana is species known only from fossil amber.[38] It is thought to have been a species infecting birds.
  • The taxonomic status of P. corradettii (Laird, 1998) is currently regarded as dubious and may be revised.
  • P. huffi may be the same species as P. nucleophilum toucani.
  • P. oti is now regarded as the same species as P. hexamerium.
  • There are currently 13 species recognised in the subgenus Novyella all of which are listed here.

A number of additional species have been described in birds - P. centropi, P. chloropsidis, P. gallinuae, P. herodialis, P. heroni, P. mornony, P. pericorcoti and P. ploceii - but the suggested speciation was based at least in part on the idea - 'one host - one species'. It has not been possible to reconcile the descriptions with any of the currently recongised species and these are not currently regarded as valid species. As further investigations are made into this genus these species may be resurrected. Binomial name Avian malaria is most notably caused by Plasmodium relictum, a protist that infects birds in tropical regions. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


A species P. japonicum has been reported[39] but this appears to be the only report of this species and it should therefore be regarded of dubious validity.


Infections in reptiles

Species in the subgenera Asiamoeba, Carinamoeba, Lacertaemoba, Paraplasmodium and Sauramoeba infect reptiles.[40]. Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ...


Over 90 species and subspecies of Plasmodium infect lizards and they have been reported from over 3200 species of lizard and 29 species of snake. Only three species - P. pessoai, P. tomodoni and P. wenyoni - infect snakes.


Listing


Species infecting reptiles include: P. achiotense, P. aeuminatum, P. agamae, P. arachniformis, P. attenuatum,P. aurulentum, P. australis, P. azurophilum, P. balli, P. basilisci, P. beebei, P. beltrani , P. brumpti, P. brygooi, P. chiricahuae, P. circularis, P. cnemidophori, P. colombiense, P. cordyli, P. diminutivum, P. diploglossi, P. egerniae, P. fairchildi, P. floridense, P. gabaldoni, P. giganteum, P. gologoense, P. gracilis, P. guyannense, P. heischi, P. holaspi, P. icipeensis, P. iguanae, P. josephinae, P. kentropyxi, P. lacertiliae, Plasmodium lainsoni, P. lepidoptiformis, P. lionatum, P. lygosomae, P. mabuiae, P. mackerrasae, P. maculilabre, P. marginatum, P. mexicanum, P. michikoa, P. minasense, P. pelaezi, P. pessoai, P. pifanoi, P. pitmani, P. rhadinurum, P. sasai,P. saurocaudatum, P. scorzai, P. siamense, P. robinsoni, P. sasai, P. scorzai, P. tanzaniae, P. tomodoni, P. torrealbai, P. tribolonoti, P. tropiduri, P. uzungwiense, P. vacuolatum, P. vastator, P. volans, P. wenyoni and P. zonuriae.


Host records

  • P. agamae - the rainbow lizard (Agama agama)
  • P. attenuatum - Ameiva ameiva
  • P. aurulentum - neotropical forest gecko (Thecadactylus rapicaudus)
  • P. azurophilum - anole lizards (Anolis gingivinus, Anolis gundlachi, Anolis sabanus)
  • P. bailli - Anolis lizards (Anolis limifrons, Anolis lionotus and Anolis poecilopus)
  • P. beebei - the gekko (Gonatodes taniae)
  • P. brygooi - short-horned chameleon (Chamaeleo brevicornis)
  • P. chiricahuae - fence lizard (Sceloporus jarrovi)
  • P. cnemidophori - Ameiva ameiva
  • P. diploglossi - Anguid lizard (Diploglossus fasciatus)
  • P. floridense - anole lizards (Anolis biporcatus, Anolis carolinensis, Anolis frenatus, Anolis gingivinus, Anolis gundlachi, Anolis limifrons, Anolis pentaprion, Anolis sabanus and Anolis sagrei)
  • P. giganteum - the rainbow lizard (Agama agama), the African tropical lizard (Agama cyanogaster)[41]
  • P. guyannense - the iguanid lizard (Plica plica)
  • P. holaspi - African flying lizard (Holaspis guentheri)
  • P. iguanae - Iguana iguana iguana
  • P. kentropyxi - teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata)
  • P. lainsoni - the gekko (Phyllodactylus ventralis)
  • P. lepidoptiformis - teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata)
  • P. lionatum - the flying gecko (Ptychozoon lionatum)
  • P. lygosomae - skink (Lygosoma moco)
  • P. minasense anolisi - anolis lizards (Anolis cybotes, Anolis distichus, Anolis frenatus and Anolis limifrons)
  • P. minasense calcaratae - teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata)
  • P. minasense diminutivum - dwarf tegu lizard (Ameiva ameiva)
  • P. minasense plicae - olive tree runner lizard (Plica umbra)
  • P. pelaezi - the iguanid lizard (Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus)
  • P. pifanoi - the green ameiva lizard (Ameiva ameiva) and a teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata)
  • P. rhadinurum - Iguana iguana iguana
  • P. scorzai - the gekko Phyllodactylus ventralis
  • P. tropiduri - iguanid lizard (Tropidurus torquatus), Anolis lizards (Anolis biporcatus,Anolis cybotes, Anolis frenatus, Anolis limifrons, Anolis lionotus, Anolis pentaprion and Anolis poecilopus), teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata)
  • P. tropiduri aquaticum - Anolis lizards (Anolis lionotus and Anolis poecilopus)
  • P. tropiduri panamense - Anolis lizard (Anolis biporcatus)
  • P. tropiduri tropiduri - Tropidurus hispidus
  • P. robinsoni - the red-headed rock agama lizard (Agama agama)

Vectors For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Agama agama is a lizard from Agama family. ... Binomial name The Common ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... Thecadactylus rapicaudus is a species of gecko found in South and Central America and parts of the Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Basiliscus vittatus The Brown basilisk or Striped basilisk (Basiliscus vittatus; in some areas referred to as common basilisk) is one species of basilisk lizard. ... Classification of genus Gekko: Gekko athymus Gekko auriverrucosus Gekko badenii Gekko chinensis Gekko gecko Gekko gigante Gekko grossmanni Gekko hokouensis Gekko japonicus Gekko kikuchii Gekko mindorensis Gekko monarchusv Gekko palawanensisv Gekko palmatus Gekko petricolusv Gekko porosusv Gekko romblon Gekko scabridus Gekko siamensis Gekko similignumv Gekko smithii Gekko subpalmatus Gekko swinhonis... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reptile. ... Binomial name The Common ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Draco volans Linnaeus, 1758 Draco volans The Flying Dragon is a lizard that lives in the rainforests of Asia and the East Indies. ... The Land Mullet (Egernia major) is the largest member of the skink family (Scincidae), reaching lengths of up to 50 cm. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Anolis carolinensis Subspecies Anolis carolinensis carolinensis Anolis carolinensis seminolus The Carolina Anole (Anolis carolinensis) is a lizard found primarily in the south eastern parts of the United States. ... Binomial name Anolis sagrei Cocteau in Duméril and Bibron, 1837 The Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei (or Norops sagrei) is a lizard native to Cuba and the Bahamas. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Agama agama is a lizard from Agama family. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reptile. ... Red-Eyed Bush Crocodile Skinks Triblonotus gracilis Known as Red-Eyed Bush Crocodile Skinks, Orange-Eyed Crocodile Skinks, and Armored Dragon Skinks, Tribolonotus gracilis are found in New Guinea and other nearby islands. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Genera many—see text Skinks are reptilians belonging to suborder Sauria, and there to the superfamily Scincomorpha, the same as the true lizards. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reptile. ... Classification Genus Tribolonotus Tribolonotus annectens Tribolonotus blanchardi Tribolonotus brongersmai Tribolonotus gracilis Tribolonotus novaeguineae Tribolonotus ponceleti Tribolonotus pseudoponceleti Tribolonotus schmidti Categories: Skinks ... Classification of genus Gekko: Gekko athymus Gekko auriverrucosus Gekko badenii Gekko chinensis Gekko gecko Gekko gigante Gekko grossmanni Gekko hokouensis Gekko japonicus Gekko kikuchii Gekko mindorensis Gekko monarchusv Gekko palawanensisv Gekko palmatus Gekko petricolusv Gekko porosusv Gekko romblon Gekko scabridus Gekko siamensis Gekko similignumv Gekko smithii Gekko subpalmatus Gekko swinhonis... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reptile. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the reptile. ... This article is about the reptile. ... Binomial name Egernia cunninghami (Gray, 1832) Cunninghams Skink (Egernia cunninghami) is a large skink species native to southeastern Australia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the reptile. ... Mabuya is a genus of long-tailed skinks, found through Southeast Asia, Africa, and The Americas. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sceloporus occidentalis Girard, 1852 The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is the common lizard of much of California. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the reptile. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is a large, arboreal lizard from Central and South America. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name The Common ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the reptile. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758 The Blue Tegu is a smaller species of tegu, growing to about 1 meter long, renowned for its light blue coloration, which is most intense on adult males. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Spilotes pullatus Linnaeus, 1758 Spilotes pullatus, the Tigre is a large (up to 3 m) snake found in southern Central America, northern South America and Trinidad and Tobago. ... Binomial name Lachesis muta Linnaeus, 1766 The bushmaster (Lachesis muta) is a venomous snake of the viper family. ... Binomial name The Common ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the reptile. ... Mabuya is a genus of long-tailed skinks, found through Southeast Asia, Africa, and The Americas. ... A parson is a member of the Protestant clergy. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Takydromus tachydromoides Schlegel, 1838 Takydromus tachydromoides (Japanese grass lizard) is a wall lizard species of the genus Takydromus. ... Binomial name Mabuya multifasciata (Kuhl, 1820) East Indian Brown Mabuya, Many-lined Sun Skink or Common Sun Skink Mabuya multifasciata is a species of skink. ... Classification of genus Gekko: Gekko athymus Gekko auriverrucosus Gekko badenii Gekko chinensis Gekko gecko Gekko gigante Gekko grossmanni Gekko hokouensis Gekko japonicus Gekko kikuchii Gekko mindorensis Gekko monarchusv Gekko palawanensisv Gekko palmatus Gekko petricolusv Gekko porosusv Gekko romblon Gekko scabridus Gekko siamensis Gekko similignumv Gekko smithii Gekko subpalmatus Gekko swinhonis... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reptile. ... Red-Eyed Bush Crocodile Skinks Triblonotus gracilis Known as Red-Eyed Bush Crocodile Skinks, Orange-Eyed Crocodile Skinks, and Armored Dragon Skinks, Tribolonotus gracilis are found in New Guinea and other nearby islands. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Agama agama is a lizard from Agama family. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Draco volans Linnaeus, 1758 Draco volans The Flying Dragon is a lizard that lives in the rainforests of Asia and the East Indies. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Draco volans Linnaeus, 1758 Draco volans The Flying Dragon is a lizard that lives in the rainforests of Asia and the East Indies. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ...

  • P. agamae - Lutzomyia or Culicoides species

Culex: Species Species Lutzomyia amazonensis Species Lutzomyia aragaoi Species Lutzomyia cruzi Species Lutzomyia intermedia Species Lutzomyia longipalpis Species Lutzomyia migonei Species Lutzomyia whitmani Lutzomyia is a genus of flies, or diptera, that generally includes sand flies. In the New World, Lutzomyia sand flies are responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, an... Subgenera Numerous, see text Culicoides is a genus of biting midges in the subfamily Ceratopogoninae. ... Culex is a genus of mosquitos, and are vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and avian malaria. ...

  • Culex fatigans - P. rhadinurum

Aedes: Species Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti This page is about the genus of mosquito, for the Roman building see aedes (Roman) Aedes is a genus of mosquito found in tropical and subtropical zones. ...

Subspecies joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

  • P. fairchildi - P. fairchildi fairchildi and P. fairchildi hispaniolae
  • P. lygosomae - P. lygosomae nucleoversans and P. lygosomae nucleoversans
  • P. minasense - P. minasense anolisi, P. minasense capitoi, P. minasense carinii,

P. minasense diminutivum, P. minasense minasense, P. minasense plicae, and P. minasense tegui.[44] An additional subspecies P. minasense calcaratae has also been described.[45]


-

  • P. traguli - P. traguli traguli and P. traguli memmina.
  • P. tropiduri - P. tropiduri aquaticum, P. tropiduri panamense and P. tropiduri tropiduri.[44]

Interrelatedness

  • P. floridense is closely related to P. tropiduri and P. minasense

Species reclassified into other genera

The following species are currently (2007) regarded as belonging to the genus Hepatocystis rather than Plasmodium.

  • Plasmodium epomophori
  • Plasmodium kochi
  • Plasmodium limnotragi Van Denberghe 1937
  • Plasmodium pteropi Breinl 1911
  • Plasmodium ratufae Donavan 1920
  • Plasmodium vassali Laveran 1905
  • Plasmodium gonatodi has been reclassified as a species of Garnia and has been renamed Garnia gonatodi.

General references

The standard reference books for the identification of Plasmodium species are:

  • Laird, M. (1998) Avian Malaria in the Asian Tropical Subregion. Springer, Singapore.
  • Garnham P.C (1966) Malaria Parasites And Other Haemosporidia. Blackwell, Oxford. This book remains the standard reference work on malarial species classification.

Other useful references include Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...

  • Short, H. E. (1951) Life-cycle of the mammalian malaria parasite" British Medical Bulletin 8(1): pp. 7-9, (PMID 14944807);
  • Baldacci, Patricia and Ménard, Robert (Oct. 2004) "The elusive malaria sporozoite in the mammalian host" Molecular Microbiology 54(2): pp. 298-306, (AN 14621725);


Some history of malaria - http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v079/79.2slater.html


References

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Plasmodium
  • Malaria Atlas Project
Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plasmodium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (600 words)
Plasmodium falciparum (the cause of malignant tertian malaria)
Plasmodium malariae (the cause of benign quartan malaria)
The sporozoites migrate to the liver and invade hepatocytes.
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