FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots). It is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein (SERPINE1). In blood coagulation, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Urokinase is a thrombolytic agent used in the treatment of severe or massive deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, myocardial infarction, and occluded I.V. or dialysis cannulas. ... Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3. ... Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. ... A thrombus is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... Serine protease inhibitors or serpins (short for serine protease inhibitor) are a group of proteins that inhibit peptidases (old name: proteases). ...


The other PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) is secreted by the placenta and only present in significant amounts during pregnancy. In addition, protease nexin acts as an inhibitor of tPA and urokinase. PAI-1, however, is the main inhibitor of the plasminogen activators. Human placenta shown a few minutes after birth. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ...

Contents

Genetics

The PLANH1 gene is located on the seventh chromosome (7q21.3-q22). There are two common polymorphisms (4G and 5G), of which the latter produces a slightly less active protein. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Figure 1: Chromosome. ... In general, polymorphism describes multiple possible states for a single property (it is said to be polymorphic). ...


Function

PAI-1 is mainly produced by the endothelium (cells lining blood vessels), but is also secreted by other tissue types, such as adipose tissue. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ...


PAI-1 inhibits the serine proteases tPA and uPA/urokinase, and hence is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, the physiological process that degrades blood clots. In biochemistry, a serine proteases or serine endopeptidases (newer name) are a class of peptidases which are characterised by the presence of a serine residue in the active center of the enzyme. ... Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. ...


Role in disease

Congenital deficiency of PAI-1 has been reported; as fibrinolysis is not suppressed adequately, it leads to a hemorrhagic diathesis (a tendency to hemorrhage).


PAI-1 is present in increased levels in various disease states, as well as in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It has been linked to the increased occurrence of thrombosis in patients with these conditions. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that affect a large number of people in a clustered fashion. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ...


In inflammatory conditions in which fibrin is deposited in tissues, PAI-1 appears to play a significant role in the progression to fibrosis (pathological formation of connective tissue). Presumably, lower PAI levels would lead to less suppression of fibrinolysis and conversely a more rapid degradation of the fibrin. Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ... Connective tissue is any type of biological tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix. ...


Pharmacology

PAI-039 is a small molecule inhibitor that is being studied for use in the attenuation of remodeling of blood vessels, a result of arterial hypertension and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a hormone system that helps regulate long-term blood pressure and blood volume in the body. ...


External link

  • OMIM 173360 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=173360)


The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ...

Cardiovascular system - Blood
Red blood cells - White blood cells - Platelets - Blood plasma
White blood cells
Granulocytes (Neutrophil granulocytes, Eosinophil granulocytes, Basophil granulocytes) - Lymphocytes - Monocytes
Coagulation
Coagulation factors: - Fibrin (I) - Thrombin (II) - FV - FVII - FVIII - FIX - FX - FXI - FXII - FXIII - HMWK - vWF - Tissue factor
Inhibitors: Antithrombin - Protein C - Protein S - Protein Z - ZPI - TFPI
Fibrinolysis: Plasmin - tPA/urokinase - PAI-1/2 - α2-AP - TAFI

  Results from FactBites:
 
Protease -- Protease Inhibitors (365 words)
histidine residue is used to activate serine, cysteine or threonine as a nucleophile.
The activity can be a destructive change abolishing a proteins function or digesting it to its principal components, it can be an activation of a function or it can be a signal in a signalling pathway.
Puente XS, Lopez-Otin C. A Genomic Analysis of Rat Proteases and Protease Inhibitors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m