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Encyclopedia > Plasma physics

In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. "Ionized" in this case means that at least one electron has been removed from a significant fraction of the molecules. The free charges make the plasma electrically conductive so that it couples strongly to electromagnetic fields. This fourth state of matter was first identified by Sir William Crookes in 1879 and dubbed "plasma" by Irving Langmuir in 1928. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1312 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1312 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An eight-inch diameter plasma globe Plasma lamps are novelty items which were most popular in the 1980s. ... The willingness to question previously held truths and search for new answers resulted in a period of major scientific advancements, now known as the Scientific Revolution. ... Chemistry (in Greek: χημεία) is the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself (see physics, biology). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Properties The electron is a subatomic particle. ... Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the transport of electric charge. ... In the physics of electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field is a field composed of two related vectorial fields —the electric field and the magnetic field When referred to as the electromagnetic field, encompassing all of space, whereas typically such a field is limited to a local area, based around an object... Categories: People stubs | 1832 births | 1919 deaths | British scientists | English chemists | Physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Irving Langmuir -- chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ...

Contents


Common plasmas

Plasmas are the most common phase of matter, comprising more than 99% of the visible universe. Commonly encountered forms of plasma include: In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ...

A compact fluorescent lamp with an integrated electronic ballast A fluorescent lamp is a type of lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, producing short-wave ultraviolet light. ... a neon sign at night Neon signs are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2nd of March, 2004. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Earths atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc or electric arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... An eight-inch diameter plasma globe Plasma lamps are novelty items which were most popular in the 1980s. ... Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A large bonfire Fire is a form of combustion. ... Lightning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature and chemical composition) of astronomical objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar system. ... The Pleiades star cluster A star is any massive gaseous body in outer space. ... The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the solar system and through which all the larger solar system bodies such as planets, asteroids and comets move. ... In astronomy, the interstellar medium (or ISM) is the matter and energy content that exists between the stars (or their immediate circumstellar environment) within a galaxy. ... Intergalactic space is the physical space between galaxies. ... An accretion disc (or accretion disk) is a structure formed by material falling into a gravitational source. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 lies in a spiral arm of Galaxy M33, 2. ...

Characteristics

View of a "shot" on the Large Helical Device though a side port showing hot plasma affected by magnetic fields.

The term plasma is generally reserved for a system of charged particles large enough to behave collectively. Even a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized, can behave as a plasma and have the characteristics of a plasma (ie. respond to magnetic fields, and be highly electrically conductive). A shot on the Large Helical Device, a stellarator at the National Institute for Fusion Science research laboratory Oroshi-cho, Toki, GIFU Japan. ... A shot on the Large Helical Device, a stellarator at the National Institute for Fusion Science research laboratory Oroshi-cho, Toki, GIFU Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ...


In technical terms, the typical characteristics of a plasma are:

  1. Debye screening lengths that are short compared to the physical size of the plasma.
  2. Large number of particles within a sphere with a radius of the Debye length.
  3. Mean time between collisions usually is long when compared to the period of plasma oscillations.

Screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers. ... In plasma physics, the Debye length, named after the Dutch physical chemist Peter Debye, is the scale over which mobile charge carriers (e. ... In physics, plasma oscillations, often referred to as Langmuir waves or plasma waves, are periodic oscillations of charge density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals. ...

Plasma scaling

Plasmas and their characteristics exist over a wide range of scales (ie. they are scaleable over many orders of magnitude). The following chart deals only with conventional atomic plasmas and not other exotica, for instance, quark gluon plasmas: An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Quark gluon plasma is a phase of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and density. ...

Typical Plasma Scaling Ranges: Orders of Magnitude (OOM)
Characteristic Terrestrial Plasmas Cosmic Plasmas
Size
in metres (m)
10-6m (lab plasmas) to:
102m (lightning) (~8 OOM)
10-6m (spacecraft sheath) to
1025m (intergalactic nebula) (~31 OOM)
Lifetime
in seconds (s)
10-12s (laser-produced plasma) to:
107s (fluorescent lights) (~19 OOM)
101s (solar flares) to:
1017s (intergalactic plasma) (~17 OOM)
Density
particles per
cubic metre
107 to:
1021 (inertial confinement plasma)
1030 (stellar core) to:
100(ie: 1) (intergalactic medium)
Temperature
Kelvin (K)
~0K (Crystalline non-neutral plasma) to:
108 (magnetic fusion plasma)
102K (aurora) to:
107K (Solar core)
Magnetic fields
Tesla (T)
10-4T (Lab plasma) to:
103T (pulsed-power plasma)
10-12T (intergalactic medium) to:
107T (Solar core)

The parameters of plasmas, including their spatial and temporal extent, vary by many orders of magnitude. ...

Temperatures

The defining characteristic of a plasma is ionization. Although ionization can be caused by UV radiation, energetic particles, or strong electric fields, processes that tend to result in a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function, it is most commonly caused by heating the electrons in such a way that they are close to thermal equilibrium so the electron temperature is relatively well-defined. Because the large mass of the ions relative to the electrons hinders energy transfer, it is possible for the ion temperature to be very different (usually lower). James Clerk Maxwell (June 13, 1831–November 5, 1879) was a Scottish physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... In physics, a particles distribution function is a function of seven variables, , which gives the number of particles per unit volume in phase space. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if its energy distribution equals a Maxwell-Boltzmann-distribution. ...


The degree of ionization is determined by the electron temperature relative to the ionization energy (and more weakly by the density) in accordance with the Saha equation. If only a small fraction of the gas molecules are ionized (for example 1%), then the plasma is said to be a cold plasma, even though the electron temperature is typically several thousand degrees. The ion temperature in a cold plasma is often near the ambient temperature. Because the plasmas utilized in plasma technology are typically cold, they are sometimes called technological plasmas. They are often created by using a very high electric field to accelerate electrons, which then ionize the atoms. The electric field is either capacitively or inductively coupled into the gas by means of a plasma source, e.g. microwaves. Common applications of cold plasmas include plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma ion doping, and reactive ion etching. Developed by the Indian astrophysicist Meghnad Saha in 1920, this formula describes the degree of ionization of a gas as a function of the temperature T, density, and ionization energy. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (68–72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... Plasma sources generate plasmas. ... Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process for depositing thin films of various materials. ... Reactive ion etching (RIE) is a technology using plasma to etch material deposited on wafers. ...


A hot plasma, on the other hand, is nearly fully ionized. This is what would commonly be known as the "fourth-state of matter". The Sun is an example of a hot plasma. The electrons and ions are more likely to have equal temperatures in a hot plasma, but there can still be significant differences.


Densities

Next to the temperature, which is of fundamental importance for the very existence of a plasma, the most important property is the density. The word "plasma density" by itself usually refers to the electron density, that is, the number of free electrons per unit volume. The ion density is related to this by the average charge state of the ions through . (See quasineutrality below.) The third important quantity is the density of neutrals n0. In a hot plasma this is small, but may still determine important physics. The degree of ionization is ni / (n0 + ni).


Potentials

Since plasmas are very good conductors, electric potentials play an important role. The potential as it exists on average in the space between charged particles, independent of the question of how it can be measured, is called the plasma potential or the space potential. If an electrode is inserted into a plasma, its potential will generally lie considerably below the plasma potential due to the development of a Debye sheath. Due to the good electrical conductivity, the electric fields in plasmas tend to be very small, although where double layers are formed, the potential drop can be large enough to accelerate ions to relativistic velocities and produce synchrotron radiation such as x-rays and gamma rays. This results in the important concept of quasineutrality, which says that, on the one hand, it is a very good approximation to assume that the density of negative charges is equal to the density of positive charges (), but that, on the other hand, electric fields can be assumed to exist as needed for the physics at hand. The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is the non-neutral layer several Debye lengths thick where a plasma contacts a material surface. ... Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of relativistic electrons (i. ...


The magnitude of the potentials and electric fields must be determined by means other than simply finding the net charge density. A common example is to assume that the electrons satisfy the Boltzmann relation, . Differentiating this relation provides a means to calculate the electric field from the density: . In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation connects the electron density ne to the plasma potential φpl as follows: ne = n0 exp(eφpl/kBTe) The reference for the potential potential is taken to be a position where the electron density is n0. ...


It is, of course, possible to produce a plasma that is not quasineutral. An electron beam, for example, has only negative charges. The density of a non-neutral plasma must generally be very low, or it must be very small, otherwise it will be dissipated by the repulsive electrostatic force.


In astrophysical plasmas, Debye screening prevents electric fields from directly affecting the plasma over large distances (ie. greater than the Debye length). But the existence of charged particles causes the plasma to generate and be affected by magnetic fields. This can and does cause extremely complex behavior, such as the generation of plasma double layers, an object that separates charge over a few tens of Debye lengths. The dynamics of plasmas interacting with external and self-generated magnetic fields are studied in the academic discipline of magnetohydrodynamics. Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature and chemical composition) of astronomical objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers. ... In physics, an electric field or E-field is an effect produced by an electric charge that exerts a force on charged objects in its vicinity. ... In plasma physics, the Debye length, named after the Dutch physical chemist Peter Debye, is the scale over which mobile charge carriers (e. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (M) around the wire. ... In plasma physics, the Debye length, named after the Dutch physical chemist Peter Debye, is the scale over which mobile charge carriers (e. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (M) around the wire. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... MHD Simulation of Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics), is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ...


In contrast to the gas phase

Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter. It is distinct from the three lower-energy phases of matter; solid, liquid, and gas, although it is closely related to the gas phase in that it also has no definite form or volume. There is still some disagreement as to whether a plasma is a distinct state of matter or simply a type of gas. Most physicists consider a plasma to be more than a gas because of a number of distinct properties including the following: In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... A solid is a state of matter, characterized by a definite volume and a definite shape (i. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... Gas (actually, as), the GNU assembler, is the default GCC back-end. ...

Property Gas Plasma
Electrical Conductivity Very low
 
Very high
  1. For many purposes the electric field in a plasma may be treated as zero, although when current flows the voltage drop, though small, is finite, and density gradients are usually associated with an electric field according to the Boltzmann relation.
  2. The possibility of currents couples the plasma strongly to magnetic fields, which are responsible for a large variety of structures such as filaments, sheets, and jets.
  3. Collective phenomena are common because the electric and magnetic forces are both long-range and potentially many orders of magnitude stronger than gravitational forces.
Independently acting species One Two or three
Electrons, ions, and neutrals can be distinguished by the sign of their charge so that they behave independently in many circumstances, having different velocities or even different temperatures, leading to new types of waves and instabilities, among other things
Velocity distribution Maxwellian May be non-Maxwellian
Whereas collisional interactions always lead to a Maxwellian velocity distribution, electric fields influence the particle velocities differently. The velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision cross section can amplify these differences, resulting in phenomena like two-temperature distributions and run-away electrons.
Interactions Binary
Two-particle collisions are the rule, three-body collisions extremely rare.
Collective
Each particle interacts simultaneously with many others. These collective interactions are about ten times more important than binary collisions.

In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation connects the electron density ne to the plasma potential φpl as follows: ne = n0 exp(eφpl/kBTe) The reference for the potential potential is taken to be a position where the electron density is n0. ...

Complex Plasma Phenomena

Plasma may exhibit complex behaviour. And just as plasma properties scale over many orders of magnitude (see table above), so do these complex features. Many of these features were first studied in the laboratory, and in more recent years, have been applied to, and recognised throughout the universe. Some of these features include:

  • Filamentation, the striations or "stringy things" seen in a "plasma ball", the aurora, lightning, and nebulae. They are caused by larger current densities, and are also called magnetic ropes or plasma cables.
  • Double layers, localised charge separation regions that have a large potential difference across the layer, and a vanishing electric field on either side. Double layers are found between adjacent plasmas regions with different physical characteristics, and can accelerate ions and produce synchrotron radiation (such as x-rays and gamma rays).
  • Birkeland currents, a magnetic-field-aligned electric current, first observed in the Earth's aurora, and also found in plasma filaments.
  • Circuits. Birkeland currents imply electric circuits, that follow Kirchhoff's circuit laws. Circuits have a resistance and inductance, and the behaviour of the plasma depends on the entire circuit. Such circuits also store inductive energy, and should the circuit be disrupted, for example, by a plasma instability, the inductive energy will be released in the plasma.
  • Cellular structure. Plasma double layers may separate regions with different properties such as magnetization, density, and temperature, resulting in cell-like regions. Examples include the magnetosphere, heliosphere, and heliospheric current sheet.

Aurora is the Latin word for dawn. It can refer to: Aurora was the ancient Roman equivalent of Eos, the ancient Greek goddess of the dawn. ... Lightning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 lies in a spiral arm of Galaxy M33, 2. ... Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of relativistic electrons (i. ... Kirchhoffs circuit laws are a pair of laws that deal with the conservation of charge and energy in electrical circuits, and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff. ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ... Inductance is a physical characteristic of an inductor, which is an electrical device that produces at any time a voltage proportional to the instantaneous rate of change in current flowing through it. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object, in which phenomena are dominated by its magnetic field. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ...

Mathematical descriptions

Plasmas may be usefully described with various levels of detail. However the plasma itself is described, if electric or magnetic fields are present, then Maxwell's equations will be needed to describe them. The coupling of the description of a conductive fluid to electromagnetic fields is known generally as magnetohydrodynamics, or simply MHD. Maxwells equations are the set of four equations, attributed to James Clerk Maxwell, that describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter. ... This article or section should be merged with Fluid mechanics Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion, and the effect of the fluid motion on fluid boundaries, such as solid containers or other fluids. ... MHD Simulation of Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics), is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ...


Fluid

The simplest possibility is to treat the plasma as a single fluid governed by the Navier Stokes Equations. A more general description is the two-fluid picture, where the ions and electrons are considered to be distinct. In fluid dynamics, the Navier-Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes are a set of nonlinear partial differential equations that describe the flow of fluids such as liquids and gases. ...


Kinetic

For some cases the fluid description is not sufficient. Kinetic models include information on distortions of the velocity distribution functions with respect to a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This may be important when currents flow, when waves are involved, or when gradients are very steep. In physics, a particles distribution function is a function of seven variables, , which gives the number of particles per unit volume in phase space. ... The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is a probability distribution with applications in physics and chemistry. ... A plasma is a quasineutral, electrically conductive fluid. ...


Particle-In-Cell

Particle-In-Cell models include kinetic information by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles. Charge and current densities are determined by summing the particles in cells which are small compared to the problem at hand but still contain many particles. The electric and magnetic fields are found from the charge and current densities with appropriate boundary conditions.


Fundamental plasma parameters

All quantities are in Gaussian cgs units except temperature expressed in eV and ion mass expressed in units of the proton mass μ = mi / mp; Z is charge state; k is Boltzmann's constant; K is wavelength; γ is the adiabatic index; ln Λ is the Coulomb logarithm. CGS is an acronym for centimetre-gram-second. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is the physical constant relating temperature to energy. ... The adiabatic index of a gas, is the ratio of its specific heat capacity at constant pressure (CP) to its specific heat capacity at constant volume (CV). ... A Coulomb collision is a collision between two particles when the force between them is given by Coulombs Law. ...


Frequencies

  • electron gyrofrequency, the angular frequency of the circular motion of an electron in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
  • ion gyrofrequency, the angular frequency of the circular motion of an ion in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
  • electron plasma frequency, the frequency with which electrons oscillate when their charge density is not equal to the ion charge density (plasma oscillation):
  • ion plasma frequency:
  • electron trapping rate
  • ion trapping rate
  • electron collision rate
  • ion collision rate

In physics, plasma oscillations, often referred to as Langmuir waves or plasma waves, are periodic oscillations of charge density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals. ...

Lengths

  • classical distance of closest approach, the closest that two particles with the elementary charge come to each other if they approach head-on and each have a velocity typical of the temperature, ignoring quantum-mechanical effects:
  • electron gyroradius, the radius of the circular motion of an electron in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
  • ion gyroradius, the radius of the circular motion of an ion in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field:
  • plasma skin depth, the depth in a plasma to which electromagnetic radiation can penetrate:
  • Debye length, the scale over which electric fields are screened out by a redistribution of the electrons:

In physics, the Thermal de Broglie wavelength is defined for a free ideal gas of massive particles in equilibrium as: where h is Plancks constant m is the mass of a gas particle k is Boltzmanns constant T is the Temperature of the gas The thermal de Broglie... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Skin depth is a geophysical term used in seismic exploration. ... In plasma physics, the Debye length, named after the Dutch physical chemist Peter Debye, is the scale over which mobile charge carriers (e. ...

Velocities

  • electron thermal velocity, typical velocity of an electron in a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution:
  • ion thermal velocity, typical velocity of an ion in a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution:
  • ion sound velocity, the speed of the longitudinal waves resulting from the mass of the ions and the pressure of the electrons:
  • Alfven velocity, the speed of the waves resulting from the mass of the ions and the restoring force of the magnetic field:

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is a probability distribution with applications in physics and chemistry. ... The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is a probability distribution with applications in physics and chemistry. ... Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (May 30, 1908; Norrköping, Sweden - April 2, 1995; Djursholm, Sweden) was a Swedish electrical power engineer. ... An Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave. ...

Dimensionless

  • square root of electron/proton mass ratio
  • number of particles in a Debye sphere
  • Alven velocity/speed of light
  • electron plasma/gyrofrequency ratio
  • ion plasma/gyrofrequency ratio
  • thermal/magnetic energy ratio
  • magnetic/ion rest energy ratio

Miscellaneous

  • Bohm diffusion coefficient
  • transverse Spitzer resistivity

This article needs cleanup. ...

Fields of active research

An important field of plasma physics is the equilibria and stability of the plasma. ... The guiding center of a charged particle in a magnetic field is the instantaneous center of the circle tangent to its path. ... An adiabatic invariant in general is a property of motion which is conserved to exponential accuracy in the small parameter representing the typical rate of change of the gross properties of the body. ... The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is the non-neutral layer several Debye lengths thick where a plasma contacts a material surface. ... A Coulomb collision is a collision between two particles when the force between them is given by Coulombs Law. ... The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object, in which phenomena are dominated by its magnetic field. ... Plasma cosmology is a non-standard cosmological model which attempts to explain the large scale structure of the universe using electromagnetic interactions in astrophysical plasmas. ... Plasma sources generate plasmas. ... Plasma diagnostics are experimental techniques used to measure properties of a plasma such as temperature and density. ... Thomson scattering is the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a charged particle. ... A Langmuir probe is a device named after Nobel Prize winning physicist Irving Langmuir which is used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and plasma potential. ... Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... Interferometry is the applied science of combining two or more input points of a particular data type, such as optical measurements, to form a greater picture based on the combination of the two sources. ... Incoherent scatter refers to a ground-based technique for studying the earths ionosphere. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... The magnetic fusion energy (MFE) program seeks to establish the conditions to sustain a nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A magnetic mirror is a plasma confinement device which uses a cylindrical plasma with strong magnetic coils at the ends. ... In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a target – a pellet that most often contains deuterium and tritium – by the use of intense laser or ion beams. ... Plasma processing is a plasma-based material processing technology that aims at modifying the chemical and physical properties of a surface. ... A plasma display is an emissive flat panel display where light is created by phosphors excited by a plasma discharge between two flat panels of glass. ...

See also

The MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator or dynamo, is for the direct transformation of thermal energy or kinetic energy into electricity. ... Screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers. ... Alexei Abrikosov Hannes Alfvén - Received the only Nobel Prize ever awarded to a plasma physicist. ... // Classical mechanics Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton Description: The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin: mathematical principles of natural philosophy, often Principia or Principia Mathematica for short) is a three-volume work by Isaac Newton published on July 5, 1687. ...

External links


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In physics and chemistry, a plasma is typically an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter.
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The dynamics of plasmas interacting with external and self-generated magnetic fields are studied in the academic discipline of magnetohydrodynamics.
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