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Encyclopedia > Plasma display
An example of a plasma display
An example of a plasma display

A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm). Many tiny cells located between two panels of glass hold an inert mixture of noble gases (neon and xenon). The gas in the cells is electrically turned into a plasma which then excites phosphors to emit light. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 566 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plasma display Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 566 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plasma display Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays using cathode ray tubes, usually less than 10 cm (4 inches) thick. ... TV redirects here. ... This article is about the material. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. ... Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... In physics, emission is the process by which the energy of a photon is released by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make a transition between two electronic energy levels. ...

Contents

History

The plasma video display was co-invented in 1964 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by Donald Bitzer, H. Gene Slottow, and graduate student Robert Willson for the PLATO Computer System. The original monochrome (orange, green, yellow) video display panels were very popular in the early 1970s because they were rugged and needed neither memory nor circuitry to refresh the images. A long period of sales decline occurred in the late 1970s as semiconductor memory made CRT displays cheaper than plasma displays.[history source needed] Nonetheless, the plasma displays' relatively large screen size and thin body made them suitable for high-profile placement in lobbies and stock exchanges. A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Donald Bitzer, most notably inventor of the Plasma display and largely regarded as the father of PLATO, has made a career of improving classroom productivity by using computer and telecommunications technologies. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


In 1983, IBM introduced a 19-inch (48 cm) orange-on-black monochrome display (model 3290 'information panel') which was able to show four simultaneous IBM 3270 virtual machine (VM) terminal sessions. That factory was transferred in 1987 to startup company Plasmaco, which Dr. Larry F. Weber, one of Dr. Bitzer's students, founded with Stephen Globus, as well as James Kehoe, who was the IBM plant manager. For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Clemson Universitys library catalog displayed in a 3270 emulation program The IBM 3270 is a class of terminals made by IBM since 1972 (known as display devices) normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. ... Dr. Larry F. Weber, is an American electrical engineer and businessman. ... Stephen Globus is a New York City venture capitalist who is third generation from a prominent banking family. ...


In 1992, Fujitsu introduced the world's first 21-inch (53 cm) full-color display. It was a hybrid, based upon the plasma display created at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NHK STRL, achieving superior brightness. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... STRL (NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories) See also NHK This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1996, Matsushita Electrical Industries (Panasonic) purchased Plasmaco, its color AC technology, and its American factory. In 1997, Fujitsu introduced the first 42-inch (107 cm) plasma display; it had 852x480 resolution and was progressively scanned. [1] Also in 1997, Pioneer started selling the first plasma television to the public. Many current plasma televisions, thinner and of larger area than their predecessors, are in use. Their thin size allows them to compete with large area projection screens. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Home theater projection screen (119 in. ...


Screen sizes have increased since the introduction of plasma displays. The largest plasma video display in the world at the 2008 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, North America was a 150-inch (381 cm) unit manufactured by Matsushita Electrical Industries (Panasonic) standing 6 ft (180 cm) tall by 11 ft (330 cm) wide and expected to initially retail at US$150,000. [2] [3] The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... North American redirects here. ...


Until quite recently, the superior brightness, faster response time, greater color spectrum, and wider viewing angle of color plasma video displays, when compared with LCD televisions, made them one of the most popular forms of display for HDTV flat panel displays. For a long time it was widely believed that LCD technology was suited only to smaller sized televisions, and could not compete with plasma technology at larger sizes, particularly 40 inches (100 cm) and above. Since then, improvements in LCD technology have narrowed the technological gap. The lower weight, falling prices, higher available resolution (important for HDTV), and often lower electrical power consumption of LCDs make them competitive with plasma television sets. As of late 2006, analysts note that LCDs are overtaking plasmas, particularly in the important 40-inch (1.0 m) and above segment where plasma had previously enjoyed strong dominance. [4] Another industry trend is the consolidation of manufacturers of plasma displays, with around fifty brands available but only five manufacturers. This article is about angles in geometry. ... Liquid crystal display television (LCD TV) is television that uses LCD technology for its visual output. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays using cathode ray tubes, usually less than 10 cm (4 inches) thick. ...


General characteristics

Plasma displays are bright (1000 lux or higher for the module), have a wide color gamut, and can be produced in fairly large sizes, up to 381 cm (150 inches) diagonally. They have a very low-luminance "dark-room" black level compared to the lighter grey of the unilluminated parts of an LCD screen. The display panel is only about 6 cm (2.5 inches) thick, while the total thickness, including electronics, is less than 10 cm (4 inches). Plasma displays use as much power per square meter as a CRT or an AMLCD television. Power consumption varies greatly with picture content, with bright scenes drawing significantly more power than darker ones. Nominal power rating is typically 400 watts for a 50-inch (127 cm) screen. Post-2006 models consume 220 to 310 watts for a 50-inch (127 cm) display when set to cinema mode. Most screens are set to 'shop' mode by default, which draws at least twice the power (around 500-700 watts) of a 'home' setting of less extreme brightness.[citation needed] The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance or illumination. ... In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced ), is a certain complete subset of colors. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... An AMLCD (also known as active-matrix liquid crystal display) is a type of flat panel display, currently the overwhelming choice of notebook computer manufacturers, due to light weight, very good image quality, wide color gamut, and response time. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The lifetime of the latest generation of plasma displays is estimated at 60,000 hours of actual display time, or 27 years at 6 hours per day. This is the estimated time over which maximum picture brightness degrades to half the original value, not catastrophic failure.


Competing displays include the CRT, OLED, AMLCD, DLP, SED-tv, and field emission flat panel displays. Advantages of plasma display technology are that a large, very thin screen can be produced, and that the image is very bright and has a wide viewing angle. Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) made of semiconducting organic polymers. ... An AMLCD (also known as active-matrix liquid crystal display) is a type of flat panel display, currently the overwhelming choice of notebook computer manufacturers, due to light weight, very good image quality, wide color gamut, and response time. ... This article is about Digital Light Processing. ... A Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display (SED) is a flat panel display technology that uses surface conduction electron emitters for every individual display pixel. ... A field emission display (FED) is a type of flat panel display using phosphor coatings as the emissive medium. ...


Functional details

Composition of plasma display panel
Composition of plasma display panel

The xenon and neon gas in a plasma television is contained in hundreds of thousands of tiny cells positioned between two plates of glass. Long electrodes are also sandwiched between the glass plates, in front of and behind the cells. The address electrodes sit behind the cells, along the rear glass plate. The transparent display electrodes, which are surrounded by an insulating dielectric material and covered by a magnesium oxide protective layer, are mounted in front of the cell, along the front glass plate. Control circuitry charges the electrodes that cross paths at a cell, creating a voltage difference between front and back and causing the gas to ionize and form a plasma. As the gas ions rush to the electrodes and collide, photons are emitted. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Alternative meanings: There is also an Electric-type Pokémon named Electrode. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ...


In a monochrome plasma panel, the ionizing state can be maintained by applying a low-level voltage between all the horizontal and vertical electrodes – even after the ionizing voltage is removed. To erase a cell all voltage is removed from a pair of electrodes. This type of panel has inherent memory and does not use phosphors. A small amount of nitrogen is added to the neon to increase hysteresis. A system with hysteresis can be summarised as a system that may be in any number of states, independent of the inputs to the system. ...


In color panels, the back of each cell is coated with a phosphor. The ultraviolet photons emitted by the plasma excite these phosphors to give off colored light. The operation of each cell is thus comparable to that of a fluorescent lamp. Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...


Every pixel is made up of three separate subpixel cells, each with different colored phosphors. One subpixel has a red light phosphor, one subpixel has a green light phosphor and one subpixel has a blue light phosphor. These colors blend together to create the overall color of the pixel, analogous to the "triad" of a shadow-mask CRT. By varying the pulses of current flowing through the different cells thousands of times per second, the control system can increase or decrease the intensity of each subpixel color to create billions of different combinations of red, green and blue. In this way, the control system can produce most of the visible colors. Plasma displays use the same phosphors as CRTs, which accounts for the extremely accurate color reproduction. This article is about the picture element. ... For other meanings see Triad (disambiguation). ... The shadow mask is one of two major technologies used to manufacture cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer displays that produce color images (the other is aperture grille). ...


Contrast ratio claims

Contrast ratio is the difference between the brightest and darkest parts of an image, measured in discrete steps, at any given moment. Generally, the higher the contrast ratio, the more realistic the image is. Contrast ratios for plasma displays are often advertised as high as 30,000:1. On the surface, this is a significant advantage of plasma over display technologies other than OLED. Although there are no industry-wide guidelines for reporting contrast ratio, most manufacturers follow either the ANSI standard or perform a full-on-full-off test. The ANSI standard uses a checkered test pattern whereby the darkest blacks and the lightest whites are simultaneously measured, yielding the most accurate "real-world" ratings. In contrast, a full-on-full-off test measures the ratio using a pure black screen and a pure white screen, which gives higher values but does not represent a typical viewing scenario. Manufacturers can further artificially improve the reported contrast ratio by increasing the contrast and brightness settings to achieve the highest test values. However, a contrast ratio generated by this method is misleading, as content would be essentially unwatchable at such settings. The contrast ratio is a measure of a display system, defined as the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the system is capable of producing. ... An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) made of semiconducting organic polymers. ...


Plasma is often cited as having better black levels (and contrast ratios), although both plasma and LCD have their own technological challenges. Each cell on a plasma display has to be precharged before it is due to be illuminated (otherwise the cell would not respond quickly enough) and this precharging means the cells cannot achieve a true black. Some manufacturers have worked hard to reduce the precharge and the associated background glow, to the point where black levels on modern plasmas are starting to rival CRT. With LCD technology, black pixels are generated by a light polarization method and are unable to completely block the underlying backlight.


Screen burn-in

See also: Phosphor burn-in
An example of a plasma display that has suffered severe burn-in from stationary text
An example of a plasma display that has suffered severe burn-in from stationary text

With phosphor-based electronic displays (including cathode-ray and plasma displays), the prolonged display of a menu bar or other graphical elements over time can create a permanent ghost-like image of these objects. This is due to the fact that the phosphor compounds which emit the light lose their luminosity with use. As a result, when certain areas of the display are used more frequently than others, over time the lower luminosity areas become visible to the naked eye and the result is called burn-in. While a ghost image is the most noticeable effect, a more common result is that the image quality will continuously and gradually decline as luminosity variations develop over time, resulting in a "muddy" looking picture image. Phosphor burn-in seen at an airport terminal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... A schematic diagram of a Crookes tube apparatus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Plasma displays also exhibit another image retention issue which is sometimes confused with burn-in damage. In this mode, when a group of pixels are run at high brightness (when displaying white, for example) for an extended period of time, a charge build-up in the pixel structure occurs and a ghost image can be seen. However, unlike burn-in, this charge build-up is transient and self corrects after the display has been powered off for a long enough period of time, or after running random broadcast TV type content. This article is about the picture element. ...


Plasma manufacturers have over time managed to devise ways of reducing the past problems of image retention with solutions involving gray pillarboxes, pixel orbiters and image washing routines.


See also

Large-screen television technology developed rapidly in the late 1990’s and 2000’s, and currently the most popular technologies are liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma display, and projection television. ... This is a comparison of various properties of different display technologies. ... This article is about Digital Light Processing. ... LCD redirects here. ... HDTV Blur is a common term used to describe a number of different artifacts on consumer modern high definition television sets: Pixel response time on LCD displays (blur in the color response of the active pixel) Slower camera Shutter speeds common in hollywood production films (blur in the HDV content...

References

  1. ^ "Digital TV Tech Notes, Issue #4". 
  2. ^ Dugan, E. (2008-01-08). 6ft by 150 inches: measuring up to the world's biggest plasma TV. Independent.co.uk online edition. Retrieved on 2008-01-08 from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/6ft-by-150-inches--and-thats-just-the-tv-768862.html
  3. ^ Hora, G. (2008-01-13). Panasonic's 150-inch Plasma to Cost $150,000. CoolTechZone.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-14 from http://www.cooltechzone.com/Special_Reports/Special_Reports/Panasonic%27s_150-inch_Plasma_to_Cost_%24150%2C000_200801132970/.
  4. ^ "Shift to large LCD TVs over plasma", MSNBC, November 27, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-08-12. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Plasma display at HowStuffWorks HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ...

  • Plasma.com classroom main page Articles on Plasma TV technology and installation
  • Schematic drawing and explanation of a typical color plasma display
  • HowStuffWorks "How plasma displays work"
  • LCD or plasma? (PCWorld.ca, written February 14, 2007)
  • Plasma display panels: The colorful history of an Illinois technology by Jamie Hutchinson, Electrical and Computer Engineering Alumni News, Winter 2002-2003
  • Plasma is better than LCD? according to Panasonic
This is a comparison of various properties of different display technologies. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plasma display - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1471 words)
A plasma display panel (PDP) is an emissive flat panel display where visible light is created by phosphors excited by a plasma discharge between two flat panels of glass.
The plasma display panel was invented at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by Donald L. Bitzer and H. Gene Slottow in 1964 for the PLATO Computer System.
Plasma displays are bright (1000 lx or higher for the module), have a wide color gamut, and can be produced in fairly large sizes, up to 262 cm (103 inches) diagonally.
plasma display panels by NEC, Pioneer, Zenith, Sony, Orion (1974 words)
Plasma panels are an array of cells, known as pixels, which are composed of three subpixels, corresponding to the colors red, green, and blue.
For Plasma display outside, there are special cases and covers that can be made for your screen and will allow it to be shielded from the elements while receiving proper ventilation and cooling.
Plasmas should always be transported in an upright position-never rested flat-and always remember that they are fragile and as much care as possible must be taken.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Nate
10th July 2010
I have Vizio 42" plasma that has an orange and blue vertical stripe that has appears on the screen. How can I make it disappear?
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

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