FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Planum Boreum
Viking mosaic of Planum Boreale and surrounds.
Enlarge
Viking mosaic of Planum Boreale and surrounds.

Planum Boreum (Latin: "the northern plain") is the northern polar plain on Mars. It extends northward from roughly 80°N. A flat and featureless plain called Vastitas Borealis extends for approximately 1500 kilometres in each direction. [1] In 1999, the Hubble Space Telescope captured a cyclonic storm in the region. The diameter of the storm was approximately 1750 km and featured an eye 320 kilometres in diameter. [2] North Polar region of Mars; http://photojournal. ... North Polar region of Mars; http://photojournal. ... Viking mission profile. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Vastitas Borealis is the largest lowland region of Mars. ... km redirects here. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble for his discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way and his creation of Hubbles Law, which calculates the rate at which the universe is expanding. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...

Contents




Ice cap

Planum Boreum is home to a permanent ice cap comprised mainly of water and carbon dioxide ice. It has a volume of 1.2 million cubic kilometres and covers an area equivalent to about 1.5 times the size of Texas. It has a radius of 600 km. The maximum depth of the cap is 3 km. [3] The spiral patterns in the ice cap were mostly carved by fierce winds and sublimation. [4] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Water is a tasteless, odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


The outer edges of the ice cap are contaminated with dust (0.15% by weight) and are comprised mostly of water ice. As one moves toward the pole, the water ice content decreases and is replaced by dry ice. The purity of the ice also increases. At the pole, the ice consists of essentially pure dry ice with little dust content and 30 parts per million of water ice. [5] Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


Features

Elevation map of the north pole. Note how Planum Boreum soars above the surrounding featureless terrain. Click to enlarge and for more info.
Elevation map of the north pole. Note how Planum Boreum soars above the surrounding featureless terrain. Click to enlarge and for more info.

The main feature of Planum Boreum is a large canyon called Chasma Boreale. It is up to 100 km wide and features scarps up to 2 km high. [6][7] For a comparison, the Grand Canyon is approximately 1.6 km deep in some places and 446 km long but only up to 24 km wide. Chasma Boreale cuts through polar deposits and ice, such as those present at Greenland. Image File history File links MolaNorthPole. ... Image File history File links MolaNorthPole. ... The Grand Canyon is a very colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in the U.S. state of Arizona. ...


Planum Boreum interfaces with Vastitas Borealis west of Chasma Boreale at an irregular scarp named Rupes Tenuis. This scarp reaches heights of up to 1 km. At other places, the interface is a collection of mesas and troughs.


Planum Boreum is surrounded by large fields of sand dunes spanning from 75°N to 85°N. These dune fields are named Olympia Undae, Abalos Undae and Hyperboreale Undae. Olympia Undae, by far the largest, covers from 100°E to 240°E. Abalos Undae covers from 261°E to 280°E and Hyperboreale Undae spans from 311°E to 341°E. [8] This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ...


See also


Planum Australe, taken by Mars Global Surveyor. ... Vastitas Borealis is the largest lowland region of Mars. ...


References

  1. ^ [1] and [2] give Vastitas Borealis starting at 54.7°N and Planum Boreum at 78.5°N. The radius of Mars is approximately 3400 km, so
  2. ^ Colossal Cyclone Swirls near Martian North Pole. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  3. ^ LASER PROVIDES FIRST 3-D VIEW OF MARS' NORTH POLE. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  4. ^ Martian 'wobbles' shift climate. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  5. ^ Spatial variability and composition of the seasonal north polar cap on Mars. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  6. ^ Fly over the Chasma Boreale at Martian north pole. European Space Agency. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  7. ^ Geologic Map of the Northern Plains of Mars. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2006-01-11.
  8. ^ USGS Astro: Search Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ...

External links

  • Fly over the Chasma Boreale at Martian north pole - courtesy of Mars Express
  • Geologic Map of the Northern Plains of Mars

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m