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Encyclopedia > Planter

A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. The term is most often used for plantings of trees and shrubs. The term tends also to be used for plantings maintained on economic bases other than that of subsistence farming.

Contents


Forestry

A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, USA; note the trees of uniform size and planted in straight lines, and the lack of diversity in the ground flora
A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, USA; note the trees of uniform size and planted in straight lines, and the lack of diversity in the ground flora

Instead of abandoning land after logging, silviculture seeks to regrow the forest as soon as possible. These plantations are typically grown as an even-aged monoculture for timber production. Plantations are also sometimes known as "man-made forests" or "tree farms", though this latter term also refers to specialist tree nurseries which produce the seedling trees used to create plantations. More generally, a plantation is forest land where trees are grown for commercial use, most often in a planted forest, but may also be in a naturally regenerated forest. In the United States, the term "Tree Farm" is a trademark of the American Tree Farm System, a third party verification system for certifying sustainable forestry. The American Tree Farm System dates back to 1941 as a program to improve forestry practices on privately owned forestlands. The term tree farm is also sometimes used to describe the sale of live trees for landscaping. A plantation in Washington, USA - US Forest Service photo [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Plantation Categories: Forest Service images ... A plantation in Washington, USA - US Forest Service photo [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Plantation Categories: Forest Service images ... Binomial name Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Loggers on break, c. ... Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ...

  • Plantations are usually monocultures. That is, the same species of tree is planted in rows across a given area, whereas a conventional forest would contain far more diverse tree species.
  • Plantations may include introduced trees not native to the area, including (in a few cases) unconventional types such as hybrid trees and genetically modified trees. Since the primary interest in plantations is to produce wood or pulp, the types of trees found in plantations are those that are best-suited to industrial applications. For example, pine, spruce and eucalyptus are widely used because of their fast growth rate, and are good for paper and timber production.
  • Plantations are always young forests. Typically, trees grown in plantations are harvested after 10 to 60 years, rarely up to 120 years. This means that the forests produced by plantations do not contain the type of growth, soil or wildlife typical of old-growth natural forest ecosystems. Most conspicuous is the absence of decaying dead wood, a very important part of natural forest ecosystems.

Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser and International Paper in the United States). Christmas trees are often grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeastern Asia, rubber, oil palm, and more recently teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. In biology, hybrid has three meanings. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of the firefly, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... WOOD is a pair of radio stations in Grand Rapids, Michigan owned by Clear Channel on the frequencies of 1300 AM and 105. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... Species About 115. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Species About 700; see the List of Eucalyptus species Wikispecies has information related to: Eucalyptus hello gemma ere wuu2????Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of trees (rarely shrubs), the members of which dominate the tree flora of Australia. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a small degree by fiber entanglement. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... The Forestry Commission is a government body in the United Kingdom. ... Weyerhaeuser Company (NYSE: WY) is a multinational corporation in the pulp and paper industry. ... International Paper NYSE: IP is an American pulp and paper company, the largest pulp and paper company in the world and the largest private owner of timberland in the United States. ... A Christmas tree in a Danish home. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), also called jati is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ...


Growth cycle

  • In the first year, the ground is prepared (usually by some combination of buring, herbicide spraying, and/or ploughing) and then saplings are planted by human crew or by machine. The saplings are usually obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specialize in selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains.
  • In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, and may be dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established.
  • After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, and tree growth is slowing due to competition. This stage is termed 'pole stage'. When competition does become too intense (for pine trees, when the live crown is less than a third of the tree's total height), it is time to thin out the section. There are several methods for thinning, but were topography permits, the most popular is 'row-thinning', where every third or fourth or fifth row of trees is removed, usually with a harvester. Many trees are removed, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again. The removed trees are delimbed, loaded onto trucks, and sent to a mill. A typical pole stage plantation tree is 7-30 cm in diameter at breast height [DBH]. Such trees are sometimes not suitable for lumber, but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard, and as chips for Oriented Strand Board [OSB].
  • As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, and the thinning process is repeated. Depending on the climate and species, trees at this age may be thick enough for lumber milling; if not, they are again used as pulp and chips.
  • Around year 10-60 the plantation is now mature and (in economic terms) is falling off the back side of its growth curve. That is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per acre per year, and so is ready for the final harvest. All remaining trees are felled, delimbed, and taken to be processed.
  • The ground is cleared, and the cycle is repeated.

Some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not significantly harm the mature trees. Species About 115. ... Thinning is in forestry a type of selective cutting primarily undertaken to make the forest more profitable in an upcoming final felling. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Harvester in the Black Forest Harvester, type of heavy vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. ... Loggers on break, c. ... Delimbing is the process of removing side branches from the stem of a felled tree. ... Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ... Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction. ... A Prescribed burn is a forest management technique of purposeful burning to eliminate buildup of flammable forest products. ...


Industrial plantations

These are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species. These species can be exotic or indigenous. Industrial plantations are usually large-scale.


Wood production on a tree plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests. While forests managed for wood production commonly yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of tropical species commonly yield between 5 and 20 cubic meters per hectare annually; A eucalyptus plantation can have growth rates of 25 cubic meter per hectare per year, or higher. Worldwide, forest plantations now amount to less than 5% of total forested area, but account for 20% of current world wood production.


In the 1970s, Brazil began to establish high-yield, intensively managed, short rotation plantations. These types of plantations are sometimes called fast-wood plantations and often managed on a short-rotation basis, as little as 5 to 15 years. They are becoming more widespread in South America, Asia and other areas. The environmental and social impacts of this type of plantation has caused them to become controversial, In Indonesia for example large multi-national pulp companies have harvested large areas of natural forest without regard for regeneration. From 1980 to 2000, about 50% of the 1.4 million hectares of pulpwood plantations in Indonesia have been established on what was formerly natural forest land. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


The replacement of natural forest with tree plantations has also caused social problems. In some countries, again, notably Indonesia, conversions of natural forest are made by with little regard for rights of the local people. Plantations established purely for the production of fiber provide a much narrower range of services then the original natural forest for the local people. India has sought to limit this damage by limiting the amount of land owned by one entity and, as a result, smaller plantations are owned by local farmers who then sell the wood to larger companies. Some large environmental organizations are critical of these high-yield plantations and are running an anti-plantation campaign, notably the Rainforest Action Network and Greenpeace. The Rainforest Action Nework (RAN) is an environmental organisation based in San Francisco, California, USA. The organization was founded by Randy Hayes in 1985. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ...


Farm or home plantations

Farm or home plantations are typically established for the production of lumber and fire wood for home use and sometimes for sale. Management may be less intensive than with Industrial plantations. In time, this type of plantation can become difficult to distinguish from naturally-regenerated forest.


Environmental plantations

These may be established for watershed or soil protection. There are established for erosion control, landslide stabilization and windbreaks. Such plantations are established to foster native species and promote forest regeneration on degraded lands as a tool of environmental restoration. Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ environmental movement. ...


Ecological impact

Probably the single most important factor a plantation has on the local environment is the site where the plantation is established. If natural forest is cleared for a planted forest then a reduction in biodiversity and loss of habitat will likely result. In some cases, their establishment may involve draining wetlands to replace mixed hardwoods that formerly predominated, with pine species. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood The term hardwood designates wood from angiosperm trees. ...


If a plantation is established on abandoned agriculture land, or highly degraded land, it could result in an increase in both habitat and biodiversity. A planted forest can be profitably established on lands that will not support agriculture or suffer from lack of natural regeneration.


The tree species used in a plantation is also an important factor. Where non-native varieties or species are grown, few of the native fauna are adapted to exploit these and further biodiversity loss occurs. However, even non-native tree species may serve as corridors for wildlife and act as a buffer for native forest, reducing edge effect. A wildlife corridor is the artificial joining of fragmented habitats. ... An edge effect is the effect of the juxtaposition of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. ...


Once a plantation is established, how it is managed becomes the important environmental factor. The single most important factor of management is the rotation period. Plantations harvested on longer rotation periods (30 years or more) can provide similar benefits of a naturally regenerated forest managed for wood production, on a similar rotation. This is especially true if native species are used. In the case of exotic species, the habitat can be improved significantly if the impact is mitigated by measures such as leaving blocks of native species in the plantation or retaining corridors of natural forest. In Brazil, similar measures are required by government regulations.


Plantations and natural forest loss

According to the FAO, about 7% of the natural closed forest being lost in the tropics is land being converted to plantation The remaining 93% of the loss is land being converted to agriculture and other uses. Worldwide, an estimated 15% of plantations in tropical countries are established on closed canopy natural forest. FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...


In the Kyoto Protocol, there are proposals encouraging the use of plantations to reduce carbon dioxide levels (though this idea is being challenged by some groups on the grounds that the sequestered CO2 is eventually released after harvest). Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Other types of plantation

Tea plantation in Cameron Highlands Malaysia
Enlarge
Tea plantation in Cameron Highlands Malaysia

Crops may be called plantation crops because of their association with a specific type of farming economy. Most of these involve a large landowner, raising crops with economic value rather than for subsistence, with a number of employees carrying out the work. Often it referred to crops newly introduced to a region. In past times it has been associated with slavery, indentured labour, and other economic models of high inequity. However, arable and dairy farming are both usually (but not always) excluded from such definitions. A comparable economic structure in antiquity was the latifundia that produced commercial quantities of olive oil or wine, for export. Tea plantation in Malaysia (Cameron Hightand). ... Tea plantation in Malaysia (Cameron Hightand). ... Cameron Highland situated in Pahang Cameron Highlands is a highland region located about 20 km east of Ipoh and about 150km north of Kuala Lumpur in Pahang, Malaysia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... The latifundia [Latin lātifundium: lātus, spacious + fundus, farm, estate] of Roman history were great landed estates, specialising in agriculture destined for export: grain, olive oil or wine. ... A bottle of olive oil. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ...


High value food crops

Plantings of a number of trees or shrubs grown for food or beverage, including tea, coffee, and cacao are generally called plantations. Some spice and high value crops grown from permanent perennial stock, such as black pepper may also be so called. When the holding belongs to a single individual, that person may be called a planter. Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. For the town in French Guiana see Cacao, French Guiana Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Rubber

Plantings of para rubber, the tree Hevea brasiliensis, are usually called plantations. Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ...


Orchards

Fruit orchards are sometimes considered to be plantations. An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ...


Arable crops

These include tobacco, sugarcane, pineapple, and cotton, especially in historical usage. Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Binomial name Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ...


Before the rise of cotton in the American South, indigo and rice were also sometimes called plantation crops. Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild...


Slavery, para-slavery and plantations

Main articles: Plantation economy and Slavery
Early 20th century USA photo: "Negroes picking cotton on a plantation in the South"
Early 20th century USA photo: "Negroes picking cotton on a plantation in the South"

Slave labour was used extensively to work on early plantations (such as cotton plantations) in the southern states of the United States, and, in modern times, low wages paid to plantation workers are still a part of plantation profitability in some areas with minimal employee-protection legislation. Sugarcane plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil, worked by slave labour, are perhaps the best example of the plantation system at its height. This article is in need of attention. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Download high resolution version (600x762, 166 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (600x762, 166 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe; Dutch: Caraïben; Portuguese: Caribe or Caraíbas) is a region of the Americas consisting of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (most of which enclose the sea), and the surrounding coasts. ...


In more recent times, overt slavery has been replaced by para-slavery or slavery-in-kind, including the sharecropping system. At its most extreme, workers are in debt bondage: they must work to pay off a debt at such punitive interest rates that it may never be paid off. Others work unreasonably long hours and are paid subsistence wages that (in practice) may only be spent in the company shop. Sharecropping is a system of farming in which farmers who do not own the land work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crop production. ... Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off a familys loans via the labor of family members or heirs. ...


Related matters

In the U.S. South, plantations were centered on a plantation house, the residence of the owner, where important business was conducted. The plantations engendered their own characteristic architecture; see e.g. Berkeley Plantation. The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Berkeley Plantation, one of the first great estates in America, comprises about 100 acres (0. ...


In Brazil, a sugarcane plantation was termed an engenho ("engine") and a 17th-century English usage for organized colonial production was "factory". Such colonial social and economic structures are discussed at Plantation economy. This article is in need of attention. ...


See also

This article is in need of attention. ...

External links

  • Earth Repair Network Advocates plantation forestry.
  • Pulping the South Criticism of industrial plantations.
  • Tea Plantation in Cameron Highlands Malaysia

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