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Encyclopedia > Plantation (settlement or colony)

Plantation was an early method of colonization in which settlers were 'planted' abroad in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base. Such plantations were also frequently intended to promote civility and Christianity among nearby indigenous peoples, as can be seen both in James I's Irish Plantations, and in the early East-Coast plantations in America (such as that at Roanoke). Although the term 'planter' to refer to a settler first appears as early as the 16th-century, the earliest true colonial 'plantation' is usually agreed to be that of the Plantation of Ulster. // This article is about crop plantations. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Colony of Roanoke was the first English colony in the New World, founded at Roanoke Island. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ...


The greatest use of the plantation economy was in the 18th century, especially the sugar plantations in the Caribbean that depended on slave labor. Most of that time Britain prospered as the top slaving nation in the Atlantic world. Over 2,500,000 slaves were transported to the Caribbean plantations between 1690 and 1807. Because slave life was so harsh on these plantations and slaves died without reproducing themselves, a constant supply of new slaves from Africa was required to maintain the plantation economy. What has been called a "natural decrease" among the slave population continued for two centuries. In this sense, a plantation represented a killing machine.[1] In 1789 Saint-Domingue, producer of 40 percent of the world's sugar, was the most valuable colony on earth. Slaves outnumbered whites and coloreds by at least eight to one but provided all of the manual labor. Slave labor created a dramatic change in the eating habits in Britons, one of the greatest in human history. In 1700, Britons used an average of four pounds of sugar a year, but by 1800 they used an average of 16 pounds a year.[1] Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ...

Contents

Ireland

The Plantations of Ireland were an instrument of retribution and colonization after several Irish rebellions against English rule throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The largest settlement, the Plantation of Ulster, was established following the rebellion of Hugh Roe O'Donnell and Hugh O'Neill in the Nine Years' War (1594-1603). The plantations were seen as part of process that would Anglicise Ireland, as well as a means of maintaining English political control in Ireland. Lands were seized from the native landowners both as punishment for rebellion and as punishment for remaining Catholic rather than conforming to the (Protestant) established church. These lands were given to English (and later, Scottish) Protestant settlers who would be loyal to the Crown and keep the native Irish under control. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland involved the seizure of land owned by the native Irish and granting of it to colonists (planters) from Britain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... Red Hugh ODonnell (Aodh Rua Ó Domhnaill in Irish) (1572- 10 September 1602) was an Irish lord who led a rebellion against English government in Ireland from 1593 and helped to lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1595 to 1603. ... Hugh ONeill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c. ... The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... This article is about the country. ...


Scottish highlands

During the Middle Ages the Scottish government planted Scots-speaking lowland merchant colonies in the Gaidhealtachd (the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland), for example at Campbeltown and Cromarty. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Politics of Scotland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east... The Gaidhealtachd is the region in Scotland and Nova Scotia where Scottish Gaelic is spoken as the native language by most or some part of the population. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the country. ... The Royal Burgh of Campbeltown is a burgh in Argyll and Bute, Scotland, located by Campbeltown Loch on the Kintyre peninsula. ... Location within the British Isles The Royal Burgh of Cromarty (Cromba in Gaelic) is a burgh in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, Scotland. ...


North America

Plantation colonies

Maryland, Virginia Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


During the 17h century, the Chesapeake bay area was immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation. Ships annually hauled 1.5 million pounds (680,000 kilograms) of tobacco out to the Bay by the 1630s, and about 40 million pounds (18 million kilograms) by the end of the century. Farmers responded to the falling prices by growing even more tobacco. The labor supply from Africa (slaves) was expensive, and therefore they had to rely on much cheaper indentured servants. Slave redirects here. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ...


European colonists didn't regard the land as belonging the Native Americans, so the Plantations of New England were seen as occupying virgin land. The first English settlement, the Plymouth Plantation, was to create a new beginning for English dissenters and so essentially utopian. Later plantations were more overtly entrepreneurial: European investors funded colonists in the expectation of good returns. Example include the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the New Haven Colony, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (now New York) and the French Nouvelle Caledonie in Canada. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The Plantations of New England were a series of colonisation efforts by Europeans on the east coast of North America, a land that they called New England. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... The New Haven Colony was an English colonial venture in Connecticut in North America from 1637 to 1662. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... Map of New Caledonia New Caledonia (French: Nouvelle-Calédonie; popular names: Kanaky, Le caillou) is a French territory of 18,575 km² (7,172 sq. ...


In the state of Maine, the old meaning has been preserved in the name of local government jurisdictions. It is also preserved in the full name of Rhode Island, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... “RI” redirects here. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Rogozinski, Jan (1999). A Brief History of the Caribbean, Revised, New York: Facts on File, Inc., pp 110, 126, 141-142. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2. 

References

Albert Galloway Keller, 1874-1956, was a sociologist, author, and student and colleague of William Graham Sumner. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plantation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2205 words)
Plantations are also sometimes known as "man-made forests" or "tree farms", though this latter term also refers to specialist tree nurseries which produce the seedling trees used to create plantations.
Plantations may include introduced trees not native to the area, including (in a few cases) unconventional types such as hybrid trees and genetically modified trees.
Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser and International Paper in the United States).
Plantation (settlement or colony) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (438 words)
The Plantations of Ireland were an instrument of retribution and colonisation after several Irish rebellions throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.
The largest settlement, the Plantation of Ulster followed the rebellion of Hugh Roe O'Donnell and Hugh O'Neill in the Nine Years War (Ireland) 1594-1603.
Lands were seized from the native landowners both as punishment for rebellion and as punishment for remaining Catholic and not conforming to the state's Protestant religion and given to English (and later, Scottish) Protestant settlers who would be loyal to the Crown and keep the disloyal native Irish under control.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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