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Encyclopedia > Plant physiology
A germination rate experiment
A germination rate experiment

Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants.[1] Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, and molecular biology. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Kiemtafel) germination table; File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Kiemtafel) germination table; File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration, both part of plant water relations, are studied by plant physiologists. The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... It has been suggested that chemotropism be merged into this article or section. ... Nastic Responses. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... Photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development. ... The Circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ...

Contents

Scope

The field of plant physiology includes the study of all the internal activities of plants—those chemical and physical processes associated with life as they occur in plants. This includes study at many levels of scale of size and time. At the smallest scale are molecular interactions of photosynthesis and internal diffusion of water, minerals, and nutrients. At the largest scale are the processes of plant development, seasonality, dormancy, and reproductive control. Major subdisciplines of plant physiology include phytochemistry (the study of the biochemistry of plants) and phytopathology (the study of disease in plants). The scope of plant physiology as a discipline may be divided into several major areas of research. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... This article is about the medical term. ...

Five key areas of study within plant physiology.
Five key areas of study within plant physiology.

First, the study of phytochemistry (plant chemistry) is included within the domain of plant physiology. In order to function and survive, plants produce a wide array of chemical compounds not found in other organisms. Photosynthesis requires a large array of pigments, enzymes, and other compounds to function. Because they cannot move, plants must also defend themselves chemically from herbivores, pathogens and competition from other plants. They do this by producing toxins and foul-tasting or smelling chemicals. Other compounds defend plants against disease, permit survival during drought, and prepare plants for dormancy. While other compounds are used to attract pollinators or herbivores to spread ripe seeds. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 766 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 626 pixels, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 766 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 626 pixels, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ...


Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have a number of features that distinguish them from cells of animals, and which lead to major differences in the way that plant life behaves and responds differently from animal life. For example, plant cells have a cell wall which restricts the shape of plant cells and thereby limits the flexibility and mobility of plants. Plant cells also contain chlorophyll, a chemical compound that interacts with light in a way that enables plants to manufacture their own nutrients rather than consuming other living things as animals do. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ...


Thirdly, plant physiology deals with interactions between cells, tissues, and organs within a plant. Different cells and tissues are physically and chemically specialized to perform different functions. Roots and rhizoids function to anchor the plant and acquire minerals in the soil. Leaves function to catch light in order to manufacture nutrients. For both of these organs to remain living, the minerals acquired by the roots must be transported to the leaves and the nutrients manufactured in the leaves must be transported to the roots. Plants have developed a number of means by which this transport may occur, such as vascular tissue, and the functioning of the various modes of transport is studied by plant physiologists. Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Rhizoids, in fungi, are small branching hyphae that grow downwards from the stolons that anchor the fungus. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ...


Fourthly, plant physiologists study the ways that plants control or regulate internal functions. Like animals, plants produce chemicals called hormones which are produced in one part of the plant to signal cells in another part of the plant to respond. Many flowering plants bloom at the appropriate time because of light-sensitive compounds that respond to the length of the night, a phenomenon known as photoperiodism. The ripening of fruit and loss of leaves in the winter are controlled in part by the production of the gas ethylene by the plant. Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...


Finally, plant physiology includes the study of how plants respond to conditions and variation in the environment, a field known as environmental physiology. Stress from water loss, changes in air chemistry, or crowding by other plants can lead to changes in the way a plant functions. These changes may be affected by genetic, chemical, and physical factors.


Biochemistry of plants

Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree.
Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree.
Main article: Phytochemistry

The list of simple elements of which plants are primarily constructed—carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, phosphorous, etc.—is not different from similar lists for animals, fungi, or even bacteria. The fundamental atomic components of plants are the same as for all life; only the details of the way in which they are assembled differs. Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 527 KB)Latex dripping out a rubber tree. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 527 KB)Latex dripping out a rubber tree. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Rubber tapping in Kerala Rubber tapping is the process by which rubber is gathered. ... Latex being collected from a wounded rubber tree The Pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Phosphite is a polyatomic ion with the formula: PO33-. The archaic name for phosphite was phosphorous, not to be confused with phosphorus. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Despite this underlying similarity, plants produce a vast array of chemical compounds with unusual properties which they use to cope with their environment. Pigments are used by plants to absorb or detect light, and are extracted by humans for use in dyes. Other plant products may be used for the manufacture of commercially important rubber or biofuel. Perhaps the most celebrated compounds from plants are those with pharmacological activity, such as salicylic acid (aspirin), morphine, and digitalis. Drug companies spend billions of dollars each year researching plant compounds for potential medicinal benefits. Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... This article is about the drug. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business licensed to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ...


Constituent elements

Further information: Plant nutrition

Plants require some nutrients, such as carbon and nitrogen, in large quantities to survive. Such nutrients are termed macronutrients, where the prefix macro- (large) refers to the quantity needed, not the size of the nutrient particles themselves. Other nutrients, called micronutrients, are required only in trace amounts for plants to remain healthy. Such micronutrients are usually absorbed as ions dissolved in water taken from the soil, though carnivorous plants acquire some of their micronutrients from captured prey. Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... A macronutrient in ecology is an essential chemical element needed in large quantities by all living things in order to function normally. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ...


The following tables list element nutrients essential to plants. Uses within plants are generalized. The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...

Macronutrients. (Necessary in large quantities)
Element Form of uptake Notes
Nitrogen NO3, NH4+ Nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, etc.
Oxygen O2 H2O Various organic compounds
Carbon CO2 Various organic compounds
Hydrogen H2O Various organic compounds
Potassium K+ Cofactor in protein synthesis, water balance, etc.
Calcium Ca2+ Membrane synthesis and stabilization
Magnesium Mg2+ Element essential for chlorophyll
Phosphorus H2PO4 Nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP
Sulfur SO42– Constituent of proteins and coenzymes
Micronutrients. (Necessary in small quantities)
Element Form of uptake Notes
Chlorine Cl- Photosystem II and stomata function
Iron Fe2+, Fe3+ Chorophyll formation
Boron HBO3 Crosslinking pectin
Manganese Mn2+ Activity of some enzymes
Zinc Zn2+ Involved in the synthesis of enzymes and chlorophyll
Copper Cu+ Enzymes for lignin synthesis
Molybdenum MoO42- Nitrogen fixation, reduction of nitrates
Nickel Ni2+ Enzymatic cofactor in the metabolism of nitrogen compunds

General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ...

Pigments

Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule.
Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule.
Anthocyanin gives these pansies their dark purple pigmentation.
Anthocyanin gives these pansies their dark purple pigmentation.
Main article: Biological pigment

Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments include a variety of different kinds of molecules, including porphyrins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may be used by the plant to power chemical reactions, while the reflected wavelengths of light determine the color the pigment will appear to the eye. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x694, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorophyll ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x694, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorophyll ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 1493 KB) Summary Orange and violet pansies. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 1493 KB) Summary Orange and violet pansies. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Binomial name Viola tricolor hortensis Viola * wittrockiana The Pansy or Pansy Violet is a cultivated garden flower. ... The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The term reflection (also spelt reflexion) can refer to several different concepts: In mathematics, reflection is the transformation of a space. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Colo has several meanings: the name of a gorilla; see Colo (gorilla) short for colocation centre short for co-locate (verb) the name of a volcano in Indonesia; see Colo (volcano) the name of a river in Australia; see Colo River the name of a city; see Colo, Iowa This...


Chlorophyll is the primary pigment in plants; it is a porphyrin that absorbs red and blue wavelengths of light while reflecting green. It is the presence and relative abundance of chlorophyll that gives plants their green color. All land plants and green algae possess two forms of this pigment: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Kelps, diatoms, and other photosynthetic heterokonts contain chlorophyll c instead of b, while red algae possess only chlorophyll a. All chlorophylls serve as the primary means plants use to intercept light in order to fuel photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Bolidophyceae Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes containing about 10,500... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5,000–6,000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Carotenoids are red, orange, or yellow tetraterpenoids. They function as accessory pigments in plants, helping to fuel photosynthesis by gathering wavelengths of light not readily absorbed by chlorophyll. The most familiar carotenoids are carotene (an orange pigment found in carrots), lutein (a yellow pigment found in fruits and vegetables), and lycopene (the red pigment responsible for the color of tomatoes). Carotenoids have been shown to act as antioxidants and to promote healthy eyesight in humans. The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ...


Anthocyanins (literally "flower blue") are water-soluble flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing color in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits, though not always in sufficient quantities to be noticeable. Anthocyanins are most visible in the petals of flowers, where they may make up as much as 30% of the dry weight of the tissue.[2] They are also responsible for the purple color seen on the underside of tropical shade plants such as Tradescantia zebrina; in these plants, the anthocyanin catches light that has passed through the leaf and reflects it back towards regions bearing chlorophyll, in order to maximize the use of available light. Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name (Rose) D. Hunt Tradescantia zebrina, formerly known as Zebrina pendula, is a Tradescantia species known as Wandering Jew (a common name which it shares with Tradescantia fluminensis and Tradescantia pallida). ...


Betalains are red or yellow pigments. Like anthocyanins they are water-soluble, but unlike anthocyanins they are indole-derived compounds synthesized from tyrosine. This class of pigments is found only in the Caryophyllales (including cactus and amaranth), and never co-occur in plants with anthocyanins. Betalains are responsible for the deep red color of beets, and are used commercially as food-coloring agents. Plant physiologists are uncertain of the function that betalains have in plants which possess them, but there is some preliminary evidence that they may have fungicidal properties.[3] The red color of beets comes from betalain pigments. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Families See text. ... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ...


Signals and regulators

Lack of the hormone auxin causes abnormal growth (right).
Lack of the hormone auxin causes abnormal growth (right).

Plants produce hormones and other growth regulators which act to signal a physiological response in their tissues. They also produce compounds such as phytochrome that are sensitive to light and which serve to trigger growth or development in response to environmental signals. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 376 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (884 × 1407 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 376 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (884 × 1407 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ...


Plant hormones

Main article: Plant hormone

Plant hormones, also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) or phytohormones, are chemicals that regulate a plant's growth. According to a standard animal definition, hormones are signal molecules produced at specific locations, that occur in very low concentrations, and cause altered processes in target cells at other locations. Unlike animals, plants lack specific hormone-producing tissues or organs. Plant hormones are often not transported to other parts of the plant and production is not limited to specific locations. Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


Plant hormones are chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development and differentiation of cells and tissues. Hormones are vital to plant growth; effecting processes in plants from flowering to seed development, dormancy, and germination. They regulate which tissues grow upwards and which grow downwards, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, as well as leaf abscission and even plant death. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Abscission (from ab- away from, and scission cutting or severing) is the shedding of a body part. ...


The most important plant hormones are abscissic acid (ABA), auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins, though there are many other substances that serve to regulate plant physiology. Abscisic Acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II and dormin, is a plant hormone. ... IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... GA1 GA3 ent-Gibberellane ent-Kauren Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in promotion of stem elongation, mobilization of food reserves in seeds and other processes. ... Zeatin is named after the genera of corn, Zea as it was first discovered in corn. ...


Photomorphogenesis

Main article: Photomorphogenesis

While most people know that light is important for photosynthesis in plants, few realize that plant sensitivity to light plays a role in the control of plant structural development (morphogenesis). The use of light to control structural development is called photomorphogenesis, and is dependent upon the presence of specialized photoreceptors, which are chemical pigments capable of absorbing specific wavelengths of light. Photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ...


Plants use four kinds of photoreceptors:[1] phytochrome, cryptochrome, a UV-B photoreceptor, and protochlorophyllide a. The first two of these, phytochrome and cryptochrome, are photoreceptor proteins, complex molecular structures formed by joining a protein with a light-sensitive pigment. Cryptochrome is also known as the UV-A photoreceptor, because it absorbs ultraviolet light in the long wave "A" region. The UV-B receptor is one or more compounds that have yet to be identified with certainty, though some evidence suggests carotene or riboflavin as candidates.[4] Protochlorophyllide a, as its name suggests, is a chemical precursor of chlorophyll. Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ... Cryptochrome is a name used historically for the blue light photoreceptors of plants. ... This article is about molecular photoreceptors. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


The most studied of the photoreceptors in plants is phytochrome. It is sensitive to light in the red and far-red region of the visible spectrum. Many flowering plants use it to regulate the time of flowering based on the length of day and night (photoperiodism) and to set circadian rhythms. It also regulates other responses including the germination of seeds, elongation of seedlings, the size, shape and number of leaves, the synthesis of chlorophyll, and the straightening of the epicotyl or hypocotyl hook of dicot seedlings. Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... Far-red light is light at the extreme red end of the visible spectrum, between red and infra-red light. ... Visible light redirects here. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... In plant physiology, the epicotyl is the embryonic shoot above the cotyledons. ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ...


Photoperiodism

The poinsettia is a short-day plant, requiring two months of long nights prior to blooming.
The poinsettia is a short-day plant, requiring two months of long nights prior to blooming.
Main article: Photoperiodism

Many flowering plants use the pigment phytochrome to sense seasonal changes in day length, which they take as signals to flower. This sensitivity to day length is termed photoperiodism. Broadly speaking, flowering plants can be classified as long day plants, short day plants, or day neutral plants, depending on thir particular response to changes in day length. Long day plants require a certain minimum length of daylight to initiate flowering, so these plants flower in the spring or summer. Conversely, short day plants will flower when the length of daylight falls below a certain critical level. Day neutral plants do not initiate flowering based on photoperiodism, though some may use temperature sensitivity (vernalization) instead. Poinsettia 2 from http://www. ... Poinsettia 2 from http://www. ... Binomial name Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Although a short day plant cannot flower during the long days of summer, it is not actually the period of light exposure that limits flowering. Rather, a short day plant requires a minimal length of uninterrupted darkness in each 24 hour period (a short daylength) before floral development can begin. It has been determined experimentally that a short day plant (long night) will not flower if a flash of phytochrome activiting light is used on the plant during the night.


Plants make use of the phytochrome system to sense day length or photoperiod. This fact is utilized by florists and greenhouse gardeners to control and even induce flowering out of season, such as the Poinsettia. Floristry is most often understood as referring to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, rather than to the business of selling them. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... Binomial name Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ...


Environmental physiology

Phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by blue to UV light.[5]
Main article: Ecophysiology

Paradoxically, the subdiscipline of environmental physiology is on the one hand a recent field of study in plant ecology and on the other hand one of the oldest.[1] Environmental phyiology is the preferred name of the subdiscipline among plant physiologists, but it goes by a number of other names in the applied sciences. It is roughly synonymous with ecophysiology, crop ecology, horticulture, and agronomy. The particular name applied to the subdiscipline is specific to the viewpoint and goals of research. Whatever name is applied, it deals with the ways in which plants respond to their environment and so overlaps with the field of ecology. Download high resolution version (458x635, 39 KB)Arabidopsis thaliana Image from nl:Afbeelding:Zandraket. ... Download high resolution version (458x635, 39 KB)Arabidopsis thaliana Image from nl:Afbeelding:Zandraket. ... The Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) is regulated by blue to UV light (plantphys. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Ecophysiology or environmental physiology is a biological discipline which studies the adaptation of organisms physiology to environmental conditions. ... Ecophysiology or environmental physiology is a biological discipline which studies the adaptation of organisms physiology to environmental conditions. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Environmental physiologists examine plant response to physical factors such as radiation (including light and ultraviolet radiation), temperature, fire, and wind. Of particular importance are water relations and the stress of drought or inundation, exchange of gases with the atmosphere, as well as the cycling of nutrients such as nitrogen and carbon. For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


Environmental physiologists also examine plant response to biological factors. This includes not only negative interactions, such as competition, herbivory, disease, and parasitism, but also positive interactions, such as mutualism and pollination. Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


Tropisms and nastic movements

Main articles: Tropism and Nastic movement

Plants may respond both to directional and nondirectional stimuli. A response to a directional stimulus, such as gravity or sunlight, is called a tropism. A response to a nondirectional stimulus, such as temperature or humidity, is a nastic movement. It has been suggested that chemotropism be merged into this article or section. ... Nastic movements are rapid, reversible responses to non-directional stimuli (eg. ... Look up stimulus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ...


Tropisms in plants are the result of differential cell growth, in which the cells on one side of the plant elongate more than those on the other side, causing the part to bend toward the side with less growth. Among the common tropisms seen in plants is phototropism, the bending of the plant toward a source of light. Phototropism allows the plant to maximize light exposure in plants which require additional light for photosynthesis, or to minimize it in plants subjected to intense light and heat. Geotropism allows the roots of a plant to determine the direction of gravity and grow downwards. Tropisms generally result from an interaction between the environment and production of one or more plant hormones. It has been suggested that chemotropism be merged into this article or section. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) is regulated by blue to UV light (plantphys. ... // Gravitropism (or geotropism) is a turning or growth movement by a plant in response to gravity. ...


In contrast to tropisms, nastic movements result from changes in turgor pressure within plant tissues, and may occur rapidly. A familiar example is thigmonasty (response to touch) in the Venus fly trap, a carnivorous plant. The traps consist of modified leaf blades which bear sensitive trigger hairs. When the hairs are touched by an insect or other animal, the leaf folds shut. This mechanism allows the plant to trap and digest small insects for additional nutrients. Although the trap is rapidly shut by changes in internal cell pressures, the leaf must grow slowly in order to reset for a second opportunity to trap insects.[6] Nastic movements are rapid, reversible responses to non-directional stimuli (eg. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Thigmonasty or seismonasty is the nastic response of a plant or fungus to touch, heat or vibration. ... Binomial name Dionaea muscipula The Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a carnivorous plant. ... Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ...


Plant disease

Powdery mildew on crop leaves
Powdery mildew on crop leaves
Main article: Phytopathology

Economically, one of the most important areas of research in environmental physiology is that of phytopathology, the study of diseases in plants and the manner in which plants resist or cope with infection. Plant are susceptible to the same kinds of disease organisms as animals, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, as well as physical invasion by insects and roundworms. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ...


Because the biology of plants differs from animals, their symptoms and responses are quite different. In some cases, a plant can simply shed infected leaves or flowers to prevent to spread of disease, in a process called abscission. Most animals do not have this option as a means of controlling disease. Plant diseases organisms themselves also differ from those causing disease in animals because plants cannot usually spread infection through casual physical contact. Plant pathogens tend to spread via spores or are carried by animal vectors. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


One of the most important advances in the control of plant disease was the discovery of Bordeaux mixture in the nineteenth century. The mixture is the first known fungicide and is a combination of copper sulfate and lime. Application of the mixture served to inhibit the growth of downy mildew that threatened to seriously damage the French wine industry.[7] Bordeaux mixture is a combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime, invented in the vineyards of the Bordeaux region of France, and used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungus. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) is the most common copper salt, made by the action of sulfuric acid on the base copper oxide. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete that infect plants. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


History

Early history

Sir Francis Bacon published one of the first plant physiology experiments in 1627 in the book, Sylva Sylvarum. Bacon grew several terrestrial plants, including a rose, in water and concluded that soil was only needed to keep the plant upright. Jan Baptist van Helmont published what is considered the first quantitative experiment in plant physiology in 1648. He grew a willow tree for five years in a pot containing 200 pounds of oven-dry soil. The soil lost just two ounces of dry weight and van Helmont concluded that plants get all their weight from water, not soil. In 1699, John Woodward published experiments on growth of spearmint in different sources of water. He found that plants grew much better in water with soil added than in distilled water. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... PAKIS RULE Jan Baptist van Helmont. ... for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... PAKIS RULE Jan Baptist van Helmont. ... John Woodward (May 1, 1665 - April 25, 1728) was an English naturalist and geologist. ... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ) is a species of mint native to central and southern Europe, where it grows in wet soils. ...


Stephen Hales is considered the Father of Plant Physiology for the many experiments in the 1727 book[8]; though Julius von Sachs unified the pieces of plant physiology and put them together as a discipline. His Lehrbuch der Botanik was the plant physiology bible of its time.[9] Stephen Hales (September 17, 1677 - January 4, 1761) was an English physiologist, chemist and inventor. ... Julius von Sachs Julius von Sachs (October 2, 1832 - May 29, 1897), German botanist, was born in Breslau, Silesia. ...


Researchers discovered in the 1800s that plants absorb essential mineral nutrients as inorganic ions in water. In natural conditions, soil acts as a mineral nutrient reservoir but the soil itself is not essential to plant growth. When the mineral nutrients in the soil are dissolved in water, plant roots absorb nutrients readily, soil is no longer required for the plant to thrive. This observation is the basis for hydroponics, the growing of plants in a water solution rather than soil, which has become a standard technique in biological research, teaching lab exercises, crop production and as a hobby. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ...


Current research

One of the leading journals in the field is Plant Physiology, started in 1926. All its back issues are available online for free.[1] Many other journals often carry plant physiology articles, including Physiologia Plantarum, Journal of Experimental Botany, American Journal of Botany, Annals of Botany, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Plant Physiology (ISSN 00320889) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the physiology, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, genetics, biophysics, and environmental biology of plants. ... The American Journal of Botany (ISSN 00029122) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which includes research papers on all aspects of plant biology. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...


Economic applications

Food production

Further information: Agriculture and Horticulture

In horticulture and agriculture along with food science, plant physiology is an important topic relating to fruits, vegetables, and other consumable parts of plants. Topics studied include: climatic requirements, fruit drop, nutrition, ripening, fruit set. The production of food crops also hinges on the study of plant physiology covering such topics as Optimal planting and harvesting times and post harvest storage of plant products for human consumption and the production of secondary products like drugs and cosmetics. Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ...


See also

Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Salisbury, Frank B. & Cleon W. Ross, 1992. Plant physiology, 4th ed. (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing). ISBN 0-534-15162-0
  2. ^ Robinson, Trevor. 1963. The Organic Constituents of Higher Plants, page 183 (Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing).
  3. ^ Kimler, L. M. (1975). "Betanin, the red beet pigment, as an antifungal agent". Botanical Society of America, Abstracts of papers 36. 
  4. ^ Fosket, Donald E. (1994). Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach. San Diego: Academic Press, 498-509. ISBN 0-12-262430-0. 
  5. ^ http://www.plantphys.net/article.php?id=266 plantphys.net
  6. ^ Slack, Adrian. Carnivorous Plants, page 160. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press). ISBN 0-262-19186-5
  7. ^ Stern, Kingsley R., 1991. Introductory Plant Biology, 5th edition. page 309. (Chico, California: Wm. C. Brown Publishers). ISBN 0-697-09948-2
  8. ^ Hales, Stephen. 1727. Vegetable Staticks http://www.illustratedgarden.org/mobot/rarebooks/title.asp?relation=QK711H341727
  9. ^ Isely, Duane. "Julius von Sachs", pages 216-219 in One Hundred and One Dalmatians (Ames: Iowa State University Press). ISBN 0-8138-2498-2

Further reading

  • Lambers, H. (1998). Plant physiological ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-98326-0. 
  • Larcher, W. (2001). Physiological plant ecology, 4th, Springer. ISBN 3-540-43516-6. 
  • Salisbury, Frank B. & Ross, Cleon W. (1992). Plant physiology, 4th, Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-15162-0.

External links

Scientific journals


  Results from FactBites:
 
Category:Plant physiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (95 words)
Plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology of plants.
Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and floral inducation are studied by plant physiologists.
The main article for this category is Plant physiology.
Plant physiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (157 words)
In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants.
Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration are studied by plant physiologists.
Julius von Sachs unified the pieces of plant physiology and put them together as a discipline.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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