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Encyclopedia > Plant nutrition

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. There are several principles that apply to plant nutrition. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


Some elements are essential, meaning that the absence of a given mineral element will cause the plant to fail to complete its life cycle; that the element cannot be replaced by the presence of another element; and that the element is directly involved in plant metabolism (Arnon and Stout, 1939). However, this principle does not leave any room for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth. A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Plants require specific elements for growth and, in some cases, for reproduction.


Major nutrients include:

Minor Nutrients: For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...

These nutrients are further divided into the mobile and immobile nutrients. A plant will always supply more nutrients to its younger leaves than its older ones, so when nutrients are mobile, the lack of nutrients is first visible on older leaves. When a nutrient is less mobile, the younger leaves suffer because the nutrient does not move up to them but stays lower in the older leaves. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are mobile nutrients, while the others have varying degrees of mobility. Concentration of ppm (parts per million) represents the dry weight of a representative plant. Fe redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...

Contents

Functions of essential nutrients

Each of these nutrients is used in a different place for a different essential function.


Carbon

Carbon is what most of the plant is made of. It forms the backbone of many plant biomolecules, including starches and cellulose. Carbon is fixed through photosynthesis from the carbon dioxide in the air and is a part of the carbohydrates that store energy in the plant.

A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

Hydrogen

Hydrogen also is necessary for building sugars and building the plant. It is obtained from air and liquid water.

Oxygen

Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process of generating energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via the consumption of sugars made in photosynthesis. Oxygen gas is produced as a by-product from this reaction.

Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is important in plant bioenergetics. As a component of ATP, phosphorus is needed for the conversion of light energy to chemical energy (ATP) during photosynthesis. Phosphorus can also be used to modify the activity of various enzymes by phosphorylation, and can be used for cell signalling. Since ATP can be used for the biosynthesis of many plant biomolecules, phosphorus is important for plant growth and flower/seed formation.

This article is about the study of energy transformation in Biology and related subjects. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into signal transduction. ... Biosynthesis is a phenomenon where chemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Potassium

Potassium regulates the opening and closing of the stoma by a potassium ion pump. Since stomata are important in water regulation, potassium reduces water loss from the leaves and increases drought tolerance. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis.

This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... A Potassium starved leaf. ...

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is an essential component of all proteins, and as a part of DNA, it is essential for growth and reproduction as well. Nitrogen deficiency most often results in stunting.

The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Nitrogen (N) deficiency in plants can occur when woody material such as sawdust is added to the soil. ...

Sulphur

Sulfur produces energy in plants, which is important to growth.

Calcium

Calcium regulates transport of other nutrients into the plant. Calcium deficiency results in stunting.

Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a common disorder of plants on acidic soils, but more usually caused by unavailability rather than a shortage. ...

Magnesium

Magnesium is an important part of chlorophyll, a critical plant pigment important in photosynthesis. It is important in the production of ATP through its role as an enzyme cofactor. There are many other biological roles for magnesium-- see Magnesium in biological systems for more information. Magnesium deficiency can result in interveinal chlorosis.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a plant disorder. ... In botany, Chlorosis is a condition in which plant foliage produces insufficient chlorophyll. ...

Iron

Iron is necessary for photosynthesis and is present as an enzyme cofactor in plants. Iron deficiency can result in interveinal chlorosis and necrosis.

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a plant disorder also known as ‘lime-induced chlorosis’. A deficiency in the soil is rare. ... In botany, Chlorosis is a condition in which plant foliage produces insufficient chlorophyll. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a cofactor to enzymes important in building amino acids.


Boron

Boron is important in sugar transport, cell division, and synthesizing certain enzymes. Boron deficiency causes necrosis in young leaves and stunting.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Boron (B) deficiency is a rare disorder affecting plants growing above a granite bedrock, which is low in boron. ...

Copper

Copper is important for photosynthesis. Symptoms for copper deficiency include chlorosis.

Manganese

Manganese is necessary for building the chloroplasts. Manganese deficiency may result in coloration abnormalities, such as discolored spots on the foliage.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a plant disorder that is often confused with, and occurs with, iron deficiency. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...

Zinc

Zinc is required in a large number of enzymes and plays an essential role in DNA transcription. A typical symptom of zinc deficiency is the stunted growth of leaves, commonly known as "little leaf" and is caused by the oxidative degradation of the growth hormone auxin

IAA appears to be the most active auxin in plant growth. ...

Nickel

Nickel is required in a nitrogen metabolism, however the requirement is vague in all but a very few select plants.

Additional elements include silicon, also used only in a few select plants. Cobalt has proven to be beneficial to at least some plants, but is essential in others, such as legumes where it is required for nitrogen fixation. Vanadium may be required by some plants, but at very low concentrations. It may also be substituting for molybdenum. Selenium and sodium may also be beneficial. Sodium can replace potassium's regulation of stomatal opening and closing. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ...


Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. Elements present at low levels may demonstrate deficiency, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Further, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice-versa. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis. For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


See also

Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Micronutrients are essential nutrients only needed by the human body in small quantities for it to fuction normally. ...

External links

  • Journal of Plant Nutrition

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plant Nutrition & Nutrients K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects (3010 words)
Fertilizer studies are based on careful analysis of plant needs and are carried on in all parts of the world where plants are grown for food and industry.
For example, if the fertilizer package reads (15-3-3), the first number is the percentage of nitrogen for plant leaf growth, the second number is the percentage of phosphate for fruit or flower growth, and the third number is the percentage of potash (potassium carbonate) for the root growth.
Calcium: is needed in the plant to promote early root formation and is responsible for the cementing material between cells of the plant for growth.
WHAT IS PLANT NUTRITION? (2302 words)
Plants use inorganic minerals for nutrition, whether grown in the field or in a container.
Plant nutrition is a term that takes into account the interrelationships of mineral elements in the soil or soilless solution as well as their role in plant growth.
A more holistic approach to plant nutrition would not be limited to nutrients essential to survival but would include mineral elements at levels beneficial for optimum growth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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