FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Plant defense against herbivory
Poison ivy produces urushiol to protect the plant from herbivores. In humans this chemical produces an allergic skin rash, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.
(Foxglove) produce several deadly chemicals, namely cardiac and steroidal glycosides. Ingestion can cause nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, convulsions, or death.

Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) includes a range of adaptations evolved by plants that improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... For information on urushiol poisoning, see Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1006 KB) Pictures from Longwood Gardens taken by Raul654 On May 1, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1006 KB) Pictures from Longwood Gardens taken by Raul654 On May 1, 2005. ... Species Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis lanata Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis purpurea Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous biennials, perennials and shrubs in the foxglove family Scrophulariaceae. ... Cardiac glycosides are drugs used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... u fuck in ua ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ...


There are four basic strategies plants use to reduce damage by herbivores. One strategy is to escape or avoid herbivores in time or in place, for example by growing in a location where plants are not easily found or accessed by herbivores or by repelling herbivores chemically (also termed non-preference or antixenosis). Another approach is the plant tolerates herbivores, by diverting the herbivore to eat non-essential parts of the plant, or developing an enhanced ability to recover from the damage caused by herbivory. Some plants encourage the presence of natural enemies of herbivores, which in turn protect the plant from herbivores. Finally, plants protect themselves by confrontation; the use of chemical or mechanical defenses, such as toxins that kill herbivores or reduce plant digestibility (also called antibiosis).[1] These defenses can either be constitutive, always present in the plant, or induced, produced in reaction to damage or stress caused by herbivores. This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ...


Historically, insects have been the most significant herbivores, and the evolution of land plants is closely associated with the evolution of insects. While most plant defenses are directed against insects, others defenses have evolved that are aimed at vertebrate herbivores, such as birds and mammals. The study of plant defenses against herbivory is important, not only from an evolutionary view point, but also in the direct impact that these defenses have on agriculture, including human and livestock food sources, as well as the in the search for plants of medical importance. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...

Contents

Evolution

Time line of plant evolution and the beginnings of different modes of insect herbivory

The earliest land plants evolved from aquatic plants around 440 mya in the Ordovician and Silurian periods. These early land plants were bryophytes that are related to mosses. They had no vascular system and required free water for their reproduction. Vascular plants appeared later and their diversification began in the Devonian era (about 400 mya). Their reduced dependence on water resulted from adaptations such as protective coatings to reduce evaporation from their tissues. Reproduction and dispersal of vascular plants in these dry conditions was achieved through the evolution of specialized seed structures. The diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) during the Cretaceous period is associated with the sudden burst of speciation in insects.[2] This diversification of insects represented a major selective force in plant evolution, and led to selection of plants that had defensive adaptations. Early insect herbivores were mandibulate and bit or chewed vegetation; but the evolution of vascular plants lead to the co-evolution of other forms of herbivory, such as sap-sucking, leaf mining, gall forming and nectar-feeding.[3] Image File history File links InsectPlantEvol. ... Image File history File links InsectPlantEvol. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... In arthropods, the mandible is either of a pair of arthropod mouthparts used for biting, cutting and holding food. ... Leaf miners are insect larvae that live within leaf tissue. ... Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ...


Co-evolution

A Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus caterpillar making a moat to block defensive chemicals of Calotropis before feeding.

Herbivores depend on plants for food, and have evolved mechanisms to obtain this food despite the evolution of a diverse arsenal of plant defenses. Herbivore adaptations to plant defense have been likened to offensive traits and consist of adaptations that allow increased feeding and use of a host plant.[4] Relationships between herbivores and their host plants often results in reciprocal evolutionary change, called co-evolution. When an herbivore eats a plant it selects for plants that can mount a defensive response. In cases where this relationship demonstrates specificity (the evolution of each trait is due to the other), and reciprocity (both traits must evolve), the species are thought to have co-evolved.[5] The "escape and radiation" mechanism for co-evolution presents the idea that adaptations in herbivores and their host plants have been the driving force behind speciation,[2][6] and have played a role in the radiation of insect species during the age of angiosperms.[7] Some herbivores have evolved ways to hijack plant defenses to their own benefit, by sequestering these chemicals and using them to protect themselves from predators.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Plain_tiger_moat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Plain_tiger_moat. ... Binomial name Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Plain Tiger is a common butterfly which is widespread in Asia. ... Calotropis gigantea flowers have a purplish tinge. ... Herbivores are dependent on plants for food, and have evolved mechanisms to obtain this food despite plants’ diverse arsenal of defenses. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... Evolutionary pressure or selection pressure can be formalized as an external pressure applied to a process, thereby pushing that process in a distinct direction. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Sequestration, the act of removing, separating or seizing anything from the possession of its owner, particularly in law, of the taking possession of property under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state. ...


Types

Plant defenses can be classified generally as induced or constitutive. Constitutive defenses are always present in the plant species, while induced defenses are synthesized or mobilized to the site where a plant is injured. There are wide variations in the composition and concentration of constitutive defenses and these range from mechanical defenses to digestibility reducers and toxins. Most external mechanical defenses and large quantitative defenses are constitutive, as they require large amounts of resources to produce and difficult to mobilize.[8]


Induced defenses include secondary metabolic products, as well as morphological and physiological changes.[9] An advantage of inducible, rather than constitutive defenses, is that increased variability increases the effectiveness of the defenses.[9] This advantage comes from the suggestion that if herbivores can choose among different plants and plant tissues, they may avoid eating plants that have both constitutive and induced defenses.[4]


Chemical defenses

Persimmon, genus Diospyros, has a high tannin content which gives immature fruit, seen above, an astringent and bitter flavor.

The evolution of chemical defenses in plants is linked to the emergence of chemical substances that are not involved in the essential photosynthetic and metabolic activities. These substances, secondary metabolites, are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of organisms,[10] and often produced as by-products during the synthesis of primary metabolic products.[11] These secondary metabolites play a major role in defenses against herbivores.[12][10][2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 435 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,103 pixels, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Diospyros kaki at Aarhus Botanical Garden, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File historyClick on a date/time to view the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 435 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 1,103 pixels, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Diospyros kaki at Aarhus Botanical Garden, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File historyClick on a date/time to view the... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Species 450-500; see text Diospyros is a genus (including what used to be Maba) of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen trees. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... Bitter can refer to: Look up bitter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ...


Secondary metabolites are often characterized as either qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative metabolites are defined as toxins that interfere with an herbivore’s metabolism, often by blocking specific biochemical reactions. Qualitative chemicals are present in plants in relatively low concentrations (often less than 2% dry weight), and are not dosage dependent. These defenses have morphological properties (i.e. water soluble, small molecules, and are energetically inexpensive) that facilitate rapid synthesis, transport, and storage. These chemicals are effective against non-adapted specialists and generalist herbivores. Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions, and if a heterotroph, has a varied diet. ...


Quantitative chemicals are those that are present in high concentration in plants (5 – 40% dry weight) and are equally effective against all specialists and generalist herbivores. Most quantitative metabolites are digestibility reducers that make plant cell walls indigestible to animals. The effects of quantitative metabolites are dosage dependent and the higher these chemicals’ proportion in the herbivore’s diet, the less nutrition the herbivore can gain from ingesting plant tissues. Because they are typically large molecules, these defenses are energetically expensive to produce and maintain, and often take longer than smaller, qualitative chemicals to synthesize and transport, therefore these chemicals are expected to serve an important purpose within the plant.[13] Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ...


Types of chemical defenses

Plants have developed many secondary metabolites involved in plant defense, which are collectively known as antiherbivory compounds and can be classified into three sub-groups: nitrogen compounds (including alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates), terpenoids, and phenolics.[14] General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Alkaloids are derived from various amino acids. Over 3000 known alkaloids exist, examples include nicotine, caffeine, morphine, colchicine, ergolines, strychnine, and quinine.[15] Alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and other animals. Some alkaloids can inhibit or activate enzymes, or alter carbohydrate and fat storage by inhibiting the formation phosphodiester bonds involved in their breakdown.[16] Certain alkaloids bind to nucleic acids and can inhibit synthesis of proteins and affect DNA repair mechanisms. Alkaloids can also affect cell membrane and cytoskeletal structure causing the cells to weaken, collapse, or leak, and can affect nerve transmission.[17] Cyanogenic glycosides become toxic when they are broken down by enzymes in the herbivore's digestive tract and release hydrogen cyanide or prussic acid, which blocks cellular respiration. Glucosinolates can cause gastroenteritis, salivation, diarrhea, and irritation of the mouth.[18] Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... This article is about the drug. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides A phosphodiester bond is a group of strong covalent bonds between the phosphorus atom in a phosphate group and two other molecules over two ester bonds. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cytoskeleton is a cellular scaffolding or skeleton contained, as all other organelles, within the cytoplasm. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...


The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units. There are over 10,000 known types of terpenoids.[19] Most are multicyclic structures which differ from one another in both functional groups, and in basic carbon skeletons.[20] Monoterpenoids, continuing 2 isoprene units, are volatile essential oils such as citronella, limonene, menthol, camphor, and pinene. Diterpenoids, 4 isoprene units, are widely distributed in latex and resins, and can be quite toxic. Diterpenes are responsible for making Rhododendron leaves poisonous. Plant steroids and sterols are also produced from terpenoid precursors, including vitamin D, glycosides (such as digitalis) and saponins (which lyse red blood cells of herbivores).[21] The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... Look up volatile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Citronella is a word used for several things, including: One of several Cymbopogon grasses The insect-repelling Citronella oil a species of geranium known as the mosquito plant or citronella plant Category: ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


Phenolics, sometimes called phenols, consist of an aromatic 6-carbon ring bonded to a hydroxy group. Some phenols have antiseptic properties, while others disrupt endocrine activity. Phenolics range from simple tannins to the more complex flavonoids that give plants much of their red, blue, yellow, and white pigments. Complex phenolics called polyphenols are capable of producing many different types of effects on humans, including antioxidant properties. Some examples of phenolics used for defense in plants are: lignin, silymarin and cannabinoids.[22] Condensed tannins, polymers composed of 2 to 50 (or more) flavonoid molecules, inhibit herbivore digestion by binding to consumed plant proteins and making them more difficult for animals to digest, and by interfering with protein absorption and digestive enzymes.[23] Silica and lignins, which are completely indigestible to animals, grind down insect mandibles (appendages necessary for feeding). In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... This prefix in chemical nomenclature indicates the presence of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH). ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Silibinin (INN) (silybin, Legalon®) is the major active constituent of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from plant Milk thistle (Silybum marianum). ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Proanthocyanidin (also known as OPC, pycno-genol, leukocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin) is a a class of bioflavonoids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Digestive enzymes are enzymes in the alimentary tract that break down food so that the organism can absorb it. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...


In addition to the three larger groups of substances mentioned above, fatty acid derivates, amino acids and even peptides[24] are used as defence. The cholinergic toxine, cicutoxin of water hemlock, is an polyyne derived from the fatty acid metabolism.[25] β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid as simple amino acid is used by the sweet pea which leads also to intoxication in humans.[26] The synthesis of fluoroacetate in several plants is an example for the use of small molecules to disturb the metabolism of the herbivore, in this case the citric acid cycle.[27] In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Cicutoxin Cicutoxin (chemical name: trans-heptadeca-8,10,12-triene-4,6-diyne-1,14-diol; formula: C17H22O2) is a poisonous alcohol found in various plants, most notably water hemlock. ... Species Cicuta bulbifera Cicuta douglasii Cicuta maculata Cicuta virosa Cicuta (Water Hemlock or Cowbane) is a small genus of four species of highly poisonous flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, mainly North America. ... A polyyne is an organic compound with alternating single and triple bonds, for example buta-1,3-diyne or diacetylene, C4H2. ... Binomial name Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus) is a flowering plant of the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (the legumes). ... 1080 is the commonly used name for sodium fluoroacetate (also known as sodium monofluoroacetate), a potent metabolic poison used primarily to control mammallian pests. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part...


Mechanical defenses

The thorns on the stem of this raspberry plant, serve as a mechanical defense against herbivory.

Plants have many external structural defenses that discourage herbivory. Depending on the herbivore’s physical characteristics (i.e. size and defensive armor), plant structural defenses on stems and leaves can deter, injure, or kill the grazer. Some defensive compounds are produced internally but are released onto the plant’s surface; for example, resins, lignins, silica, and wax cover the epidermis of terrestrial plants and alter the texture of the plant tissue. The leaves of holly plants, for instance, are very smooth and slippery making feeding difficult. Some plants produce gummosis or sap that traps insects. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A terrestrial plant is one that grows on land. ... This article is about the plant. ... Gummosis is the formation of patches of a gummy substance on the surface of certain plants, particularly fruit trees. ...


A plant's leaves and stem may be covered with sharp spines or trichomes- hairs on the leaf often with barbs, sometimes containing irritants or poisons. Plant structural features like spines and thorns reduce feeding by large ungulate herbivores (e.g. kudu, impala, and goats) by restricting the herbivores' feeding rate, or by wearing down the molars as in pears.[28] The structure of a plant, its branching and leaf arrangement may also be evolved to reduce herbivore impact. The shrubs of New Zealand have evolved special wide branching adaptations believed to be a response to browsing birds such as the moas.[29] Similarly, Acacias have dense thorns on the outside, but none in the middle of the crown, which is safe from herbivores such as giraffes.[30] Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... The word irritant may refer to: Look up Irritant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the dangerous substance. ... Male Greater Kudu Female Greater Kudu The Kudu are two species of antelope: Lesser Kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros Kudu: has a symbolic role in Hindu and Buddhist architecture. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... Species See Species and subspecies The genus Capra is a genus of mammals composed of nine species, including the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ...


Mimicry and camouflage

Some plants mimic the presence of insect eggs on their leaves, dissuading insect species from laying their eggs there. Because female butterflies are less likely to lay their eggs on plants that already have butterfly eggs, some species of neotropical vines of the genus Passiflora (Passion flowers) contain physical structures resembling the yellow eggs of Heliconius butterflies on their leaves, which discourage oviposition by butterflies.[31] A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... Neotropical or Neotropic relates to a biogeographical region in the New World, bordered in the north by the dry areas in Mexico and the southern states of the USA. in the south by southern Patagonia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Passiflora amalocarpa Passiflora amethystina Passiflora aurantia Passiflora caerulea Passiflora capsularis Passiflora edulis Passiflora foetida Passiflora helleri Passiflora holosericea Passiflora incarnata Passiflora karwinskii Passiflora mucronata Passiflora murucuja Passiflora tenuifila Passiflora tulae Passiflora vitifolia Passiflora yucatanensis Passion flower refers to vines in the genus Passiflora—flowering plants known for their... Species Many, including Heliconius charitonius Heliconius cydno Heliconius erato Heliconius hecale Heliconius ismenius Heliconius melpomene Heliconius nattereri Heliconius sara Heliconius comprise a colorful and widespread butterfly genus distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World. ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ...


Indirect defenses

The large thorn-like stipules of Acacia collinsii are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which in return protect the plant against herbivores.

Another category of plant defenses are those features that indirectly protect the plant by enhancing the probability of attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. One such feature are semiochemicals, given off by plants. Semiochemicals are a group of volatile organic compounds involved in interactions between organisms. One group of semiochemicals are allelochemics; consisting of allomones, which play a defensive role in interspecies communication, and kairomones, which are used by members of higher trophic levels to locate food sources. When a plant is attacked it releases allelochemics containing an abnormal ratio of volatiles.[32] Predators sense these volatiles as food cues, attracting them to the damaged plant, and to feeding herbivores. The subsequent reduction in the number of herbivores confers a fitness benefit to the plant and demonstrates the indirect defensive capabilities of semiochemicals. Induced volatiles also have drawbacks, however; some studies have supported the idea that these volatiles also attract herbivores.[32] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (533 × 800 pixels, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (533 × 800 pixels, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Acacia collsinii Saff. ... A semiochemical is a generic term used for a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... Heterotelergones a. ... An Allomone is any chemical produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator. ... Interspecies communication is research into creating communication dialogues between different species of animals and plants. ... A kairomone is a chemical substance produced and released by a living organism that benefits the receiver and disadvantages the donor. ... Trophic can refer to: Trophic level Trophic egg Category: ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Plants also provide housing and food items for natural enemies of herbivores, known as “biotic” defense mechanisms, as a means to maintain their presence. For example, trees from the genus Macaranga have adapted their thin stem walls to create ideal housing for an ant species (genus Crematogaster), which, in turn, protects the plant from herbivores.[33] In addition to providing housing, the plant also provides the ant with its exclusive food source; from the food bodies produced by the plant. Similarly, some Acacia tree species have developed thorns that are swollen at the base, forming a hollowing structure that acts as housing. Theses Acacia trees also produce nectar in extrafloral nectaries on their leaves as food for the ants.[34] Species Macaranga acerifolia Macaranga capensis Macaranga indica Macaranga mappa Macaranga tanarius et al. ... Crematogaster is a genus of ant in the Formicidae family. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


There have been suggestions that leaf shedding may be a response that provides protection against diseases and certain kinds of pests such as leaf miners and gall forming insects.[35] Other responses such as the change of leaf colours prior to fall have also been suggested as adaptations that may help undermine the camouflage of herbivores.[36] Autumn leaf color has also been suggested to act as an honest warning signal of defensive commitment towards insect pests that migrate to the trees in autumn.[37][38] Leaf miners are insect larvae that live within leaf tissue. ... Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Maple leaves Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn months, one or many colors that range from red to yellow. ... The handicap principle is an idea proposed by the Israeli biologist Amotz Zahavi. ...


Costs and benefits

Defensive structures and chemicals are costly as they require resources that could otherwise be used by plants to maximize growth and reproduction. Many models have been proposed to explore how and why some plants make this investment in defenses against herbivores.


Optimal defense hypothesis

The optimal defense hypothesis attempts to explain how the kinds of defenses a particular plant might use reflect the threats each individual plant faces.[39] This model considers three main factors, namely: risk of attack, value of the plant part, and the cost of defense.[40][41]


The first factor determining optimal defense is risk: how likely is it that a plant or certain plant parts will be attacked? This is also related to the plant apparency hypothesis, which states that a plant will invest heavily in broadly effective defenses when the plant is easily found by herbivores.[42] Examples of apparent plants that produce generalized protections include long-living trees, shrubs, and perennial grasses.[42] Unapparent plants, such as short-lived plants of early successional stages, on the other hand, preferentially invest in small amounts of qualitative toxins that are effective against all but the most specialized herbivores.[42] The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Genera See: List of Poaceae genera The true grasses are monocot (class Liliopsida) plants of the family Poaceae (formerly Graminae). ... Secondary succession: trees are colonizing uncultivated fields and meadows. ...


The second factor is the value of protection: would the plant be less able to survive and reproduce after removal of part of its structure by a herbivore? Not all plant parts are of equal evolutionary value, thus valuable parts contain more defenses. A plant’s stage of development at the time of feeding also affects the resulting change in fitness. Experimentally, the fitness value a plant structure is determined by removing that part of the plant and observing the effect.[43] In general, reproductive parts are not as easily replaced as vegetative parts, terminal leaves have greater value than basal leaves, and the loss of plant parts mid-season has a greater negative effect on fitness than removal at the beginning or end of the season.[44][45] Seeds in particular tend to be very well protected. For example, the seeds of many edible fruits and nuts contain cyanogenic glycosides such as amygdalin. This results from the need to balance the effort needed to make the fruit attractive to animal dispersers while ensuring that the seeds are not destroyed by the animal.[46][47] Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: vegetative Things commonly known as Vegetative include: Vegetative reproduction Related to Vegetation Vegetative state This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ...


The final consideration is cost: how much will a particular defensive strategy cost a plant in energy and materials? This is particularly important, as energy spent on defense cannot be used for other functions, such as reproduction and growth. The optimal defense hypothesis predicts that plants will allocate more energy towards defense when the benefits of protection outweigh the costs, specifically in situations where there is high herbivore pressure.[48]


Carbon:nutrient balance hypothesis

The carbon:nutrient balance hypothesis, also known as the environmental constraint hypothesis, states that the various types of plant defenses are responses to variations in the levels of nutrients in the environment.[49][50] This hypothesis predicts that plants will use defensive compounds constructed from the most abundant nutrient available. For example, plants growing in nitrogen-poor soils will use carbon-based defenses (mostly digestibility reducers), while those growing in low-carbon environments (such as shady conditions) are more likely to produce nitrogen-based toxins. The hypothesis further predicts that plants can change their defences in response to changes in nutrients. For example, if plants are grown in low-nitrogen conditions, then these plants will implement a defensive strategy composed of constitutive carbon-based defenses. If nutrient levels subsequently increase, by for example the addition of fertilizers, these carbon-based defenses will decrease. A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Growth rate hypothesis

The growth rate hypothesis, also known as the resource availability hypothesis, states that defense strategies are determined by the inherent growth rate of the plant, which is in turn determined by the resources available to the plant. A major assumption is that available resources are the limiting factor in determining the maximum growth rate of a plant species. This model predicts that the level of defense investment will increase as the potential of growth decreases.[51] Additionally, plants in resource-poor areas, with inherently slow-growth rates, tend to have long-lived leaves and twigs, and the loss of plant appendages may result in a loss of scarce and valuable nutrients.[52] In biology, agricultural science, physiology, and ecology, a limiting factor is one that controls a process, such as organism growth or species population size or distribution. ...


A recent test of this model involved a reciprocal transplants of seedlings of 20 species of trees between clay soils (nutrient rich) and white sand (nutrient poor) to determine whether trade-offs between growth rate and defenses restrict species to one habitat. Seedlings originating from the nutrient-poor sand had higher levels of constitutive carbon-based defenses, but when they were transplanted into nutrient-rich clay soils, they experienced higher mortality from herbivory. These finding suggest that defensive strategies limit the habitats of some plants.[53] For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ...


Growth-differentiation balance hypothesis

The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis states that plant defenses are a result of the energy being divided between “growth-related processes” and “differentiation-related processes” in different environments.[54] Differentiation-related processes are defined as “processes that enhance the structure or function of existing cells (i.e. maturation and specialization).”[39] A plant will produce chemical defenses only when energy is available from photosynthesis and plants with the highest concentrations of secondary metabolites are the ones with an intermediate level of available resources.[54] Support for this hypothesis came from studies of the phenolic content in tomatoes when grown at four different nitrate levels. The highest concentration of phenolics were measured when the tomatoes were grown at an intermediate nitrate level.[55] Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ...


Importance to humans

Agriculture

The variation of plant susceptibility to pests was probably known even in the early stages of agriculture in humans. In historic times, the observation of such variations in susceptibility have provided solutions for major socio-economic problems. The grape phylloxera was introduced from North America to France in 1860 and in 25 years it destroyed nearly a third (100,000 km²) of the French grape yards. Charles Valentine Riley noted that the American species Vitis labrusca was resistant to Phylloxera. Riley, with J. E. Planchon, helped save the French wine industry by suggesting the grafting of the susceptible but high quality grapes onto Vitis labrusca root stocks.[56] The formal study of plant resistance to herbivory was first covered extensively in 1951 by Reginald (R.H.) Painter, who is widely regarded as the founder of this area of research, in his book Plant Resistance to Insects.[1] While this work pioneered further research in the US, the work of Chesnokov was the basis of further research in the USSR.[57] Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Charles Valentine Riley (1843 - 1895) was an entomologist and artist. ... French gastronomy France is one of the oldest wine-producing regions of Europe. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ...


Fresh growth of grass is sometimes high in prussic acid content and can cause poisoning of grazing livestock. The production of cyanogenic chemicals in grasses is primarily a defense against herbivores.[58][59] Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple bonded to the nitrogen atom. ...


The human innovation of cooking may have been particularly helpful in overcoming many of the defensive chemicals of plants. Many enzyme inhibitors in cereal grains and pulses, such as trypsin inhibitors prevalent in pulse crops, are denatured by cooking, making them digestible.[60][61] HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ...


It has been known since the late 17th century that plants contain noxious chemicals which are avoided by insects. These chemicals have been used by man as early insecticides; in 1690 nicotine was extracted from tobacco and used as a contact insecticide. In 1773, insect infested plants were treated with nicotine fumigation by heating tobacco and blowing the smoke over the plants.[62] The flowers of Chrysanthemum species contain pyrethrin which is a potent insecticide. In later years, the applications of plant resistance became an important area of research in agriculture and plant breeding, particularly because they can serve as a safe and low-cost alternative to the use of pesticides.[63] The important role of secondary plant substances in plant defense was described in the late 1950s by Vincent Dethier and G.S. Fraenkel.[64][10] The use of botanical pesticides is widespread and notable examples include Azadirachtin from the neem (Azadirachta indica), d-Limonene from Citrus species, Rotenone from Derris, Capsaicin from Chili Pepper and Pyrethrum.[65] It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum... Pyrethrin I, R = CH3 Pyrethrin II, R = CO2CH3 The pyrethrins are a pair of natural organic compounds that have potent insecticidal activity. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Dr. Vincent G. Dethier was a prominent insect physiologist and research entomologist from the United States. ... Neem (Azadirachta indica, syn. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Derris is a climbing leguminous plant of Southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific islands, including New Guinea. ... For other uses, see Chili. ...


The selective breeding of crop plants often involves selection against the plant's intrinsic resistance strategies. This makes crop plant varieties particularly susceptible to pests unlike their wild relatives. In breeding for host-plant resistance, it is often the wild relatives that provide the source of resistance genes. These genes are incorporated using conventional approaches to plant breeding, but have also been augmented by recombinant techniques, which allow introduction of genes from completely unrelated organisms. The most famous transgenic approach is the introduction of genes from the bacterial species, Bacillus thuringiensis, into plants. The bacterium produces proteins that, when ingested, kill lepidopteran caterpillars. The gene encoding for these highly toxic proteins, when introduced into the host plant genome, confers resistance against caterpillars, when the same toxic proteins are produced within the plant. This approach is controversial, however, due to the possibility of ecological and toxicological side effects.[66] For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicon and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. ...


Pharmaceutical

Illustration from the 15th century manuscript Tacuinum Sanitatis detailing the beneficial and harmful properties of Mandrakes.

Many currently available pharmaceuticals are derived from the secondary metabolites plants use to protect themselves from herbivores, including opium, aspirin, cocaine, and atropine.[67] These chemicals have evolved to affect the biochemistry of insects in very specific ways. However, many of these biochemical pathways are conserved in vertebrates, including humans, and the chemicals act on human biochemistry in ways similar to that of insects. It has therefore been suggested that the study of plant-insect interactions may help in bioprospecting.[68] Image File history File linksMetadata Mandragora_Tacuinum_Sanitatis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mandragora_Tacuinum_Sanitatis. ... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... This article is about the drug. ... This article is about the drug. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Bioprospecting is the collecting and testing of biological samples (plants, animals, micro-organisms) and the collecting of indigenous knowledge to help in discovering and exploiting genetic or biochemical resources Bioprospecting has primarily economic purposes (e. ...


There is evidence that humans began using plant alkaloids in medical preparations as early as 3000 B.C.[16] Although the active components of most medicinal plants have been isolated only recently (beginning in the early 19th century) these substances have been used as drugs throughout the human history in potions, medicines, teas and as poisons. For example, to combat herbivory by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, Cinchona trees produce a variety of alkaloids, the most familiar of which is quinine. Quinine is extremely bitter, making the bark of the tree quite unpalatable, it is also an anti-fever agent, known as Jesuit's bark, and is especially useful in treating malaria.[69] BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Chinchona officinalis Jesuits Bark, also called the Peruvian Bark, is the historical name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Throughout history mandrakes (Mandragora officinarum) have been highly sought after for their reputed aphrodisiac properties. However, the roots of the mandrake plant also contain large quantities of the alkaloid scopolamine, which, at high doses, acts as a central nervous system depressant, and makes the plant highly toxic to herbivores. Scopolamine was later found to be medicinal use in pain management before and during labor; in smaller doses it is used to prevent motion sickness.[70] One of the most well-known medicinally valuable terpenes is an anticancer drug, taxol, isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, in the early 1960s.[71] Mandrake root redirects here. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ... Motion sickness or kinetosis is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular systems sense of movement. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... herbs that have the specific action of inhibiting and combating the development of tumors. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Binomial name Taxus brevifolia Nutt. ...


See also

Chemical ecology is the study of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. ... An endophyte is an organism that lives within a plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent disease. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ... A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. ... Lectins are a type of receptor proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with sugar molecules (carbohydrates) without modifying them. ... Raphides are needle-shaped crystals of calcium carbonate or calcium oxalate found in specialized plant cells called idioblasts. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Phytoalexins are antibiotics produced by plants that are under attack. ... Rapid plant movement encompasses movement in plant structures occurring over a very short period of time, usually under one second. ... Seed predation includes any process inflicted on a plant’s seeds by an animal that results in the inviability of the seed. ... Thigmonasty or seismonasty is the nastic response of a plant or fungus to touch, heat or vibration. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Painter, Reginald Henry (1951). Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. OCLC 443998. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ehrlich, Paul R.; Peter H. Raven (December 1964). "Butterflies and plants: a study of coevolution." 18 (4): 586-608. doi:10.2307/2406212. 
  3. ^ Labandeira, C.C.; D.L. Dilcher, D.R. Davis, D.L. Wagner (1994). "Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 91 (25): 12278-82. PMID 11607501. 
  4. ^ a b Karban, Richard; Anurag A. Agrawal (November 2002). "Herbivore offense". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 641–664. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150443. 
  5. ^ Futuyma, Douglas J.; Montgomery Slatkin (1983). Coevolution. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-228-3. 
  6. ^ Thompson, J. (1999). "What we know and do not know about coevolution: insect herbivores and plants as a test case.", in H. Olff, V. K. Brown, R. H. Drent: Herbivores: between plants and predators; the 38th symposium of the British Ecological Society in cooperation with the Netherlands Ecological Society held at the Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands, 1997. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 7–30. ISBN 0-632-05155-8. 
  7. ^ Farrell, Brian D.; Charles Mitter (1994). "Adaptive Radiation in Insects and Plants: Time and Opportunity". American Zoologist 34 (1): 57-69. doi:10.1093/icb/34.1.57. 
  8. ^ Traw, Brian M.; Todd E. Dawson (May 2002). "Differential induction of trichomes by three herbivores of black mustard". Oecologia 131 (4): 526–532. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-0924-6. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  9. ^ a b Karban, Richard; Anurag A. Agrawal, Marc Mangel (July 1997). "The benefits of induced defenses against herbivores". Ecology 78 (5): 1351-1355. doi:10.2307/2266130. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  10. ^ a b c Fraenkel, G. (1959). "The raison d'être of secondary plant substances". Science 129 (3361): 1466-70. doi:10.1126/science.129.3361.1466. PMID 13658975. 
  11. ^ Whittaker, Robert H. (1970). "The biochemical ecology of higher plants", in Ernest Sondheimer and John B. Simeone: Chemical ecology. Boston: Academic Press, 43–70. ISBN 0-12-654750-5. 
  12. ^ Whittaker, Robert H. (1975). Communities and ecosystems. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-427390-2. 
  13. ^ Theis, Nina; Manuel Lerdau (2003). "The evolution of function in plant secondary metabolites". International Journal of Plant Science 164 (3 Suppl.): S93–S102. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  14. ^ Biochemical defenses: secondary metabolites:. Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  15. ^ Alkaloids: contain a N-containing heterocycle. Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  16. ^ a b Roberts, Margaret F.; Michael Wink (1998). Alkaloids: biochemistry, ecology, and medicinal applications. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-45465-3. 
  17. ^ Sneden, Albert T.. Alkaloids. Natural Products as Medicinally Useful Agents. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  18. ^ Rhoades, D. F. (1979). "Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores", in Gerald A. Rosenthal, Daniel H. Janzen: Herbivores, their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Boston: Academic Press, 1–55. ISBN 0-12-597180-X. 
  19. ^ Terpenoids. Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  20. ^ Gershezon, Jonathan; Wolfgang Kreis (1999). "Biochemistry of terpinoids", in Michael Wink: Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 222-279. ISBN 0-8493-4085-3. 
  21. ^ Sneden, Albert T.. Terpenes. Natural Products as Medicinally Useful Agents. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  22. ^ Phenols. Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  23. ^ Van Soest, Peter J. (1982). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant: ruminant metabolism, nutritional strategies, the cellulolytic fermentation, and the chemistry of forages and plant fibers. Corvallis, Oregon: O & B Books. ISBN 0-9601586-0-X. 
  24. ^ John W. Hylin (1969). "Toxic peptides and amino acids in foods and feeds". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 17 (3): 492 - 496. doi:10.1021/jf60163a003. 
  25. ^ E. Anet, B. Lythgoe, M. H. Silk, S. Trippett (1953). "Oenanthotoxin and cicutoxin. Isolation and structures". Journal of the Chemical Society: 309-322. doi:10.1039/JR9530000309. 
  26. ^ Mark V. Barrow; Charles F. Simpson; Edward J. Miller (1974). "Lathyrism: A Review". The Quarterly Review of Biology 49 (2): 101-128. 
  27. ^ Donald A. Levin (1991). "The Impact of Fluoroacetate-Bearing Vegetation on Native Australian Fauna: A Review". Oikos 61 (3): 412-430. 
  28. ^ Cooper, Susan M.; Norman Owen-Smith (September 1986). "Effects of plant spinescence on large mammalian herbivores". Oecologia 68 (3): 446-455. doi:10.1007/BF01036753. 
  29. ^ Bond W, Lee W & Craine J (2004). "Plant structural defences against browsing birds: a legacy of New Zealand's extinct moas.". Oikos 104 (3): 500–508. 
  30. ^ Attenborough, D. (1995) The Private Life of Plants BBC.
  31. ^ Williams, Kathy S.; Lawrence E. Gilbert (April 1981). "Insects as selective agents on plant vegetative morphology: egg mimicry reduces egg-laying by butterflies". Science 212 (4493): 467–469. doi:10.1126/science.212.4493.467. 
  32. ^ a b Dicke, Marcel; Joop J.A. van Loon (December 2000). "Multitrophic effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in an evolutionary context". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (3): 237-249. doi:10.1046/j.1570-7458.2000.00736.x. 
  33. ^ Heil, Martin; Brigitte Fiala, K. Eduard Linsenmair, Gerhard Zotz, Petra Menke (December 1997). "Food body production in Macaranga triloba (Euphorbiaceae): A plant investment in anti-herbivore defense via symbiotic ant partners". Journal of Ecology 85 (6): 847–861. doi:10.2307/2960606. 
  34. ^ Young, T. P.; Cynthia H. Stubblefield, Lynne A. Isbell (January 1997). "Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system". Oecologia 109 (1): 98–107. doi:10.1007/s004420050063. 
  35. ^ Williams, Alan G.; Thomas G. Whitham (December 1986). "Premature Leaf Abscission: An Induced Plant Defense Against Gall Aphids". Ecology 67 (6): 1619-1627. doi:10.2307/1939093. 
  36. ^ Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Amots Dafni, Moshe A. Flaishman, Moshe Inbar, Ido Izhaki, Gadi Katzir, Gidi Ne'eman (October 2004). "Plant coloration undermines herbivorous insect camouflage". BioEssays 26 (10): 1126-1130. doi:10.1002/bies.20112. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  37. ^ Archetti, M. (2000). "The origin of autumn colours by coevolution.". J. Theor. Biol. 205 (4): 625-630. 
  38. ^ Hamilton, W. D.; Brown, S. P. (2001). "Autumn tree colours as a handicap signal.". Proc. R. Soc. B 268 (1475): 1489-1493. 
  39. ^ a b Stamp, Nancy (March 2003). "Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses". Quarterly Review of Biology 78 (1): 23-55. PMID 12661508. 
  40. ^ Rhoades, D. F. (1974). "Towards a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry", in V. C. Runeckles and E. E. Conn: Recent advances in phytochemistry: proceedings of the annual meeting of the Phytochemical society of North America. Boston: Academic Press, 168–213. ISBN 0-12-612408-6. 
  41. ^ Wilf, Peter; Conrad C. Labandeira, Kirk R. Johnson, Phyllis D. Coley, and Asher D. Cutter (2001). "Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98 (11): 6221–6226. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  42. ^ a b c Feeny, P. (1976). "Plant apparency and chemical defense.", in James W. Wallace and Richard L. Mansell: Biochemical interaction between plants and insects: proceedings of the fifteenth annual meeting of the Phytochemical Society of North America. New York: Plenum Press, 1–40. ISBN 0-306-34710-5. 
  43. ^ D., McKey (1979). "The distribution of secondary compounds within plants.", in Gerald A. Rosenthal, Daniel H. Janzen: Herbivores, their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Boston: Academic Press, 55–133. ISBN 0-12-597180-X. 
  44. ^ Krischik, V. A.; R. F. Denno. (1983). "Individual, population, and geographic patterns in plant defense.", in Robert F. Denno, Mark S. McClure: Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems. Boston: Academic Press, 463–512. ISBN 0-12-209160-4. 
  45. ^ Zangerl, Arthur R.; Claire E. Rutledge (April 1996). "The probability of attack and patterns of constitutive and induced defense: A test of optimal defense theory". The American Naturalist 147 (4): 599–608. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  46. ^ Swain, Elisabeth; Chun Ping Li, Jonathan E. Poulton (1992). "Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits". Plant Physiology 98 (4): 1423-1428. PMID 16668810. 
  47. ^ Witmer, M.C. (1998). "Ecological and evolutionary implications of energy and protein requirements of avian frugivores eating sugary diets". Physiological Zoology 71 (6): 599-610. PMID 9798248. 
  48. ^ Pennings, Steven C.; Erin L. Siska, Mark D. Bertness (May 2001). "Latitudinal differences in plant palatability in Atlantic coast salt marshes". Ecology 82 (5): 1344–1359. doi:10.2307/2679994. 
  49. ^ Bryant, John P.; Stuart Chapin, III, David R. Klein (May 1983). "Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory". Oikos 40 (3): 357-368. doi:10.2307/3544308. 
  50. ^ Tuomi, J. (1988). "Defensive responses of trees in relation to their carbon/nutrient balance.", in William J. Mattson, Jean Levieux, C. Bernard-Dagan: Mechanisms of woody plant defenses against insects: search for pattern. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 57–72. ISBN 0-387-96673-0. 
  51. ^ Colley, Phyllis D.; John P. Bryant, and F. Stuart Chapin III (1985). "Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense". Science 230 (4728): 895–899. doi:10.1126/science.230.4728.895. 
  52. ^ Chapin, F. Stuart, III (1980). "The Mineral Nutrition of Wild Plants". Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 11: 233-260. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  53. ^ Fine, Paul V. A.; Italo Mesones, Phyllis D. Coley (July 2004). "Herbivores promote habitat specialization by trees in Amazonian forests". Science 305 (5684): 663-5. doi:10.1126/science.1098982. PMID 15286371. 
  54. ^ a b Loomis, W. E. (1981). "Growth and differentiation—an introduction and summary.", in P. F. Wareing and I. D. J. Phillips: Growth and differentiation in plants. New York: Pergamon Press, 1–17. ISBN 0-08-026351-8. 
    Herms, Daniel A.; William J. Mattson (September 1992). "The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend". Quarterly Review of Biology 67 (3): 283–335. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  55. ^ Wilkens, Richard T.; Jill M. Spoerke, Nancy E. Stamp (January 1996). "Differential Responses of Growth and Two Soluble Phenolics of Tomato to Resource Availability". Ecology 77 (1): 247–258. doi:10.2307/2265674. 
  56. ^ Polavarapu, Sridhar (2001). Plant Resistance to insects. Agricultural Entomology & Pest Management. Rutgers University. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  57. ^ Chesnokov, Pavel G. (1953). Methods of Investigating Plant Resistance to Pests. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. OCLC 3576157. 
  58. ^ Gleadow, Roslyn M.; Ian E. Woodrow (2002). "Constraints on effectiveness of cyanogenic glycosides in herbivore defense". Journal of Chemical Ecology 28 (7): 1301-13. doi:10.1023/A:1016298100201. PMID 12199497. 
  59. ^ Vough, Lester R.; E. Kim Cassel (July 2002). Prussic Acid Poisoning of Livestock: Causes and Prevention (ExEx 4016). Extension Extra. South Dakota State University Extension Service.
  60. ^ Grant; Linda J. More, Norma H. McKenzie, Arpad Pusztai (1982). "The effect of heating on the haemagglutinating activity and nutritional properties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33 (12): 1324-6. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740331220. PMID 7166934. 
  61. ^ Jean-Louis (1999). Natural Toxins in Raw Foods and How Cooking Affects Them. Is Cooked Food Poison?. Beyond Vegetarianism. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  62. ^ George W. (2004). The Pesticide Book. Willoughby: MeisterPro. ISBN 1-892829-11-8. 
  63. ^ Michael Smith, C. (2005). Plant Resistance to Arthropods: Molecular and Conventional Approaches. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 1-4020-3701-5. 
  64. ^ Dethier, V. G. (March 1954). "Evolution of feeding preferences in phytophagous insects". Evolution 8 (1): 33–54. doi:10.2307/2405664. 
  65. ^ Russ, Karen. Less toxic insecticides. Clemson University Home & Garden Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  66. ^ van Emden, H.F. (November 1999). "Transgenic Host Plant Resistance to Insects—Some Reservations". Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92 (6): 788-797. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  67. ^ Ghosh, B. (2000). "Polyamines and plant alkaloids". Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 38 (11): 1086-91. PMID 11395950. 
  68. ^ Eisner, Thomas (March 1990). "Prospecting for nature's chemical riches". Chemoecology 1 (1): 38-40. doi:10.1007/BF01240585. 
  69. ^ Albert T. Sneden. The Quinine Alkaloids (pdf). Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  70. ^ Albert T. Sneden. The Tropane Alkaloids (pdf). Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  71. ^ Albert T. Sneden. Taxol (Paclitaxe) (pdf). Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English language journal that publishes original research into topics related to ecology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal published from 1862 to 1877. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS (born on May 8, 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds most acclaimed broadcasters and naturalists. ... The Private Life of Plants (1995) is a six-part BBC television series presented by David Attenborough, on the growth, movement, reproduction and survival of plants around the world. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Titles with links are available in the form of a Google Books "limited preview". // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m