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Encyclopedia > Plant cell
Plant cell structure
Plant cell structure

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. Their distinctive features include: The Plant Cell (ISSN 1040-4651) is a monthly peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes novel research of special significance in plant biology, especially in the areas of cellular biology, molecular biology, genetics, development, and evolution. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ...

Contents

Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells and... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... Turgor (also called turgor pressure or osmotic pressure) is the pressure that can build in a space that is enclosed by a membrane that is permeable to a solvent of a solution such as water but not to the solutes of the soluton. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Leafhoppers and many other insects feed off plant sap Sap is the fluid transported in xylem cells (tracheids or vessel elements) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Protoplast, from the ancient Greek πρώτον (first) + verb πλάθω or πλάττω (to mould: deriv. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of eubacteria. ... Plasmodesmata (Singular, plasmodesma) are small cell junctions in a plant cell which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, forming a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissue. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Amyloplasts in a potato cell Amyloplasts (are a form of leucoplasts) are non-pigmented organelles found in plant cells responsible for the storage of starch through the polymerisation of glucose. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Elaioplasts are plastids found in plant cells responsible for the storage of fat. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Chromoplasts are plastids responsible for pigment synthesis and storage. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A phragmoplast is the center region of the mitotic spindle of a cell during the telophase portion of mitosis. ... Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation. ... A cell that has almost completed cytokinesis. ... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Family Trentepohliaceae In taxonomy, the Trentepohliales are an order of green algae, specifically the Ulvophyceae. ... Subclasses Andreaeidae Sphagnidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Archidiidae Moss on a rock Mosses belong to the non-vascular plants. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Coast Douglas-fir cone Gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) is a name for a group of seed-bearing (and thus vascular) plants. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...

Cell types

  • Parenchyma cells are living cells that have diverse functions ranging from storage (storage cell) and support to photosynthesis (chlorenchyma cell) and phloem loading (transfer cell). Some parenchyma cells, as in the epidermis, are specialized for light penetration and focusing or regulation of gas exchange. Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls which serves for the mediation of materials, and their cytoplasm is responsible for a wide range of biochemical functions such as nectar secretion, or the manufacture of secondary products that discourage herbivory. Apart from the xylem and phloem in its vascular bundles, leaves are composed of parenchyma cells. Parenchyma cells which contain many chloroplasts and are concerned primarily with photosynthesis are called chlorenchyma cells.
  • Collenchyma cells - Collenchyma cells are also alive at maturity and have only a primary wall. These cells mature from meristem derivatives. They pass briefly through a stage resembling parenchyma, however they are destined to differentiate into collenchyma, and this fact is quite obvious from the very earliest stages. Plastids do not develop and secretory apparatus (ER and Golgi) proliferates to secrete additional primary wall. The wall is most commonly thickest at the corners, where three or more cells come in contact and thinnest where only two cells come in contact, though other arrangements of the wall thickening are possible[13].

Pectin and hemicellulose are the dominant constituents of collenchyma cell walls which may contain as little as 20% of cellulose in Petasites[14]. Collenchyma cells are typically quite elongated, and may divide transversly to give a septate appearance. The role of this cell type is to support the plant in axes still growing in length, and to confer flexibility and tensile strength on tissues. The primary wall lacks lignin that would make it rigid and brittle, so this cell type provides what could be called plastic support. Support that can hold a young stem or petiole into the air, but in cells that can be stretched as the cells around them elongate. Stretchable support (without elastic snap-back) is a good way to describe what collenchyma does. Parts of the strings in celery are collenchyma. Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. ... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface—a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... Cross-section of a flax plant stem: 1. ...

  • Sclerenchyma cells - Sclerenchyma cells (from the Greek skleros, hard) are hard and tough cells with a function in mechanical support. They are of two broad types - sclereids or stone cells and fibres. The cells develop an extensive secondary cell wall that is laid down on the inside of the primary cell wall. The secondary wall is impregnated with lignin, making it hard and impermeable to water. Thus, these cells cannot survive for long as they cannot exchange sufficient material to maintain active metabolism. Sclerenchyma cells are typically dead at functional maturity, and the cytoplasm is missing, leaving an empty central cavity.

Functions for sclereid cells include discouraging herbivory (hard cells that give leaves a gritty texture, or rip open digestive passages in small insect larval stages), protection (a solid tissue of hard sclereid cells form the pit wall in a peach and many other fruits). Functions of fibres include provision of load-bearing support and tensile strength to the leaves and stems of herbaceous plants.[13] Sclerenchyma fibres are not involved in conduction, either of water and nutrients (as in the xylem) or of carbon compounds (as in the phloem), but it is likely that they may have evolved as modifications of xylem and phloem initials in early land plants. Cross-section of a flax plant stem: 1. ... Sclereids are small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers, such as the cores of apples and the gritty texture of pears. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A cell wall is a more or less solid layer surrounding a cell. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Multiple cross sections of a stem showing xylem and companion cells[1] In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ...


Tissue types

The major classes of cells differentiate from undifferentiated meristematic cells (analogous to the stem cells of animals) to form the tissue structures of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and reproductive structures. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plant cell ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Plant cell ... Species See text. ... Cross-section of a flax plant stem: 1. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...


Xylem cells[15] are elongated cells with lignified secondary thickening of the cell walls. The bryophytes lack true xylem cells, but the sporophytes of bryophytes have a water conducting tissue known as the hydrome that is composed of elongated cells of simpler construction. Xylem cells are specialised for conduction of water, and first appeared in plants during their transition to land in the Silurian period (see Cooksonia). They characterise the vascular plants or Tracheophytes. Xylem tracheids are pointed, elongated xylem cells that have continuous primary cell walls. The ferns and other pteridophytes and the gymnosperms only have xylem tracheids, while the angiosperms also have xylem vessels. Vessel members are hollow xylem cells aligned end-to-end, without end walls or perforate that may be assembled into long continuous tubes. Multiple cross sections of a stem showing xylem and companion cells[1] In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Artists impression of Cooksonia Cooksonia are an extinct genus of primitive land plants. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... The pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that neither flower nor produce seeds. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Tracheids are elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants, serving in the transport of water. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... A vessel element is an important part of the wood (Xylem) of hardwood plants and is found in all Angiosperms. ...


Phloem is a specialised tissue for food conduction in higher plants. The bryophytes lack phloem, but moss sporophytes have a simpler tissue with analogous function known as the leptome. Phloem consists of two cell types, the sieve tubes and the intimately-associated companion cells. The sieve tube elements lack nuclei and ribosomes, and their metabolism and functions are regulated by the adjacent nucleate companion cells. Sieve tubes are joined end to end with perforate end-plates between known as sieve plates, which allow transport of photosynthate between the sieve elements. The companion cells, connected to the sieve tubes via plasmodesmata, are responsible for loading the phloem with sugars. In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... The names Sieve tube element and Sieve tube member are synonyms and are used to describe a certain type of elongated cell in phloem tissue. ... A Companion Cell accompanies a Sieve Tube element and is a typical Plant cell, except it has a larger number of Ribosomes and Mitochondria. ... The names Sieve tube element and Sieve tube member are synonyms and are used to describe a certain type of elongated cell in phloem tissue. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Plasmodesmata (Singular, plasmodesma) are small cell junctions in a plant cell which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, forming a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissue. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Plant epidermal cells are specialised parenchyma cells covering the external surfaces of stems and other aerial organs and roots. The epidermal cells arise from the superficial layer of cells known as the tunica that covers the plant shoot apex[13], whereas the cortex and vascular tissues arise from innermost layers of the shoot apex. The epidermis of roots originates from the layer of cells immediately beneath the root cap. Cross-section of a flax plant stem: 1. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ...


The epidermis of all aerial organs, but not roots, is covered with a cuticle made of waxes and the polyester cutin. Several cell types may be present in the epidermis. Notable among these are the stomatal guard cells, glandular and clothing hairs or trichomes, and the root hairs of primary roots. In the epidermis of most plants, only the guard cells have chloroplasts. The epidermal cells of the primary shoot are thought to be the only plant cells with the biochemical capacity to synthesize cutin.[16] Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells (Kolattukudy, 1996) of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs. ... In Botany the Plant cuticle is covered by epicuticular wax mainly consisting of straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons with a variety of substituted groups. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Cutin is a waxy substance which is a component of cuticle at the surface of leaves in plants. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... Interior structure of a trichome. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ...


Parts

The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Plasmodesmata (Singular, plasmodesma) are small cell junctions in a plant cell which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, forming a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissue. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells and... Plastids are a class of membrane-bound organelles found in plant and algal cells. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Leucoplasts, specifically, amyloplasts Leucoplasts are a category of plastid and as such are organelles found in plant cells. ... Chromoplasts are plastids responsible for pigment synthesis and storage. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Various organelles labeled. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ JA Raven (1997) The vacuole: a cost-benefit analysis. Advances in Botanical Research 25, 59–86
  2. ^ RA Leigh and D Sanders (1997) Advances in Botanical Research, Vol 25: The Plant Vacuole. Academic Press, California and London. ISBN 0 12 441870-8
  3. ^ Oparka, KJ (1993) Signalling via plasmodesmata-the neglected pathway. Seminars in Cell Biogy 4, 131-138
  4. ^ Hepler, PK (1982) Endoplasmic reticulum in the formation of the cell plate and plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 111, 121-133
  5. ^ Anderson S, Bankier AT, et al. (1981) Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290, 4–65
  6. ^ L Cui, N Veeraraghavan, et al. (2006) ChloroplastDB: the chloroplast genome database. Nucleic Acids Research, 34, D692-696
  7. ^ L. Margulis (1970)Origin of eukaryotic cells. Yale University Press, New Haven
  8. ^ Lewis, LA, McCourt, RM (2004) Green algae and the origin of land plants. American Journal of Botany 91, 1535-1556
  9. ^ López-Bautista, JM, Waters, DA and Chapman, RL (2003) Phragmoplastin, green algae and the evolution of cytokinesis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53, 1715-1718
  10. ^ Manton, I. and Clarke, B. (1952) An electron microscope study of the spermatozoid of Sphagnum. Journal of Experimental Botany 3, 265-275
  11. ^ D.J. Paolillo, Jr. (1967) On the structure of the axoneme in flagella of Polytrichum juniperinum. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 86, 428-433
  12. ^ PH Raven , Evert RF, Eichhorm SE (1999) Biology of Plants, 6th edition. WH Freeman, New York
  13. ^ a b c EG Cutter (1977) Plant Anatomy Part 1. Cells and Tissues. Edward Arnold, London
  14. ^ PA Roelofsen (1959) The plant cell wall. Handbuch fur Pflanzenanatomie. Band III. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin
  15. ^ MT Tyree; MH Zimmermann (2003) Xylem structure and the ascent of sap, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, New York USA
  16. ^ Kolattukudy, PE (1996) Biosynthetic pathways of cutin and waxes, and their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In: Plant Cuticles. Ed. by G. Kerstiens, BIOS Scientific publishers Ltd., Oxford, pp 83-108
An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Species See text. ... An axoneme is the core scaffold of the eukaryotic cilia and flagella, which are projections from the cell made up of microtubules. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels (only the styles and stigmas are visible) and stamens, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ...

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Plant cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (408 words)
This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and prokaryotes, which are made of peptidoglycan.
Plants lack centrioles that are present in animal cells.
The three distinct types of plant cells are classified according to the structure of their cell walls and features of their protoplast.
Cell wall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1012 words)
Plant cell walls have a number of functions: they provide rigidity to the cell for structural and mechanical support, maintaining cell shape, the direction of cell growth and ultimately the architecture of the plant.
Cells interact though plasmodesma(ta), which are inter-connecting channels of cytoplasm that connect to the protoplasts of adjacent cells across the cell wall.
Cell walls of bacteria are primarily used for protection against hostile environments or, in the case of pathogenic bacteria, against the immune system of the host.
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