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Encyclopedia > Plant anatomy

Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. However, the description of the external stucture plants is often called plant morphology, hence the term plant anatomy is sometimes reserved for the internal structure of plants. Plant morphology is generally used in the field identification of plants. Plant anatomy is now frequently investigated at the cellular level. Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ...


Structural divisions

Plant anatomy is sometimes divided into the following categories:

Flower anatomy
Leaf anatomy
Leaf anatomy
Stem anatomy
Stem structure
Fruit/Seed anatomy
Seed structure
Accessory fruit
Wood anatomy
Vascular cambium
Heartwood and sapwood
Root anatomy
Root structure

Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Corolla can be: A Latin-language term for crown The Toyota Corolla, a model of automobile manufactured by Toyota The corolla is one whorl of the perianth of a flower and composed of petals The town of Corolla, North Carolina This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that... An androecium is a male part of a flower in a flowering plant. ... A gynoecium(gyne: woman) is the female reproductive part of a flower, the male part of a flower is called androecium. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A stem is the main axis of a vascular plant that is divided into nodes and internodes and has one or more leaves or buds at the nodes. ... An ovule is a structure found in seed plants that develops into a seed after fertilization. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Cork is a tissue found in some plants, which consists tightly packed dead cells. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem: The vascular cambium is the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and hence is located between these tissues in the stem. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ...


About 300 BCE Theophrastus wrote a number of plant treatises, only two of which survive. He developed concepts of plant morphology and classification, which did not withstand the scientific scrutiny of the Renaissance. Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). ...

A Swiss physician and botanist, Gaspard Bauhin, introduced binomial nomenclature into plant taxonomy. He published Pinax theatri botanici in 1596, which was the first to use this convention for naming of species. His criteria for classification included natural relationships, or 'affinities', which in many cases were structural. Gaspard Bauhin Gaspard Bauhin, or Caspar Bauhin (January 17, 1560 – December 5, 1624), was a Swiss-French botanist. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Italian doctor and microscopist, Marcello Malpighi, was one of the two founders of plant anatomy. In 1671 he published his Anatomia Plantarum, the first major advance in plant physiogamy since Aristotle. Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - November 29, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ...

The British doctor, Nehemiah Grew was one of the two founders of plant anatomy. He published An Idea of a Philosophical History of Plants in 1672 and The Anatomy of Plants in 1682. Grew is credited with the recognition of plant cells, although he called them 'vesicles' and 'bladders'. He correctly identified and described the sexual organs of plants (flowers) and their parts. Nehemiah Grew. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ...

In the Eighteenth Century, Carolus Linnaeus established taxonomy based on structure, and his early work was with plant anatomy. While the exact structural level which is to be considered to be scientifically valid for comparison and differentiation has changed with the growth of knowledge, the basic principles were established by Linnaeus. He published his master work, Species Plantarum in 1753. Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

In 1802, French botanist, Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel, published Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie végétale (Treatise on Plant Anatomy and Physiolog) establishing the beginnings of the science of plant cytology. Potrait of Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel (27 March 1776 – 12 September 1854) was a French botanist and politician. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ...

In 1813 a Swiss botanist, Augustin Pyrame de Candolle, published Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, in which he argued that plant anatomy, not physiology, ought to be the sole basis for plant classification. Using a scientific basis, he established structural criteria for defining and separating plant genera. A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ...

In 1830, Franz Meyen published Phytotomie, the first comprehensive review of plant anatomy. Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen (June 28, 1804 - September 2, 1840) was a German physician and botanist. ...

In 1838 German botanist, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, published Contributions to Phytogenesis, stating, "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and continuing Mirabel's work. Die Entwickelung der Meduse (The Development of the Medusas), in Schleidens Das Meer Matthias Jakob Schleiden (April 5, 1804 - June 23, 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory. ...

A German-Polish botanist, Eduard Strasburger, described the mitotic process in plant cells and further demonstrated that new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other pre-existing nuclei. His Studien über Protoplasma was published in 1876. Eduard Adolf Strasburger (February 1, 1844, Warsaw - May 19, 1912, Bonn) was one of the most famous German botanists of the 19th century. ...

Gottlieb Haberlandt, a German botanist, studied plant physiology and classified plant tissue based upon function. On this basis, in 1884 he published Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie (Physiological Plant Anatomy) in which he described twelve types of tissue systems (absorptive, mechanical, photosynthetic, etc.). Gottlieb Haberlandt (28 November 1854 to 30 January 1945) was a Austrian botanist. ...

British paleobotanists Dunkinfield Henry Scott and William Crawford Williamson described the structures of fossilized plants at the end of the Ninetteenth Century. Scott's Studies in Fossil Botany was published in 1900. William Crawford Williamson (November 24, 1816-June 23, 1895) was an English naturalist. ...

Following Charles Darwin's Origen of Species a Canadian botanist, Edward Charles Jeffrey, who was studing the comparative anatomy and phylogeny of different vascular plant groups, applied the theory to plants using the form and structure of plants to establish a number of evolutionary lines. He published his The Anatomy of Woody Plants in 1917. Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist [1] who achieved lasting fame by producing considerable evidence that species originated through evolutionary change, at the same time proposing the scientific theory that natural selection is the mechanism by which such change occurs. ...

The growth of comparative plant anatomy was spearheaded by a British botanist, Agnes Arber. She published Water Plants: A Study of Aquatic Angiosperms in 1920, Monocotyledons: A Morphological Study in 1925, and The Gramineae: A Study of Cereal, Bamboo and Grass in 1934. Agnes Arber (1879-1960) was a renowned British plant morphologist and anatomist, historian of botany and philosopher of biology. ...

Following World War II, Katherine Esau published, Plant Anatomy (1953), which became the definitive textbook on plant structure in North American universities and elsewhere, it was still in print as of 2006. She followed up with her Anatomy of seed plants in 1960. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Katherine Esau (April 3, 1898 – June 4, 1997) was a Ukrainian-American botanist. ...


  • Eames, Arthur Johnson and MacDaniels, Laurence H. (1947) An Introduction to Plant Anatomy McGraw-Hill, New York;
  • Esau, Katherine (1965) Plant Anatomy (2nd ed.) Wiley, New York;

See also

In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ...

External links

  • Farabee, M.J. (2001) "Plants and their structure" Estrella Mountain Community College, Phoenix, Arizona

  Results from FactBites:
Anatomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (525 words)
Anatomy (from the Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things.
Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology, or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy.
From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of humans, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or developmental biology, phylogeny, and histology.
  More results at FactBites »



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