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Encyclopedia > Plant
Plants
Fossil range: Cambrian to recent, but see text

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked) Archaeplastida
Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]
Divisions

Green algae Look up plant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1100 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ...

Land plants (embryophytes) Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes...

Nematophytes The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Families & Genera Anthocerotaceae Anthoceros Folioceros Leiosporoceros Phaeoceros Sphaerosporoceros Dendrocerotaceae Dendroceros Megaceros Notoceros Notothyladaceae Notothylas Hornworts are a group of bryophytes, or non-vascular plants, comprising the division Anthocerotophyta. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... Rhyniophyta were among the first modern-style land plants, which seem to have been fully vacular (they used tubes to carry nutrients through their stems), and may have been direct descendants of cooksonia, the very first land plants thought to start to develop a vascular system. ... Genera Crenaticaulis Gosslingia Gumuia Rebuchia Sawdonia Serrulacaulis Zosterophyllum The Zosterophyllaceae or Zosterophylls (class Zosterophyllopsida) were among the first vascular plants in the fossil record. ... Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called Lycophyta) is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae. ... A division of early land plant from the Devonian containing genera such as Psilophyton. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... taxa: Gnetales Welwitschiales Ephedrales The plant division Gnetophyta or gnetophytes comprise three related families of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms, a paraphyletic group of seed plant divisions. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Species Nematothallus is a genus of early land plant known only from the fossil record. ...

Plants are a major group of life forms and include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 15,000 bryophytes. Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... Genera See: List of Poaceae genera The true grasses are monocot (class Liliopsida) plants of the family Poaceae (formerly Graminae). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Fern ally is a general term covering a somewhat diverse group of vascular plants that are not flowering plants and not true ferns. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... Bryophyte is a botanical term which refers to any member of the following divisions of the Plantae kingdom: Bryophyta (mosses) Anthocerophyta (hornworts) Hepatophyta (liverworts) Despite the similarity in name, a bryophyte does not exclusively imply a species of the division bryophyta. ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...

Contents

Definition

Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular. Indeed, an attempt to perfectly match "plant" with a single taxon is problematic, because for most people the term "plant" is only vaguely related to the phylogenic concepts on which modern taxonomy and systematics are based. This article is about the philosopher. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Phyla Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented worms Tardigrada - Water bears Onychophora - Velvet worms Arthropoda - Insects, etc. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ...


When the name Plantae is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:

Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that are not closely related to true plants. There are around about 375,000 species (types) of plants, and each year more are found and described by science. Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Genera Chara Lamprothamnium Nitella Tolypella The Charales are an order of green alga, Chlorophyta, plants believed to be the closest relatives of the green land plants. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Species Ulva lactuca Ulva pertusa Ulva fasciata Ulva rigida Ulva pertusa Ulva linza and more at algaeBASE The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae widely distributed along the coasts of the worlds oceans. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... subgroups Glaucophyta Rhodophyta (Red algae) Viridiplantae (green plants) (= Chlorobionta) Green algae (grade group) Embryophyta (Land plants) Primoplantae is a group of organisms that includes green plants (green algae and land plants), red algae, and an obscure group of single-celled algae called the glaucophytes. ... Sensu is a Latin term meaning in the sense of. It is used in taxonomy to specify which circumscription of a given taxon is meant, where more than one circumscription has been defined. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... Red algae Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5000 - 6000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Possible classes Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete The glaucophytes (Glaucophyta Skuja), also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... The glaucophytes, also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ...


Algae

Main article: Algae

The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis. However, most are not classified within the Kingdom Plantae but in the Kingdom Protista. Most conspicuous are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green, red, and brown algae. These and other algal groups also include various single-celled organisms. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2346x3308, 1804 KB) Summary The 64th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Siphoneae. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2346x3308, 1804 KB) Summary The 64th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Siphoneae. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Orders Ascoseirales Chordariales Cutleriales Desmarestiales Dictyosiphonales Dictyotales Ectocarpales Fucales Laminariales(kelps) Scytosiphonales Scytothamnales Sphacelariales Sporochnales Syringodermatales Tilopteridales The brown algae or phaeophytes are a large group of multicellular algae, including many notable seaweeds. ...


The embryophytes developed from green algae (Chlorophyta); the two groups are collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose and chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae. Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ...


The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of the red algae, and the two groups are generally believed to have a common origin (see Archaeplastida). In contrast, most other algae have chloroplasts with three or four membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably in origin acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ...


Fungi

Main article: Fungi

Fungi are no longer considered to be plants, though they were previously included in the plant kingdom. Unlike embryophytes and algae, fungi are not photosynthetic, but are saprotrophs: obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials. Fungi are not plants, but were historically treated as closely related to plants, and were considered to be in the purview of botanists. It has long been recognized that fungi are evolutionarily closer to animals than to plants, but they still are covered more in depth in introductory botany courses and are not necessarily touched upon in introductory zoology courses. Most fungi are formed by microscopic structures called hyphae, which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei. Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar, are the reproductive structures of fungi. They are not related to any of the photosynthetic groups, but are close relatives of animals. Therefore, the fungi are in a kingdom of their own. Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... A Saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds. ... A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament that, with other hyphae, forms the feeding thallus of a fungus called the mycelium. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Diversity

About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering plants, 16,000 bryophytes, 11,000 ferns and 8,000 green algae. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Fern ally is a general term covering a somewhat diverse group of vascular plants that are not flowering plants and not true ferns. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ...

Diversity of living plant divisions
Informal group Division name Common name No. of living species
Green algae Chlorophyta green algae (chlorophytes) 3,800 [2]
Charophyta green algae (desmids & charophytes) 4,000 - 6,000 [3]
Bryophytes Marchantiophyta liverworts 6,000 - 8,000 [4]
Anthocerotophyta hornworts 100 - 200 [5]
Bryophyta mosses 10,000 [6]
Pteridophytes Lycopodiophyta club mosses 1,200 [7]
Pteridophyta ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails 11,000 [7]
Seed plants Cycadophyta cycads 160 [8]
Ginkgophyta ginkgo 1 [9]
Pinophyta conifers 630 [7]
Gnetophyta gnetophytes 70 [7]
Magnoliophyta flowering plants 258,650 [10]


Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Families Closteriaceae Desmidiaceae Gonatozygaceae Peniaceae Desmids are an order (Desmidiales) of green algae, comprising around 40 genera and 5,000 species[1], found mostly but not exclusively in fresh water. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... This is an article about the non-vascular plants known as hornworts. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... The pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that neither flower nor produce seeds. ... Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called Lycophyta) is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of some twenty thousand species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants which are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... taxa: Gnetales Welwitschiales Ephedrales The plant division Gnetophyta or gnetophytes comprise three related families of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms, a paraphyletic group of seed plant divisions. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ...


Phylogeny

A proposed phylogeny of the Plantae after Kenrick and Crane[11] is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al.[12] The Prasinophyceae may be a paraphyletic basal group to all green plants. Prasinophytes are a class of primitive eukaryotic, chlorophyte marine algae (Sym and Pienaar, 1993). ...



Prasinophyceae (micromonads) Prasinophytes are a class of primitive eukaryotic, chlorophyte marine algae (Sym and Pienaar, 1993). ...



Streptobionta

Embryophytes

Stomatophytes

Polysporangiates

Tracheophytes
Eutracheophytes
Euphyllophytina
Lignophytia

Spermatophytes (seed plants) Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ...



Progymnospermophyta †



Pteridophyta


Pteridopsida (true ferns) Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Subclasses Subclass: Cyatheatae Subclass: Schizaeatae Subclass: Pteriditae Subclass: Polypoditae The Pteridopsida is a class of plants in the Division Pteridophyta that includes the modern ferns. ...



Marattiopsida Orders Marattiales Class Marattiopsida is a group of ferns containing a single order, Marattiales, and family, Marattiaceae. ...



Equisetopsida (horsetails) Species Subgenus Equisetum Equisetum arvense - Field or Common Horsetail Equisetum bogotense - Andean Horsetail Equisetum diffusum - Himalayan Horsetail Equisetum fluviatile - Water Horsetail Equisetum palustre - Marsh Horsetail Equisetum pratense - Shade Horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum - Wood Horsetail Equisetum telmateia - Great Horsetail Subgenus Hippochaete Equisetum giganteum - Giant Horsetail Equisetum myriochaetum - Mexican Giant Horsetail Equisetum hyemale...



Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues) Orders Psilotales Ophioglossales Psilotopsida is a class of fern-like plants. ...



Cladoxylopsida † The cladoxylopsids are a group of plants known only as fossils that are thought to be ancestors of ferns and horsetails. ...





Lycophytina

Lycopodiophyta Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called Lycophyta) is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae. ...



Zosterophyllophyta † Genera Crenaticaulis Gosslingia Gumuia Rebuchia Sawdonia Serrulacaulis Zosterophyllum The Zosterophyllaceae or Zosterophylls (class Zosterophyllopsida) were among the first vascular plants in the fossil record. ...





Rhyniophyta † Rhyniophyta were among the first modern-style land plants, which seem to have been fully vacular (they used tubes to carry nutrients through their stems), and may have been direct descendants of cooksonia, the very first land plants thought to start to develop a vascular system. ...





Aglaophyton †



Horneophytopsida †





Bryophyta (mosses) For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ...



Anthocerotophyta (hornworts) This is an article about the non-vascular plants known as hornworts. ...





Marchantiophyta (liverworts) Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ...





Charophyta Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ...





Chlorophyta


Trebouxiophyceae (Pleurastrophyceae) Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Orders Chlorellales Ctenocladales Microthamniales Prasiolales In taxonomy, the Trebouxiophyceae are a class of the Chlorophyta. ...



Chlorophyceae Orders see text The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. ...




Ulvophyceae Orders Acrosiphoniales Caulerpales Cladophorales Dasycladales Oltmansiellopsidales Trentepohliales Ulotrichales Ulvales The Ulvophyceae or Ulvophytes are class of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. ...





Embryophytes

Main article: Embryophyte

Most familiar are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes. They include the vascular plants, plants with full systems of leaves, stems, and roots. They also include a few of their close relatives, often called bryophytes, of which mosses and liverworts are the most common. Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1484x1600, 1025 KB) Ferns (Dicksonia antarctica) in Nunniong, Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Fern User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/July 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1484x1600, 1025 KB) Ferns (Dicksonia antarctica) in Nunniong, Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Fern User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/July 2005 ... Binomial name Dicksonia antarctica Dicksonia antarctica, known commonly as the Tasmanian Tree Fern, Soft Tree Fern, or the Man Fern, is an evergreen tree fern native to parts of Australia, namely New South Wales, Tasmania, and Victoria. ... Tree Fern refers to any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Bryophyte is a botanical term which refers to any member of the following divisions of the Plantae kingdom: Bryophyta (mosses) Anthocerophyta (hornworts) Hepatophyta (liverworts) Despite the similarity in name, a bryophyte does not exclusively imply a species of the division bryophyta. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ...


All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. Plants are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues. Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ...


Bryophytes first appeared during the early Palaeozoic. They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation tolerant. Most species of bryophyte remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. The sporophyte is short-lived and remains dependent on its parent gametophyte. The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a sporophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains a total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ...


Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments. They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes. These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate individual, while the gametophyte remains small. The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ...


The first primitive seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous, with further evolution through the Permian and Triassic periods. In these the gametophyte stage is completely reduced, and the sporophyte begins life inside an enclosure called a seed, which develops while on the parent plant, and with fertilisation by means of pollen grains. Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions. The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


Early seed plants are referred to as gymnosperms (naked seeds), as the seed embryo is not enclosed in a protective structure at pollination, with the pollen landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes. The angiosperms, comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous. These differ in that the seed embryo (angiosperm) is enclosed, so the pollen has to grow a tube to penetrate the protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today. Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


Fossils

Main articles: Paleobotany and Evolutionary history of plants

Plant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide. Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1231, 841 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1231, 841 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Petrified Forest National Park is located in northeastern Arizona, along Interstate 40 between Holbrook and Navajo. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Image of a Phytolith (bulliform) A Phytolith (Plant stone) is a rigid microscopic body that occurs in many plants. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Acritarchs are small organic structures found as fossils. ...


The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain. For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Orders Dasycladaceae Polyphysaceae In taxonomy, the Dasycladales is an order of large unicellular green algae under the class Ulvophyceae. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...


The oldest known trace fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris. This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds. A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The division Lycopodiophyta is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae that includes some of the most primitive of extant (living) vascular plants. ... Binomial name Baragwanathia longifolia Lang et Cookson Baragwanathia longifolia Lang & Cookson 1935 is an ancient and extinct species of vascular plant. ... Rhyniophyta is a name sometimes used for the group of plants found in the Rhynie chert, Lagerstätte (rich fossil beds) in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ... The Devonian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Silurian period (360 million years ago (mya)) to the beginning of the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous (408. ... Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like ferns that many scientists believe to be the first tree. ...


The Coal Measures are a major source of Palaeozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Forest at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions. A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Species See text. ...


The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Caenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cenozoic or Cainozoic era (sometimes Caenozoic Era) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... This article is about the plant. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ...


Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion. Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents. Petrified log at the Petrified Forest National Park A petrified tree from California Petrified wood is a type of fossil: it consists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals (most often a silicate, such as quartz), while retaining the original structure of the wood. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ...


Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the southern hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory. Species see text Glossopteris (Greek glossa, meaning tongue, because the leaves were tongue-shaped) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (or in some cases as Arberiales or Dictyopteridiales). ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift was widely ridiculed in his day Alfred Lothar Wegener (Berlin, November 1, 1880 – Greenland, November 2 or 3, 1930) was a German interdisciplinary scientist and meteorologist, who became famous for his theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung or die Verschiebung der Kontinente in his... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ...


Life processes

Growth

Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. Through a process known as photosynthesis, plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into simple sugars. These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Plants rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain nitrogen, phosphorus and other crucial elemental nutrients. For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere (for respiration in the dark) and oxygen around their roots. However, a few specialized vascular plants, such as Mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions. The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... This article deals with sugar as food and as an important, widely traded commodity; the word also has other uses; see Sugar (disambiguation) A sugar is a form of carbohydrate; the most commonly used sugar is a white crystalline solid, sucrose; used to alter the flavor and properties (mouthfeel, perservation... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...

The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 158 KB) Leaf1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 158 KB) Leaf1. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...

Factors affecting growth

The genotype of a plant affects its growth, for example selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.[13]


Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plants growth. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ...


Biotic factors (living organisms) also affect plant growth.

  • Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual makes normal growth.[13]
  • Many plants rely on birds and insects to affect pollination.
  • Grazing animals may completely affect vegetation.
  • Soil fertility is influenced by the activity of bacteria and fungi.
  • Bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and insects can parasitise plants.
  • Some plant roots require an association with fungi to maintain normal activity (mycorrhizal association).[13]

Simple plants like algae may have short life spans as individuals, but their populations are commonly seasonal. Other plants may be organized according to their seasonal growth pattern:

  • Annual: live and reproduce within one growing season.
  • Biennial: live for two growing seasons; usually reproduce in second year.
  • Perennial: live for many growing seasons; continue to reproduce once mature.

Among the vascular plants, perennials include both evergreens that keep their leaves the entire year, and deciduous plants which lose their leaves for some part. In temperate and boreal climates, they generally lose their leaves during the winter; many tropical plants lose their leaves during the dry season. Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Boreal may refer to these: Northern from the eponymous Boreas, god of the North Wind in Greek mythology. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ...


The growth rate of plants is extremely variable. Some mosses grow less than 0.001 mm/h, while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h. Some climbing species, such as kudzu, which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5 mm/h. For other uses, see Kudzu (disambiguation). ...


Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose is common). LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing.[14] Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Antifreeze proteins AFPs or ice structuring proteins ISPs refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments. ... Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a group of proteins whose expression is increased when the cells are exposed to elevated temperatures. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid. ...


Internal distribution

Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. The xylem cells move water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem cells provide the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves. [15] Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in plants, phloem being the other one. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...


Ecology

Main article: Ecology

The photosynthesis conducted by land plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which as a result is now 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web in those ecosystems. Many animals rely on plants for shelter as well as oxygen and food. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... Figure 1. ...


Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria, making plants an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plant roots play an essential role in soil development and prevention of soil erosion. The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ...


Distribution

Plants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.) The World in Plate Carrée Projection In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is Age of Man. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale...


Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests. A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... This article is about a community of trees. ...


Ecological relationships

Numerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1527x1670, 761 KB) Summary Description: The trap of a Venus fly trap, showing trigger hairs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1527x1670, 761 KB) Summary Description: The trap of a Venus fly trap, showing trigger hairs. ... For other uses, see Venus Flytrap (disambiguation). ... Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ... Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A myrmecophyte is a plant that lives in association with a colony of ants and possesses specialized organs in which the ants live. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S. In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two species in which both species derive benefit. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... An endophyte is an organism that lives within a plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent disease. ...


Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, so have no chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants. Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe Viscum album is a plant parasitic on the branches of a tree or shrub. ... Species See text. ... Species Lathraea squamaria Toothwort is the popular name for a small British carnivorous plant of curious form and growth, known botanically as Lathraea squamaria, family Scrophulariaceae. ... Myco-heterotrophs ... Parasitism is an interaction between two organisms, in which one organism (the parasite) benefits and the other (the host) is harmed, though usually without killing the host. ...


Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them. Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata, complex aquatic food webs.[16] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Genera See text Bromeliads include epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, and ground plants, such as the Pineapple. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ...


A few plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus Flytrap and sundew. They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen. Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ... For other uses, see Venus Flytrap (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant. ...


Importance

Potato plant. Potatoes spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 1400s and early 1500s and have since become an important field crop.
Potato plant. Potatoes spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 1400s and early 1500s and have since become an important field crop.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill.
A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.
A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.

The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany. They are often used as synonyms but some consider economic botany to focus mainly on uses of modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany studies uses of indigenous plants by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry. Download high resolution version (1860x2790, 832 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1860x2790, 832 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links This is a photo I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Image File history File links This is a photo I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... Yew wood showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). ... Yew wood showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific (or Western) Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Taxus is a genus of yews, small coniferous trees or shrubs... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ...


Food

Virtually all human nutrition depends on land plants directly or indirectly. Much of human nutrition depends on cereals, especially maize or corn, wheat and rice or other staple crops such as potato, cassava, and legumes. Other parts from plants that are eaten include fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs, spices and edible flowers. Beverages from plants include coffee, tea, wine, beer and alcohol. Sugar is obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beet. Cooking oils and margarine come from corn, soybean, canola, safflower, sunflower, olive and others. Food additives include gum arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin. Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet, particularly that of the poor. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... “Yuca” redirects here. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Binomial name Carthamus tinctorius (Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967) Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it, or to improve its flavour and appearance. ... Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ... Guar gum, also called guaran, is primarily the ground endosperm of guar beans. ... Locust bean gum (European Union additive number E410) is a galactomannan vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the Carob tree. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ...


Nonfood products

Wood is used for buildings, furniture, paper, cardboard, musical instruments and sports equipment. Cloth is often made from cotton, flax or synthetic fibers derived from cellulose, such as rayon and acetate. Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and many other biofuels. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels derived from plants. Medicines derived from plants include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. There are hundreds of herbal supplements such as ginkgo, Echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort. Pesticides derived from plants include nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins. Drugs obtained from plants include opium, cocaine and marijuana. Poisons from plants include ricin, hemlock and curare. Plants are the source of many natural products such as fibers, essential oils, dyes, pigments, waxes, tannins, latex, gums, resins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products derived from plants include soaps, paints, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, turpentine, rubber, varnish, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks, chewing gum and hemp rope. Plants are also a primary source of basic chemicals for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. These chemicals are used in a vast variety of studies and experiments. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the drug. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... This article is about the drug. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... Vincristine (Oncovin®), also known as leurocristine, is a vinca alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Species See text Echinacea commonly called the Purple coneflowers, is a genus of nine species of herbaceous plants in the Family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. ... Binomial name Hypericum perforatum L. St Johns wort (IPA pronunciation: , rhyming with hurt, or ) used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Klamath weed or Goat weed, but is used with qualifiers to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Rotenone is a colorless-to-red, odorless solid. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... Pyrethrin I, R = CH3 Pyrethrin II, R = CO2CH3 The pyrethrins are a pair of natural organic compounds that have potent insecticidal activity. ... This article is about the drug. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced ) is a toxin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Species Conium chaerophylloides (Thunb. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...


Aesthetic uses

Thousands of plant species are cultivated to beautify the human environment as well as to provide shade, modify temperatures, reduce windspeed, abate noise, provide privacy and prevent soil erosion. People use cut flowers, dried flowers and house plants indoors. Outdoors, they use lawngrasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous perennials and bedding plants. Images of plants are often used in art, architecture, humor, language and photography and on textiles, money, stamps, flags and coats of arms. Living plant art forms include topiary, bonsai, ikebana and espalier. Ornamental plants have sometimes changed the course of history, as in tulipomania. Plants are the basis of a multi-billion dollar per year tourism industry which includes travel to arboretums, botanical gardens, historic gardens, national parks, tulip festivals, rainforests, forests with colorful autumn leaves and the National Cherry Blossom Festival. Venus flytrap, sensitive plant and resurrection plant are examples of plants sold as novelties. A topiary dinosaur at Epcot Topiary is the art of creating sculptures in the medium of shrubbery, after the Latin word for an ornamental landscape gardener, toparius. ... For other uses, see Bonsai (disambiguation). ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... Espaliered pear tree in the garden of the Cloisters in upper Manhattan Espalier is the horticultural technique of training trees through pruning and grafting in order to create formal two-dimensional or single plane patterns by the branches of the tree. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term tulipomania (alternatively tulip mania) is used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble. ... An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... Garden tourism is a type of niche tourism involving visits or travel to botanical gardens and places which are significant in the history of gardening. ... This article is about national parks. ... It has been suggested that Tulip Time Festival be merged into this article or section. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Washington, D.C. Tidal Basin showing cherry trees in flower The National Cherry Blossom Festival is an annual celebration in Washington, D.C., commemorating the March 27, 1912, gift to the city of 3,000 Japanese cherry trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo to enhance the growing friendship between... For the cocktail, see Mimosa (cocktail), and for the star in Crucis, Becrux. ... Binomial name Anastatica hierochuntica L. The Rose of Jericho, Resurrection plant, or Anastatica hierochuntica is a member of the family Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae) and the only member of the genus Anastatica. ...


Scientific and cultural uses

Tree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a record of past climates. Basic biological research has often been done with plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics. Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support. Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Numerous world records are held by plants. Plants are often used as memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays. Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants. Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium. The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... Controlled (or Closed) Ecological Life Support Systems or (acronym CELSS) are a type of scientific endeavor to create a self-supporting life support system for space stations and colonies typically through controlled ecological environments, such as the BioHome, BIOS-3, Biosphere 2 and Mars Base Zero. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: External links USDA list of state trees and flowers Juelies State Flower Garden of Gifs List of state flowers See also List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: | ... The following is a partial list of famous trees. ... Trees have played an important role in many of the worlds mythologies and religions. ... Fictional plants are plants that have been invented, and do not exist in real life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Dioscorides’ Materia Medica, c. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Horticulture therapy is the practice of horticulture as therapy to improve human well-being. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Negative effects

Weeds are plants that grow where people do not want them. People have spread plants beyond their native ranges and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species. Invasive plants cause billions of dollars in crop losses annually by displacing crop plants, they increase the cost of production and the use of chemical means to control them effects the environment. Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


Plants may cause harm to people. Plants that produce windblown pollen invoke allergic reactions in people who suffer from hay fever. A wide variety of plants are poisonous. Several plants cause skin irritations when touched, such as poison ivy. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals, which are extracted and ingested or smoked, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and opium, causing damage to health or even death.[17][18] Both illegal and legal drugs derived from plants have negative effects on the economy, effecting worker productivity and law enforcement costs.[19][20] Some plants cause allergic reactions in people and animals when ingested, while other plants cause food intolerances that negatively effect health. For the play, see Hay Fever. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... This article is about the drug. ...


See also

For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. ... This is a list of plants containing poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant cell structure Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic kingdoms organisms. ... Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. ... This article is about theories regarding emotion and paranormal perceptions in plants especially as applies to the work of Cleve Backster. ... This article is about the physiology of perception and response in multicellular plants. ... Rapid plant movement encompasses movement in plant structures occurring over a very short period of time, usually under one second. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ...

References

  1. ^ Haeckel G (1866). Generale Morphologie der Organismen. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, vol.1: i–xxxii, 1–574, pls I–II; vol. 2: i–clx, 1–462, pls I–VIII. 
  2. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae:An Introduction to Phycology. pages 343, 350, 392, 413, 425, 439, & 448 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  3. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae:An Introduction to Phycology. pages 457, 463, & 476. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  4. ^ Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. & Stotler, Raymond E., 2000. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 21 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  5. ^ Schuster, Rudolf M., The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume VI, pages 712-713. (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1992). ISBN 0-914-86821-7.
  6. ^ Buck, William R. & Bernard Goffinet, 2000. "Morphology and classification of mosses", page 71 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  7. ^ a b c d Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, & Susan E. Eichhorn, 2005. Biology of Plants, 7th edition. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  8. ^ Gifford, Ernest M. & Adriance S. Foster, 1988. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, 3rd edition, page 358. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1946-0.
  9. ^ Taylor, Thomas N. & Edith L. Taylor, 1993. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, page 636. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall). ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  10. ^ lnternational Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:Summary Statistics
  11. ^ Kenrick, Paul & Peter R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press). ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  12. ^ Smith, Alan R., Kathleen M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider, & Paul G. Wolf. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55(3): 705-731.
  13. ^ a b c Robbins, W.W., Weier, T.E., et al, Botany:Plant Science, 3rd edition , Wiley International, New York, 1965.
  14. ^ Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., & Tunnacliffe, A. (2005). LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress. Biochemical Journal 388 (Part 1): 151 – 157. PMID 15631617. 
  15. ^ Campbell, Reece, Biology, 7th edition, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2005
  16. ^ Bromeliad Phytotelmata[1]
  17. ^ cocaine/crack.
  18. ^ Deaths related to cocaine.
  19. ^ ILLEGAL DRUGS DRAIN $160 BILLION A YEAR FROM AMERICAN ECONOMY.
  20. ^ The social cost of illegal drug consumption in Spain.

Further reading

General
  • Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion - Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
  • Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  • Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  • Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  • Trewavas, A. (2003). Aspects of Plant Intelligence, Annals of Botany 92: 1-20.
Species estimates and counts
  • Prance, G. T. (2001). Discovering the Plant World. Taxon 50: 345-359.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [2].
  • Both the above are cited in Nature Conservancy, Spring 2006, p. 14.

External links

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Botanical and vegetation databases



  Results from FactBites:
 
Welcome to the PLANTS Database | USDA PLANTS (225 words)
The PLANTS Database provides standardized information about the vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and lichens of the U.S. and its territories.
Automated plant keys for selected U.S. plant groups are available for use and testing on-line or by downloading the application.
We are modernizing PLANTS to fit the new USDA Web standard, which is part of a broader USDA initiative called Web Site Development and Maintenance.
Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals (4506 words)
A plant patent is granted by the Government to an inventor (or the inventor's heirs or assigns) who has invented or discovered and asexually reproduced a distinct and new variety of plant, other than a tuber propagated plant or a plant found in an uncultivated state.
That the plant is not a plant which is excluded by statute, where the part of the plant used for asexual reproduction is not a tuber food part, as with potato or Jerusalem artichoke.
The inventor of a plant must have discovered or identified the novel plant, and must have asexually reproduced the plant and observed the clones so produced for a sufficient amount of time to have concluded that the clones are identical to the parent plant in all characteristics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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