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Encyclopedia > Plankton

This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. For the character in the show SpongeBob SquarePants, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants) Sheldon J. Plankton, better known as simply Plankton, is a fictional character in the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants. ...


Photomontage of plankton organisms

Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. It is a description of life-style rather than a genetic classification. They are widely considered to be some of the most important organisms on Earth, due to the food supply they provide to most aquatic life. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An imaginary world composed of photorealistic inanimate, human, and plant objects spurs a psychological impact upon the viewer. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...

Contents

Definitions

Some marine diatoms - a key phytoplankton group
Some marine diatoms - a key phytoplankton group

The name plankton is derived from the Greek word πλανκτος ("planktos"), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter".[1] While some forms of plankton are capable of independent movement and can swim up to several hundreds of meters vertically in a single day (a behavior called diel vertical migration), their horizontal position is primarily determined by currents in the body of water they inhabit. By definition, organisms classified as plankton are unable to resist ocean currents. This is in contrast to nekton organisms that can swim against the ambient flow of the water environment and control their position (e.g. squid, fish, and marine mammals). Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diel vertical migration refers to a pattern of movement that some organisms living in the oceans photic zone undertake each day. ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... Nekton is the grouping of living organisms that live in the water column of the ocean and freshwater lakes. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member...


Within the plankton, itself, holoplankton are those organisms that spend their entire life cycle as part of the plankton (e.g. most algae, copepods, salps, and some jellyfish). By contrast, meroplankton are those organisms that are only planktonic for part of their lives (usually the larval stage), and then graduate to either the nekton or a benthic (sea floor) existence. Examples of meroplankton include the larvae of sea urchins, starfish, crustaceans, marine worms, and most fish. Holoplankton are organisms that are planktonic for their entire life cycle. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Acanthochondria cornuta, an ectoparasite on Whiting in the North Sea. ... A salp is a barrel-shaped, free-floating tunicate that moves by pumping water through its gelatinous bodies by means of contraction, and strains the water, feeding on phytoplankton. ... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Meroplankton are organisms that are planktonic for only a part of their life cycles, usually the larval stage. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Plankton abundance and distribution are strongly dependent on factors such as ambient nutrients concentrations, the physical state of the water column, and the abundance of other plankton. Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ...


The study of plankton is termed planktology. Individual plankton are referred to as plankters.
Planktology is the study of plankton, various microorganisms that inhabit bodies of water. ...

An amphipod (Hyperia macrocephala)
An amphipod (Hyperia macrocephala)

Plankton are primarily divided into broad functional (or trophic level) groups: amphipod (Photo by Uwe Kils, free in sense of Wikipedia:Copyrights) larger images at http://www. ... amphipod (Photo by Uwe Kils, free in sense of Wikipedia:Copyrights) larger images at http://www. ... Sub-orders Gammaridea Caprellidea Hyperiidea Ingolfiellidea Amphipoda (amphipods) include about 4600 different species of small, shrimp-like crustaceans. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophē, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ...

Macroplankton 2×10-2→2×10-1 m (2-20 cm) metazoans; e.g. pteropods; chaetognaths
Mesoplankton 2×10-4→2×10-2 m (0.2 mm-2 cm) metazoans; e.g. copepods
Microplankton 2×10-5→2×10-4 m (20-200 µm) large eukaryotic protists; juvenile/small metazoans
Nanoplankton 2×10-6→2×10-5 m (2-20 µm) small eukaryotic protists
Picoplankton 2×10-7→2×10-6 m (0.2-2 µm) small eukaryotic protists; bacteria
Femtoplankton < 2×10-7 m (< 0.2 µm) marine viruses

However, some of these terms may be used with very different boundaries, especially on the larger end of the scale. The existence and importance of nano- and even smaller plankton was only discovered during the 1980s, but they are thought to make up the largest proportion of all plankton in number and diversity.
Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Telonemia are a phylum of microscopic eukaryote, single-celled organisms. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... For the characters from System Shock 2, see The Many. ... Bacterioplankton refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... In biogeochemistry, remineralisation refers to the transformation of organic molecules to inorganic forms, typically mediated by biological activity. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... Classes Archisagittoidea Sagittoidea Chaetognatha is a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Acanthochondria cornuta, an ectoparasite on Whiting in the North Sea. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Picoplankton is the fraction of plankton composed by cells between 0. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Biogeochemical significance

A copepod (Calanoida sp.) ca. 1-2 mm long

Aside from representing the bottom few levels of a food chain that leads up to commercially important fisheries, plankton ecosystems play a role in the biogeochemical cycles of many important chemical elements. Of particular contemporary significance is their role in the ocean's carbon cycle. Copepod photo, by Uwe Kils GFDL larger images on http://www. ... Copepod photo, by Uwe Kils GFDL larger images on http://www. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Acanthochondria cornuta, an ectoparasite on Whiting in the North Sea. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-3 m and 10-2 m (1 mm and 1 cm). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ...


As stated, phytoplankton fix carbon in sunlit surface waters via photosynthesis. Through (primarily) zooplankton grazing, this carbon enters the planktonic foodweb, where it is either respired to provide metabolic energy, or accumulates as biomass or detritus. As living or dead organic material is typically more dense than seawater it tends to sink, and in open ocean ecosystems away from the coasts this leads to the transport of carbon from surface waters to the deep. This process is known as the biological pump, and is one of the reasons that the oceans constitute the largest (active) pool of carbon on Earth. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the biological pump is the sum of a suite of biologically-mediated processes that transport carbon from the surface euphotic zone to the oceans interior. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ...


Some researchers have even proposed that it might be possible to increase the ocean's uptake of carbon dioxide generated through human activities by increasing the production of plankton through fertilization, primarily with the micronutrient iron. However, it is debatable whether this technique is practical at a large scale, and some researchers have drawn attention to possible drawbacks such as ocean anoxia and resultant methanogenesis (caused by the excess production remineralising at depth).[2]
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Anoxic sea water refers to water depleted of oxygen. ... Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. ... In biogeochemistry, remineralisation refers to the transformation of organic molecules to inorganic forms, typically mediated by biological activity. ...


Importance to fish

Sea foam is produced by plankton
Sea foam is produced by plankton

Zooplankton are initially the sole prey item for almost all fish larvae as they use up their yolk sacs and switch to external feeding for nutrition. Fish species rely on the density and distribution of zooplankton to coincide with first-feeding larvae for good survival of larvae, which can otherwise starve. Natural factors (e.g. variations in oceanic currents) and man-made factors (e.g. dams on rivers) can strongly affect zooplankton density and distribution, which can in turn strongly affect the larval survival, and therefore breeding success and stock strength, of fish species. This article is about the body of water. ... Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


Cultural References

Plankton is a character in the TV show SpongeBob SquarePants. This article is about the series. ...


See also

Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the biological pump is the sum of a suite of biologically-mediated processes that transport carbon from the surface euphotic zone to the oceans interior. ... It has been suggested that Ocean Nourishment be merged into this article or section. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Nekton is the grouping of living organisms that live in the water column of the ocean and freshwater lakes. ...

References

  1. ^ Thurman, H. V. (1997). Introductory Oceanography. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall College. ISBN 0132620723. 
  2. ^ Chisholm, S.W., et al. (2001). "Dis-crediting ocean fertilization". Science 294 (5541): 309-310. doi:10.1126/science.1065349. ISSN 0036-8075. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

External links

  • Plankton*Net, taxonomic database of images of plankton species
For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plankton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1222 words)
Plankton are drifting organisms that inhabit the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water.
While some forms of plankton are capable of independent movement and can swim up to several hundreds of metres vertically in a single day (a behavior called diel vertical migration), their horizontal position is primarily determined by currents in the body of water they inhabit.
Plankton abundance and distribution are strongly dependent on factors such as ambient nutrients concentrations, the physical state of the water column, and the abundance of other plankton.
Plankton! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (695 words)
Plankton, enticed by this, attempts to take the Krabby Patty himself, but falls into the analyser (which reveals him to be "1% evil, 99% hot gas").
This is also the very first time Plankton is seen scheming to steal the Krabby Patty formula so he could improve the Chum Bucket and put Mr.
SpongeBob's line to Plankton when he is in his brain, "Leave my brain alone!" has become a staple on T-shirts and in pop culture for media manipulation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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