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A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. A dominant feature of most planetariums is the large dome-shaped projection screen onto which scenes of stars, planets and other celestial objects can be made to appear and move realistically to simulate the complex 'motions of the heavens'. The celestial scenes can be created using a wide variety of technologies, for example precision-engineered 'star balls' that combine optical and electro-mechanical technology, slide projector, video and fulldome projector systems, and lasers. Whatever technologies are used, the objective is normally to link them together to provide an accurate relative motion of the sky. Typical systems can be set to display the sky at any point in time, past or present, and often to show the night sky as it would appear from any point of latitude on Earth. Alternate cover The CD + DVD Cover Planetarium (プラネタリウム; puranetariumu) is sadakos Single released on September 21, 2005. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Celestial Navigation is the 15th episode of The West Wing. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... See also lists of astronomical objects for a list of the various lists of astronomical objects in Wikipedia. ... [carousel slide projector, the most common form of projector] A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device to view photographic slides. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fulldome is used to refer to immersive dome-based video projection environments. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ...

  • The plural of planetarium can be either planetariums or planetaria.
  • The term planetarium is sometimes used generically to describe other devices which illustrate the solar system, such as a computer simulation or an orrery.
  • The term planetarian is used to describe a member of the professional staff of a planetarium.
  • Planetarium software refers to a software application that renders a three dimensional image of the sky onto a two dimensional computer screen.

Planetariums have become well-nigh ubiquitous, with some privately owned. A rough estimate is that in the United States there is one planetarium per 100,000 population, ranging in size from the Hayden Planetarium's 20-meter dome seating 430 people, to three-meter inflatable portable domes where children sit on the floor. Such portable planetariums serve education programs outside of the permanent installations of museums and science centers. A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ... Hayden Planetarium is a public planetarium located on Central Park West, New York City, next to the famous American Museum of Natural History. ... A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... Science museums have roots in the 19th century and before, but the science center field is largely a product of the 1960s and 1970s, a time of social ferment in the United States and Europe. ...


History

See also the Timeline of planetariums for specific dates and events in the historical influences on and development of planetariums. [edit] Historic Influences [edit] Development of Modern Planetariums [edit] Digital and Fulldome Video ...


Early

Archimedes is attributed with possessing a primitive planetarium device that could predict the movements of the Sun and the Moon and the planets. The discovery of the Antikythera mechanism proved that such devices already existed during antiquity. Johannes Campanus (1220-1296) described a planetarium in his Theorica Planetarum, and included instructions on how to build one. These devices would today usually be referred to as orreries (named for the Earl of Orrery, a place in Ireland: an 18th century Earl of Orrery had one built). In fact, many planetariums today have what are called projection orreries, which project onto the dome a Sun with planets (usually limited to Mercury up to Saturn) going around it in something close to their correct relative periods. Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: c. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... For other people named Johannes Campanus, see Campanus. ... A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ...


The small size of typical 18th century orreries limited their impact, and towards the end of that century a number of educators attempted some larger scale simulations of the heavens. The efforts of Adam Walker (1730-1821) and his sons are noteworthy in their attempts to fuse theatrical illusions with educational aspirations. Walker's Eidouranion was the heart of his public lectures or theatrical presentations. Walker's son describes this "Elaborate Machine" as "twenty feet high, and twenty-seven in diameter: it stands vertically before the spectators, and its globes are so large, that they are distinctly seen in the most distant parts of the Theatre. Every Planet and Satellite seems suspended in space, without any support; performing their annual and diurnal revolutions without any apparent cause". Other lecturers promoted their own devices: R E Lloyd advertised his Dioastrodoxon, or Grand Transparent Orrery, and by 1825 William Kitchener was offering his Ouranologia, which was 42 feet in diameter. These devices most probably sacrificed astronomical accuracy for crowd-pleasing spectacle and sensational and awe-provoking imagery.


The oldest, still working planetarium can be found in the Dutch town Franeker. It was built by Eise Eisinga (1744-1828) in the livingroom of his house. It took Eisinga seven years to build his planetarium, which was completed in 1781. Franeker (Frisian: Frjentsjer) is one of the eleven cities of Friesland. ... Eise Jeltes Eisinga (Dronrijp, 21 February 1744 - Franeker, 27 August 1828) was a Dutch amateur astronomer who built an orrery in his house in Franeker, Netherlands. ...


In 1905 Oskar von Miller (1855-1934) of the Deutsches Museum in Munich commissioned updated versions of a geared orrery and planetarium from M Sendtner, and later worked with Franz Meyer, chief engineer at the Carl Zeiss optical works in Jena, on the largest mechanical planetarium ever constructed, capable of displaying both heliocentric and geocentric motion. This was displayed at the Deutsches Museum in 1924, construction work having been interrupted by the war. The planets travelled along overhead rails, powered by electric motors: the orbit of Saturn was 11.25 m in diameter. 180 stars were projected onto the wall by electric bulbs. Carl Zeiss in middle age. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ...


While this was being constructed, von Miller was also working at the Zeiss factory with German astronomer Max Wolf, former director of the Baden Observatory in Heidelberg, on a new and novel design, inspired by Wallace W Atwood's work at the Chicago Academy of Sciences and by the ideas of Walther Bauersfeld at Zeiss. The result was a planetarium design which would generate all the necessary movements of the stars and planets inside the optical projector, and would be mounted centrally in a room, projecting images onto the white surface of a hemisphere. In August 1923, the first Zeiss planetarium projected images of the night sky onto the white plaster lining of a 16 m hemispherical concrete dome, erected on the roof of the Zeiss works.


A great boost to the popularity of the planetarium worldwide was provided by the Space Race of the 1950s and 60s when fears that the United States of America might miss out on the opportunities of the new frontier in space stimulated a massive program to install over 1,200 planetariums in U.S. high schools. For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ...


Before World War II nearly all planetariums were built by Zeiss, the only notable exceptions being one built by two brothers named Korkosz in Springfield, Mass., and another for the Rosicrucian AMORC order in San Jose, Calif. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Carl Zeiss in middle age. ...


After WWII

After the war when Germany was split, this split the Zeiss firm. Part remained in its traditional headquarters at Jena, now in East Germany, and part migrated to West Germany. The designer of the first planetariums for Zeiss, Walther Bauersfeld, remained in Jena until his death in 1959. For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... GDR redirects here. ... Walther Bauersfeld (January 23, 1879 in Berlin–October 28, 1959 in Heidenheim an der Brenz) was a German engineer, employed by the Zeiss Corporation, on a suggestion by the German astronomer Max Wolf, started work on the first projection planetarium in 1912. ...


The West German firm resumed making large planetariums in 1954, and the East German firm started making small planetariums a few years later. Meanwhile, the lack of planetarium manufacturers had led to several attempts at construction of unique models, such as one built by the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, which operated 1952-2003. The Korkosz brothers built a large projector for the Boston Museum of Science, which was unique in being the first (and for a very long time only) planetarium to project the planet Uranus. Most planetariums ignore Uranus as being at best marginally visible to the naked eye. The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ...


Armand Spitz recognized that there was a viable market for small inexpensive planetariums. His first model, the Spitz A, was designed to project stars from a dodecahedron, thus reducing machining expenses in creating a globe. Planets were not mechanized, but could be shifted by hand. Several models followed with various upgraded capabilities, until the A3P, which projected well over a thousand stars, had motorized motions for latitude change, daily motion, and annual motion for Sun, Moon (including phases), and planets. This model was installed in hundreds of high schools, colleges, and even small museums from 1964 to the 1980s. A dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve regular pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ...


Japan entered the planetarium manufacturing business in the 1960s, with Goto and Minolta both successfully marketing a number of different models. Goto was particularly successful when the Japanese Ministry of Education put one of their smallest models, the E-3 or E-5 (the numbers refer to the metric diameter of the dome) in every elementary school in Japan. GOTO is a statement found in many computer programming languages. ... Minolta was a Japanese worldwide manufacturer of cameras, camera accessories, photo-copiers, fax machines and laser printers. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ...


Phillip Stern, as former lecturer at New York City's Hayden Planetarium, had the idea of creating a small planetarium which could be programmed. His Apollo model was introduced in 1967 with a plastic program board, recorded lecture, and film strip. Unable to pay for this himself, Stern became the head of the planetarium division of Viewlex, a mid-size audio-visual firm on Long Island. About thirty canned programs were created for various grade levels and the public, while operators could create their own or run the planetarium live. Purchasers of the Apollo were given their choice of two canned shows, and could purchase more. A few hundred were sold, but in the late 1970s Viewlex went bankrupt for reasons unrelated to the planetarium business. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Hayden Planetarium is a public planetarium located on Central Park West, New York City, next to the famous American Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


During the 1970s, the OmniMax movie system (now known as IMAX Dome) was conceived to operate on planetarium screens. More recently, some planetariums have re-branded themselves as dome theaters, with broader offerings including wide-screen or "wraparound" films, fulldome video, and laser shows that combine music with laser-drawn patterns. IMAX (for Image Maximum) is a film projection system which has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ... “Moving picture” redirects here. ... Fulldome is used to refer to immersive dome-based video projection environments. ...


StarLab in Massachusetts offered the first easily portable planetarium in 1977 which projected stars, constellation figures from many mythologies, celestial coordinate systems, and much else, from removable cylinders. (Viewlex and other followed with their own portable versions. Philip Sadler) This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mythologies is the title of a book by Roland Barthes (ISBN 0374521506), published in 1957. ...


When Germany reunified in 1989, the two Zeiss firms did likewise, and expanded their offerings to cover many different size domes. German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to...


Computerized planetariums

In 1983, Evans & Sutherland installed the first planetarium projector displaying computer graphics—the Digistar I projector used a vector graphics system to display starfields as well as line art. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Evans & Sutherland is a computer firm involved in the computer graphics field. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Line Art. ...


The newest generation of planetariums such as Evans & Sutherland's Digistar 3, RSA Cosmos's InSpace System, Konica Minolta's MEDIAGLOBE,or Sky-Skan's DigitalSky, offer a fully digital projection system, using fulldome video technology. This gives the operator great flexibility in showing not only the modern night sky as visible from Earth, but any other image they wish (including the night sky as visible from points far distant in space and time). Evans & Sutherland is a computer firm involved in the computer graphics field. ... Digistar 3 is a dome-based projection technology created by Evans & Sutherland - to offer audiences immersive entertainment and education experiences that integrate fulldome video, real time 3D computer graphics, and a digital planetarium facility. ... Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc. ... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... Fulldome is used to refer to immersive dome-based video projection environments. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


A new generation of home planetariums was released in Japan by Takayuki Ohira in cooperation with Sega. Ohira is worldwide known as a mastermind for building portable planetariums used at exhibitions and events such as the Aichi World Expo in 2005. The Homestar Planetarium can be carried in a bag and is intended for home use, however by projecting 10,000 stars on the ceiling makes it semi-professional.[1] Sega Corporation ) is a multinational Japanese video game software and hardware development company, and a former home computer and console manufacturer. ...


Planetarium technology

Domes

Planetarium domes range in size from 3 to 30 m in diameter, accommodating from 1 to 500 people. They can be permanent or portable, depending on the application. DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ...

  • Portable inflatable domes can be inflated in minutes. Such domes are often used for touring planetariums visiting, for example, schools and community centres.
  • Temporary structures using Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) segments bolted together and mounted on a frame are possible. As they may take some hours to construct, they are more suitable for applications such as exhibition stands where a dome will stay up for a period of at least several days.
  • Negative pressure inflatated domes are suitable in some semi-permanent situations. They use a fan to extract air from behind the dome surface, allowing atmospheric pressure to push it into the correct shape.
  • Smaller permanent domes are frequently constructed from glass reinforced plastic. This is inexpensive but, as the projection surface reflects sound as well as light, the acoustics inside this type of dome can detract from its utility. Such a solid dome also presents issues connected with heating and ventilation in a large-audience planetarium, as air cannot pass through it.
  • Older planetarium domes were built using traditional construction materials and surfaced with plaster. This method is relatively expensive and suffers the same acoustic and ventilation issues as GRP.
  • Most modern domes are built from thin aluminium sections with ribs providing a supporting structure behind. The use of aluminium makes it easy to perforate the dome with thousands of tiny holes. This reduces the reflectivity of sound back to the audience (providing better acoustic characteristics), lets a sound system project through the dome from behind (offering sound that seems to come from appropriate directions related to a show), and allows air circulation through the projection surface for climate control.

The realism of the viewing experience in a planetarium depends significantly on the dynamic range of the image, i.e., the contrast between dark and light. This can be a challenge in any domed projection environment, because a bright image projected on one side of the dome will tend to reflect light across to the opposite side, "lifting" the black level there and so making the whole image look less realistic. While traditional planetarium shows consisted mainly of small points of light (i.e., stars) on a black background this was not a significant issue, but it became an issue as digital projection systems started to fill large portions of the dome with bright objects (e.g., large images of the sun in context). For this reason, modern planetarium domes are often not painted white but rather a mid grey colour, reducing reflection to perhaps 35-50%. This increases the perceived level of contrast. An inflatable is an object that can be inflated, usually with air, but hydrogen, helium and nitrogen are also used. ... It has been suggested that Fiber-reinforced plastic be merged into this article or section. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Gypsum based plaster used in spray fireproofing in a low-rise industrial building in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... Dynamic range is a term used frequently in numerous fields to describe the ratio between the smallest and largest possible values of a changeable quantity. ... Video Black Level is the level in which there is no visible light/visual information in a video signal. ...


A major challenge in dome construction is to make seams as invisible as possible. Painting a dome after installation is a major task and, if done properly, the seams can be made almost to disappear.


Traditionally, planetarium domes were mounted horizontally, matching the natural horizon of the real night sky. However, because that configuration requires highly inclined chairs for comfortable viewing "straight up", increasingly domes are being built tilted from the horizontal by between 5 and 30 degrees to provide greater comfort. Tilted domes tend to create a favoured 'sweet spot' for optimum viewing, centrally about a third of the way up the dome from the lowest point. Tilted domes generally have seating arranged 'stadium-style' in straight, tiered rows; horizontal domes usually have seats in circular rows, arranged in concentric (facing center) or epicentric (facing front) arrays.


Planetariums occasionally include controls such as buttons or joysticks in the arm-rests of seats to allow audience feedback that influences the show in real time. Joystick elements: 1. ... Realtime redirects here. ...


Often around the edge of the dome (the 'cove') are:-

  • Silhouette models of geography or buildings like those in the area round the planetarium building.
  • Lighting to simulate the effect of twilight or urban light pollution.
  • In one planetarium the horizon decor included a small model of a UFO flying.

Traditionally, planetariums needed many incandescent lamps around the cove of the dome to help audience entry and exit, to simulate sunrise and sunset, and to provide working light for dome cleaning. More recently, solid-state LED lighting has become available that significantly decreases power consumption and reduces the maintenance requirement as lamps no longer have to be changed on a regular basis. For other uses, see Silhouette (disambiguation). ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... “Light bulb” redirects here. ... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ...


Traditional electromechanical/optical projectors

Traditional planetarium projection apparatus uses a hollow ball with a light inside, and a pinhole for each star, hence the name "star ball". With some of the brightest stars (e.g. Sirius, Canopus, Vega), the hole must be so big to let enough light through that there must be a small lens in the hole to focus the light to a sharp point on the dome. Sirius B redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vega (α Lyr / α Lyrae / Alpha Lyrae) is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the sky and the second brightest star in the Northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus. ...


The star ball is usually mounted so it can rotate as a whole to simulate the Earth's daily rotation, and to change the simulated latitude on Earth. There is also usually a means of rotating to produce the effect of precession of the equinoxes. Often, one such ball is attached at its south ecliptic pole. In that case, the view cannot go so far south that any of the resulting blank area at the south is projected on the dome. Some star projectors have two balls at opposite ends of the projector like a dumbbell. In that case all stars can be shown and the view can go to either pole or anywhere between. But care must be taken that the projection fields of the two balls match where they meet or overlap. Precession of the equinoxes refers to the precession of the Earths axis of rotation. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... A pair of spinlock dumbbells with 2 kg plates. ...


Smaller planetarium projectors include a set of fixed stars, Sun, Moon, and planets, and various nebulae. Larger projectors also include comets and a far greater selection of stars. Additional projectors can be added to show twilight around the outside of the screen (complete with city or country scenes) as well as the Milky Way. Others add coordinate lines and constellations, photographic slides, laser displays, and other images. The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ...


Each planet is projected by a sharply focused spotlight that makes a spot of light on the dome. Planet projectors must have gearing to move their positioning and thereby simulate the planets' movements. These can be of these types:- Look up spotlight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Copernican. The axis represents the Sun. The rotating piece that represents each planet carries a light that must be arranged and guided to swivel so it always faces towards the rotating piece that represents the Earth. This presents mechanical problems including:-
The planet lights must be powered by wires, which have to bend about as the planets rotate, and repeatedly bending copper wire tends to cause metal fatigue.
When a planet is at opposition to the Earth, its light is liable to be blocked by the mechanism's central axle.
(If the planet mechanism is set 180° rotated from reality, the lights are carried by the Earth and shines towards each planet, and the blocking risk happens at conjunction with Earth.)
  • Ptolemaic. Here the central axis represents the Earth. Each planet light is on a mount which rotates only about the central axis, and is aimed by a guide which is steered by a deferent and an epicycle (or whatever the planetarium maker calls them). Here Ptolemy's number values must be revised to remove the daily rotation, which in a planetarium is catered for otherwise.
  • Computer-controlled. Here all the planet lights are on mounts which rotate only about the central axis, and are aimed by a computer.

Despite offering a good viewer experience, traditional star ball projectors suffer several inherent limitations. From a practical point of view, the low light levels require several minutes for the audience to "dark adapt" its eyesight. "Star ball" projection is limited in education terms by its inability to move beyond an earth-bound view of the night sky. Finally, a challenge for most traditional projectors is that the various overlaid projection systems are incapable of proper occultation. This means that a planet image projected on top of a star field (for example) will still show the stars shining through the planet image, degrading the quality of the viewing experience. For related reasons, some planetariums show stars below the horizon projecting on the walls below the dome or on the floor, or (with a bright star or a planet) shining in the eyes of someone in the audience. In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This article is about a computer game. ... Opposition is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology to indicate when one celestial body is on the opposite side of the sky when viewed from a particular place (usually the Earth). ... “Geocentric” redirects here. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light. ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ...


However, the new breed of Optical-Mechanical projectors using fiber-optic technology to display the stars, show a much more realistic view of the sky, and are far superior to any digital star projector.


Digital projectors

An increasing number of planetariums are using digital technology to replace the entire system of interlinked projectors traditionally employed around a star ball to address some of their limitations. Digital planetarium manufacturers claim reduced maintenance costs and increased reliability from such systems compared with traditional "star balls" on the grounds that they employ few moving parts and do not generally require synchronisation of movement across the dome between several separate systems. Some planetariums mix both traditional opto-mechanical projection and digital technologies on the same dome. A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ...


In a fully digital planetarium, the dome image is generated by a computer and then projected onto the dome using a variety of technologies including cathode ray tube, LCD, DLP or laser projectors. Sometimes a single projector mounted near the centre of the dome is employed with a "fish eye lens" to spread the light over the whole dome surface, while in other configurations several projectors around the horizon of the dome are arranged to blend together seamlessly. The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... LCD redirects here. ... The DLP Logo Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a technology used in projectors and video projectors. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ...


Digital projection systems all work by creating the image of the night sky as a large array of pixels. Generally speaking, the more pixels a system can display, the better the viewing experience. While the first generation of digital projectors were unable to generate enough pixels to match the image quality of the best traditional "star ball" projectors, high-end systems now offer a resolution that approaches the limit of human visual acuity, making their images subjectively indistinguishable from the very best "star balls" to most eyes. A pixel (a contraction of picture element) is one of the many tiny dots that make up the representation of a picture in a computers memory. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...


However, these digital star projectors do not show "pin-point" stars like one would actually see in the real sky. The colors of the stars are also not correct. Although the digital projectors are good for "travelling" through space, their ability to show a realistic star field is decades away. And although the digital manufacturers may say that the costs of maintenance are reduced, in reality, the maintenance costs of the digital and video units are significantly more than those of their optical-mechanical counterparts.


LCD projectors have fundamental limits on their ability to project true black as well as light, which has tended to limit their use in planetariums. LCOS and modified LCOS projectors have improved on LCD contrast ratios while also eliminating the “screen door” effect of small gaps between LCD pixels. “Dark chip” DLP projectors improve on the standard DLP design and can offer relatively inexpensive solution with bright images, but the black level requires physical baffling of the projectors. As the technology matures and reduces in price, laser projection looks promising for dome projection as it offers bright images, large dynamic range and a very wide color space. The contrast ratio is a measure of a display system, defined as the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (White) to that of the darkest color (black) that the system is capable of producing. ... A comparison of different color spaces. ...


Planetarium show content

Worldwide, most planetariums provide shows to the general public. Traditionally, shows for these audiences with themes such as "What's in the sky tonight?", or shows which pick up on topical issues such as a religious festival (often the Christmas star) linked to the night sky, have been popular. Pre-recorded and live presentation formats are possible. Live format are preferred by many venues (despite the increased expense) because a live expert presenter can answer on the spot questions raised by the audience. Binomial name Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ...


Since the early 1990s, fully featured 3-D digital planetariums have added an extra degree of freedom to a presenter giving a show because they allow simulation of the view from any point in space, not only the earth-bound view which we are most familiar with. This new virtual reality capability to travel through the universe provides important educational benefits because it vividly conveys that space has depth, helping audiences to leave behind the ancient misconception that the stars are stuck on the inside of a giant celestial sphere and instead to understand the true layout of the solar system and beyond. For example, a planetarium can now 'fly' the audience towards one of the familiar constellations such as Orion, revealing that the stars which appear to make up a co-ordinated shape from our earth-bound viewpoint are at vastly different distances from Earth and so not connected, except in human imagination and mythology. For especially visual or spatially-aware people, this experience can be more educationally beneficial than other demonstrations. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, one of the largest and perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ...


Music is an important element to fill out the experience of a good planetarium show, often featuring forms of space-themed music, or music from the genres of space music, space rock, or classical music. Space-Themed Music is any music, from any genre or style, with lyrics or titles relating to outer space or space travel. ... Space music is a type of ambient music. ... For space rocks, see asteroid. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Images of planetariums

Images of planetarium projectors

Notable planetariums

To give some idea of the number of planetariums and the difficulty in trying to list all, over fifty have been documented as having been sold to various locations in the five boroughs of New York City, ranging from one in Manhattan with a 76-foot dome that is used as a light effect in a disco to a two elementary schools in the Bronx with 12-foot domes. There are also many portable planetariums, including two on Staten Island that are privately owned, plus one in an Intermediate School. A little known model, the Aquarian, was made in the 1970s. Only about twenty are believed to have been sold, but only one of these has been tracked down, stored under the auditorium floor of an elementary school in Queens. For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... The Manitoba Museum, previously the Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature is the largest museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... The Zeiss planetarium projector installed at the Montreal Planetarium The Montreal Planetarium — formerly known as the Dow Planetarium — is a public planetarium located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... H.R. MacMillan Space Centre The H.R. MacMillan Space Centre, founded 1968, is an astronomy museum in Vancouver, B.C. that is located at Vanier Park in Vancouver. ... Motto: By Sea, Land, and Air We Prosper Location of Vancouver within the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia, Canada Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  British Columbia Region Lower Mainland Regional District Greater Vancouver Incorporated 1886 Government  - Mayor Sam Sullivan (NPA)  - City Council List of Councilors Suzanne Anton (NPA) Peter... A promotional picture of the original configuration for the McLaughlin Planetarium, prior to extensive renovations that removed its northern annex, circa early 1970s The McLaughlin Planetarium is a former working planetarium whose building continues to occupy a space immediately to the south of the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, at... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor César Maia (Democrats) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... Carmo is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ... Tornado amusement ride in Särkänniemi Särkänniemi is a leisure center in Tampere, Finland. ... Tampere ( , Tammerfors in Swedish) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ... Nuremberg (German: ) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: Country Italy Region Umbria Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Silesian Planetarium (Polish: Planetarium ÅšlÄ…skie) - biggest and the oldest planetarium and astronomical observatory in Poland (European Union) was founded in 4 December 1955 to commemorate a great astronomer - Nicolaus Copernicus. ... Downtown of Katowice Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Armagh Planetarium is a planetarium situated in Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The London Planetarium is in Marylebone Road on the northern side of the city centre. ... Marylebone Road, London, looking west towards the junction with Baker Street Marylebone Road (IPA pronunciation: ) is an important thoroughfare in central London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Madame Tussauds and the London Planetarium Madame Tussauds is a wax museum in London, with branches in Amsterdam, Hong Kong ( Victoria Peak), Las Vegas, Copenhagen and New York City. ... “Glaswegian” redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... The 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. ... The National Space Centre is the UKs only visitor attraction devoted to space science and astronomy. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... The Peter Harrison Planetarium is a 120-seat digital laser planetarium, situated in Greenwich Park, London and is part of the National Maritime Museum. ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ... Birmingham (pron. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... Location in Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Ingham & Clinton Counties Incorporation 1907 Government  - Mayor Samir Singh Area  - City  11. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Adler Planetarium The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in downtown Chicago, Illinois was the first planetarium in the United States and is the oldest in existence today. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The EcoTarium is a science and nature museum located in Worcester, Massachusetts. ... Worcester (pronounced ) is a city in the West Midlands of England, and is the county town of Worcestershire. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Arthur Storer (c. ... Prince Frederick is a census-designated place located in Calvert County, Maryland. ... This article is about the comet. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Cernan Earth and Space Center The Cernan Earth and Space Center is a public planetarium on the campus of Triton College in the Chicago suburb of River Grove. ... Triton College is a two-year community college located in River Grove, Illinois, a suburb 14 miles (23 km) northwest of downtown Chicago. ... River Grove is a village located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Clark Planetarium Exterior with superimposed nebula. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Dickson is a city located in Dickson County, Tennessee. ... The Maryland Science Center opened to the public in 1976, with 3 levels of exhibits and a planetarium. ... Main Building of the Newark Museum The Newark Museum is the largest museum in New Jersey. ... Location in Pulaski County, Arkansas Coordinates: , Country State County Pulaski Founded 1821 Incorporated 1831 Government  - Mayor Mark Stodola Area  - City  116. ... Samuel Simeon Fels, the youngest son of Lazarus and Susanna Fels, was born in Yanceyville, N.C., on February 16, 1860. ... Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The University of Louisville (also known as U of L) is a public, state-supported university located in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ... “Louisville” redirects here. ... Panorama of Los Angeles and Griffith Observatory viewed from the Hollywood Hills. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State County Settled 1781 Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Outside the Museum of Science, August 2005 The Museum of Science (MoS) is a Boston, Massachusetts landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Hayden Planetarium is a public planetarium located on Central Park West, New York City, next to the famous American Museum of Natural History. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Template:Reqcleanup The Houston Museum of Natural Science is a museum located in Houston, Texas. ... Houston redirects here. ... Capitol Building Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... The Omniplex Science Museum is a complex of museums in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the largest city of New Mexico. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The Miami Museum of Science & Planetarium is an attraction located in the city of Miami, Florida. ... For other uses, see Miami (disambiguation). ... The Minneapolis Public Library (MPL) is a library system serving the residents of Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... “Minneapolis” redirects here. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... The Ott Planetarium Logo features the constellation Cassiopeia, a great W in the northern sky above Weber State University. ... Weber State University is a public university located in the city of Ogden in Weber County, Utah, USA. There is also a Davis County satellite campus located in Layton. ... Ogden sign over Washington Boulevard at the Ogden River; toward downtown Overlooking Ogdens George S. Eccles Dinosaur Park Ogden is the county seat of Weber County,GR6 Utah, United States. ... Entrance to the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, with statue of Tawaret The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum (REM), founded by AMORC, is a museum about Ancient Egypt located at AMORCs Rosicrucian Park in the Rose Garden neighborhood of San Jose, California, United States. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... This article is about the New York City borough. ...

Three planetaria (see Planetarium) in India are named Nehru Planetarium, after Indias first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... , Bangalore (BengalÅ«ru) (Kannada: ; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the state of Karnataka in [[India]. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore has an estimated metropolitan population of 6. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... Mexico or, in Spanish, México, is: Mexico, a federal republic in North America Mexico City, that countrys capital city Mexican Federal District, the federal district containing that capital city Estado de México (State of Mexico), one of that republics 31 constituent states Mexico is also the... Ehime agency Ehime Prefecture (愛媛県; Ehime-ken) is a prefecture in northwestern Shikoku, Japan. ... Kobe ) is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... The Hong Kong Space Museum (Chinese: 香港太空館) is one of the museums managed by the the Leisure and Cultural Services Department of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) (Spanish: University of Santiago, Chile) is one of the oldest public universities in Chile. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Santiago Metropolitan Region Province Santiago Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Muy noble y leal Coordinates: , Country State Counties Maracaibo Government  - Mayor Gian Carlo Di Martino (2000 – 2008) Area  - City 550 km²  (212. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Nickname: Location of San José Canton between provinces Coordinates: , Country Costa Rica Province San José Province Canton San José Canton Founded c. ...

Planetarium computer software

Since the invention of the personal computer, the planetarium concept has been extended to include software that displays a realistic sky image. Not all astronomy software can be considered to be planetarium software. While there is no generally-accepted definition of the word planetarium in this context, planetarium software generally contains the following features at a minimum: The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...

  • A realistic sky image as seen from Earth
  • The ability to display sky motions in real-time
  • The ability to animate time changes backwards and forwards

The following is a list of currently available planetarium software: This article is about Earth as a planet. ...

The Aladin Sky Atlas is a Java-based star atlas for astromers. ... The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ... Windows redirects here. ... Cartes du Ciel is an open source planetarium program for Linux and Windows. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Windows redirects here. ... Celestia is a free 3D astronomy program for Windows, Mac OS X, and GNU/Linux. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Digistar 3 is a dome-based projection technology created by Evans & Sutherland - to offer audiences immersive entertainment and education experiences that integrate fulldome video, real time 3D computer graphics, and a digital planetarium facility. ... Windows redirects here. ... Evans & Sutherland is a computer firm involved in the computer graphics field. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows redirects here. ... Screenshot of KStars showing the night sky from Hanover. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Palm OS is a compact operating system developed and licensed by PalmSource, Inc. ... Redshift is planetarium software created by Maris Multimedia. ... Windows redirects here. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows redirects here. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Windows redirects here. ... Starry Night Screen Shot Starry Night is a commercial planetarium software program, available for Windows and Mac OS X. The software makes it possible to view the night sky from any location on Earth, or any position in the local universe, such as the Local Group. ... Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Stellarium is a free software planetarium, licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License, available for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. It uses OpenGL to render a realistic sky in real time. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... TheSky is an astronomy program designed to be used for various educational and observational purposes. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... Windows redirects here. ... Cygwin (pronounced ) is a collection of free software tools originally developed by Cygnus Solutions to allow various versions of Microsoft Windows to act similar to a Unix system. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Planetariums

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... MolÄ—tai Astronomical Observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... An astrarium, also called a planetarium, is the mechanical representation of the cyclic nature of astronomical objects in one timepiece. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Fulldome is used to refer to immersive dome-based video projection environments. ... A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ... The astronomical clock in the Old-Town Square of Prague The Prague Astronomical Clock or Prague Orloj (Czech: Pražský orloj, pron. ... The Torquetum or Turquet is a medieval astronomical instrument designed to take and convert measurements made in three sets of coordinates: Horizon, equatorial, and ecliptic. ... A Star Atlas is a variant of the traditional geographic atlas, ie. ... Space-Themed Music is any music, from any genre or style, with lyrics or titles relating to outer space or space travel. ...

References

  • King, Henry C. "Geared to the Stars; the evolution of planetariums, orreries, and astronomical clocks" University of Toronto Press, 1978

External links

  • List of Planetarium Software
  • International Planetarium Society
  • AsterDomus Planetarium site (portuguese) - planetarium manufacturer
  • Loch Ness Productions list of planetariums worldwide
  • PlanetariumsClub - German site for various topics on planetaria
  • Sky-Skan, Inc. - Digital planetarium system manufacturer
  • Map: Planetaria and Observatories
  • RSA Cosmos manufacturer of Digital and Optical Planetarium
  • Article about Sega Homestar Planetarium

  Results from FactBites:
 
Planetarium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3351 words)
A planetarium is a theater built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.
Archimedes is attributed with possessing a primitive planetarium device that could predict the movements of the Sun, the Moon and the planets.
Morehead Planetarium and Science Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the first planetarium that was built on a U.S. college campus.
Planetarium - definition of Planetarium in Encyclopedia (449 words)
Planetariums typically use a large dome shape for the projection screen, with inclined chairs for comfortable viewing "straight up".
Today many planetariums are moving to a fully digital projection system, in which a single large projector with a fish eye lens, or a system of digital video projectors around the edge of the dome are used to create any scene provided to it from a computer.
The term "planetarium" can also be used to describe the projector itself, or other devices to illustrate the solar system, like a computer simulation or an orrery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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