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Encyclopedia > Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Image:Plan9bunnysmblack.jpg
Glenda, the Plan 9 Bunny
Website: plan9.bell-labs.com
Company/
developer:
Bell Labs
OS family: Unix successor
Source model: Free software/open source
Latest stable release: Fourth Edition / daily snapshots
Kernel type: Hybrid
Default user interface: rio / rc
License: Lucent Public License
Working state: Current

Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. It was developed as the research successor to Unix by the Computing Sciences Research Center at Bell Labs between the mid-1980s and 2002. Plan 9 is most notable for representing all system interfaces, including those required for networking and the user-interface, through the filesystem rather than specialized interfaces. Plan 9 aims to provide users with a workstation-independent working environment through the use of the 9P protocols. Plan 9 continues to be used and developed in some circles as a research operating system and by hobbyists. Glenda, the Plan 9 bunny. ... Glenda is the mascot of the distributed operating system Plan 9 from Bell Labs. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... It has been suggested that software publisher be merged into this article or section. ... A software developer is a person who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming or a specialty of project managing. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... rio is Plan 9s window system. ... The correct title of this article is . ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The Lucent Public License is an open-source license created by Lucent Technologies. ... This article or section should include material from Distributed programming This article or section should include material from Distributed system Distributed computing is the process of aggregating the power of several computing entities to collaboratively run a single computational task in a transparent and coherent way, so that they appear... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ...


The name "Plan 9 from Bell Labs" is a reference to the classic science fiction B-movie Plan 9 from Outer Space[1]. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The term B-movie originally referred to a film designed to be distributed as the lower half of a double feature, often a genre film featuring cowboys, gangsters or vampires. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ...

Contents

History

Plan 9 in 1995[2]

Plan 9 replaced Unix at Bell Labs as the organization's primary platform for research and explores several changes to the original Unix model that improve the experience of using and programming the system, notably in distributed multi-user environments. Plan 9 was a Bell Labs internal project from its start during the mid 1980s. In 1992, the first public release was made available to universities. In 1995, a commercial second release version was made available to the general public. In the late 1990s, Lucent Technologies, who had inherited Bell Labs, dropped commercial interest in the project. In 2000, a non-commercial third release was made under an open source license. In 2002, a non-commercial fourth release was made under a new free software license. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 62 KB) Plan 9 screenshot from http://cm. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 62 KB) Plan 9 screenshot from http://cm. ... Multi-user is a term that defines an operating system that allows concurrent access by multiple users of a computer. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Commercial software is computer software sold for commercial purposes or that serves commercial purposes. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... On September 30, 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units (AT&T Technologies, Inc. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without...


A user and development community, including current and former Bell Labs and MIT members, continues to produce daily minor releases as ISO images. Bell Labs still hosts development.[3] The development source tree is accessible over the 9P and HTTP protocols and is used to keep an installation up to date.[4] Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ...


Overview

All resources as files

One of the key features adopted from Unix was the use of the file system to access resources. Before Unix, most operating systems had different mechanisms for accessing different types of devices. For example, the API to access a disk drive was vastly different from the API used to send and receive data from a serial port, which in turn was different from the API used to send data to a printer. Unix attempted to remove these distinctions. All device drivers were required to support meaningful read and write operations as a means of control. This lets programmers use utilities like mv and cp to send data from one device to another without being aware of the underlying implementation details. It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Disk Drive is the afternoon show on CBC Radio Two. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The correct title of this article is . ... cp is the command entered in a Unix shell to copy a file from one place to another, possibly on a different filesystem. ...


However, at the time, many key concepts (such as the control of process state) did not seem to map neatly onto files. As new features like Berkeley sockets and the X Window System were added, they were incorporated to exist outside the file system. New hardware features (such as the ability to eject a CD in software) also encouraged the use of hardware-specific control mechanisms like the ioctl system call. The Berkeley sockets application programming interface (API) comprises a library for developing applications written in the C programming language that access a computer network. ... KDE 3. ... In computing, the system call ioctl (IPA: ), found on Unix-like systems, allows an application to control or communicate with a device driver outside the usual read/write of data. ...


The Plan 9 research project rejected these different approaches. Each Plan 9 program views all available resources, including networking and the user-interface resources (like the window it is running in), as part of a hierarchical file system, rather than specialized interfaces.[3]


Unicode support

Plan 9 uses Unicode throughout the system. UTF-8 was invented by Ken Thompson to be used as the native encoding in Plan 9 and the whole system was converted to general use in 1992.[5] UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ...


Research team

Plan 9 from Bell Labs was developed by members of the Computing Science Research Center at Bell Labs, the same group that developed UNIX and C.[6] The Plan 9 team was originally led by Rob Pike, Ken Thompson, Dave Presotto and Phil Winterbottom with support from Dennis Ritchie as head of the Computing Techniques Research Department. Over the years many notable developers have contributed to the project including Brian Kernighan, Tom Duff, Doug McIlroy, Bjarne Stroustrup, Bruce Ellis and many others.[7] Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Rob Pike (born 1956) is a software engineer and author. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Dennis Ritchie Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (born September 9, 1941) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and Unix. ... Brian Wilson Kernighan (IPA pronunciation: , the g is silent), (born 1942 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed greatly to Unix and its school of thought. ... Thomas Douglas Selkirk Duff (b. ... Portrait of Douglas McIlroy taken at the NATO conference in Garmisch 1968, courtesy of Brian Randell. ... Bjarne Stroustrup Bjarne Stroustrup (IPA: ) (born December 30, 1950 in Aarhus, Denmark) is a computer scientist and the College of Engineering Chair Professor of Computer Science at Texas A&M University. ... Bruce Ellis (nicknamed: Brucee) was a computer scientist at Bell Labs. ...


Design concepts

Plan 9's designers were interested in goals similar to those of microkernels, but made different architecture and design choices to achieve them. Plan 9's design goals included: Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ...

  • Resources as files: all resources are represented as files within a hierarchical file system
  • Namespaces: the application view of the network is a single, coherent namespace that appears as a hierarchical file system but may represent physically separated (locally or remotely) resources
  • Standard communication protocol: a standard protocol, called 9P, is used to access all resources, both local and remote

A resource, also referred to as system resource, is any physical or virtual system component of a computer system with limited availability. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... A namespace is a context in which a group of one or more identifiers might exist. ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ...

Filesystems, files, and names

Plan 9 extended the system beyond files to "names", that is, a unique path to any object whether it be a file, screen, user, or computer. All were handled using the existing Unix standards, but extended such that any object could be named and addressed (similar in concept to the more widely known URI system of the world wide web). In Unix, devices such as printers had been represented by names using software converters in /dev, but these addressed only devices attached by hardware, and did not address networked devices. Under Plan 9 printers were as virtualized as files, and both could be accessed over the network from any workstation. A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ...


Another Plan 9 innovation was the ability for users to have different names for the same "real world" objects. Each user could create a personalized environment by collecting various objects into their namespace. Unix has a similar concept in which users gain privileges by being copied from another user, but Plan 9 extends this to all objects. Users can easily spawn "clones" of themselves, modify them, and then remove them without affecting the resources from which they were created.


Union directories

Plan 9 also introduced the idea of union directories, directories that combine resources across different media or across a network, binding transparently to other directories. For example, another computer's /bin (applications) directory can be bound to one's own, and then this directory will hold both local and remote applications and the user can access both transparently. Unix links and filesystem mounts made the original directory disappear. Using the same system, under Plan 9 external devices and resources can be bound to /dev, making all devices network devices without additional code.


/proc

The /proc directory, in which all running processes are listed, illustrates how these features work together to produce a greater whole. This special Plan 9 "file system" has been adopted also to Linux and other later operating systems. Processes appear as named objects (sub-directories with info and control files) under /proc, along with other kernel resources, giving the user a dynamic I/O channel to send commands to them and read data from them. The user does not have to use a limited set and form of system calls to interact with the kernel from compiled programs; rather, he or she can use tools such as ls and cat to search, query and manipulate processes. Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... For other uses, see LS. ls is a command specified by POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification, and is thus implemented in Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Users can also mount /proc directories (and any other special file systems) from any other machines into their namespace as well, interacting with them as if they are local. The result is a distributed computing environment assembled from separate machines — terminals that sit on users' desks, file servers that store permanent data, and other servers that provide faster CPUs, user authentication, and network gateways, all using the existing hierarchical directory/name system familiar to most computer users. A user can "build" a system by collecting up directories on fileservers, applications running on servers, printers on the network and then bind them all together into their personal namespace running on a terminal. In telecommunications, the term gateway has the following meanings: In a communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses different protocols. ... In telecommunication, the term file server has the following meanings: A form of disk storage that hosts files within a network; file servers do not need to be high-end but must have enough disk space to incorporate a large amount of data. ...


/net

Plan 9 does not have system calls for multitude of communication protocols or device driver interfaces. For example /net is the API for all TCP/IP, and it can be used even with scripts or shell tools, writing data to control files to write and read connections. Relevant sub-directories like /net/tcp and /net/udp are used to interface to prospective protocols. You can implement a NAT by mounting a /net, which is the Plan 9 TCP/IP API, from a perimeter machine with a public IP, while connecting to it from an internal network of private IP addresses, using the Plan 9 protocol 9P in the internal network. Or you can implement a VPN by mounting a /net directory from a remote gateway, using secured 9P over the public Internet.


Here would be an example of using union (a stack) directories in /net: just like inheritance in OOP, you can take one (possibly remote) /special directory and bind another local special directory on top of that, adding some new control files and hiding others. The union directory now is like a child object instance of the original parent. The functionality of the original can be partially modified. Consider the /net file system. If you modify or hide its /net/udp sub-directory you may control or extend the UDP interface with local filter processes, still leaving the original /net/tcp running intact, perhaps in a remote machine. Note that name space is per process: if you give an untrusted application a limited, modified /net union directory, you restrict its access to the net. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming paradigm in which a software system is modeled as a set of objects that interact with each other. ...


All this makes it easy to combine "objects" or file systems written on different languages on different systems, while using standard naming, access control and security of the file system, largely transparently to the programmer.


Networking and distributed computing

Plan 9 is based on UNIX but was developed to demonstrate the concept of making communication the central function of the computing system. All system resources are named and accessed as if they were files and multiple views of the distributed system can be defined dynamically for each program running on a particular machine. This approach improves generality and modularity of application design by encouraging servers that hold any information to appear to users and to applications just like collections of ordinary files.


Key to supporting the network transparency of Plan 9 was a new low-level networking protocol known as 9P. The 9P protocol and its implementation connected named network objects and presented a file-like system interface. 9P is a fast byte-oriented (rather than block-oriented) distributed file system that can virtualize any object, not only those presented by an NFS server on a remote machine. The protocol is used to refer to and communicate with processes, programs, and data, including both the user interface and the network. With the release of the 4th edition, it was modified and renamed 9P2000. A communication is byte oriented or character oriented when the transmitted information is grouped into bytes. ... // For the Microsoft distributed file system (DFS), see Distributed File System (Microsoft). ...


Implementations

Text installation with rio
Text installation with rio

An installable runtime environment exists for x86, and Plan 9 has been ported to MIPS, Alpha, SPARC, PowerPC, ARM and other architectures. The system is written in a dialect of ISO/ANSI C. Several applications were originally written in a language called Alef, but have since been rewritten in the same C dialect. Plan 9 can import POSIX applications and can emulate the Berkeley socket interface through APE. Recently, a new application called linuxemu was developed that can be used to run Linux binaries; it is, however, still a work in progress. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 27 KB)The Rio window manager during a Plan 9 from Bell Labs installation. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 27 KB)The Rio window manager during a Plan 9 from Bell Labs installation. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... The Alef programming language was designed by Phil Winterbottom of Bell Labs as part of the Plan 9 operating system. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... The Berkeley socket interface is an API that allows communications between hosts or between processes on one computer, using the concept of a socket. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ...


Impact

Plan 9 demonstrated that a central concept of Unix — that every system interface could be represented as sets of files — could be implemented and made functional in a modern distributed system. Some ideas from Plan 9 have been implemented in other operating systems. Unix-like operating systems such as Linux have implemented some of Plan 9's file system, the UTF-8 character encoding, and limited forms of rfork-like system calls. Additionally, several of Plan 9's applications and tools, including the rc shell, have been ported to Unix and Linux systems and have achieved some level of popularity. Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... The rc shell is the command line interface for the Version 10 Unix and Plan 9 operating systems. ... Plan 9 from User Space (aka plan9port) is a port of many Plan 9 libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems. ...


However, Plan 9 itself has never surpassed Unix in popularity, and remains primarily a research tool. Plan 9 has been criticized as "seem[ing] to function mainly as a device for generating interesting papers on operating-systems research."[8] Eric S. Raymond in his book The Art of Unix Programming speculates on Plan 9's lack of acceptance: Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... The Art of Unix Programming is a book written by Eric Raymond about the history and culture of Unix programming from its earliest days to the current work on Linux. ...

"Plan 9 failed simply because it fell short of being a compelling enough improvement on Unix to displace its ancestor. Compared to Plan 9, Unix creaks and clanks and has obvious rust spots, but it gets the job done well enough to hold its position. There is a lesson here for ambitious system architects: the most dangerous enemy of a better solution is an existing codebase that is just good enough."[8]

Other critics of Plan 9 include those critical of Unix in general, where Plan 9 is considered the epitome of the "Worse is better" school of operating system design. Common criticisms include the relative lack of "polish" and development in Plan 9's windowing system[9] and Plan 9's relative lack of maturity as a commercial-grade body of software.[10] Worse is better, also called the New Jersey style, is the name of a computer software design approach (or design philosophy) in which simplicity of both interface and implementation is more important than any other system attribute (including correctness, consistency, and completeness). ... The Unix philosophy is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to developing software based on the experience of leading developers of the Unix operating system. ...


Plan 9 proponents and developers claim that the problems hindering its adoption have been solved, and its original goals as a distributed system, development environment, and research platform have been met, and that it enjoys moderate but growing popularity. Inferno, through its hosted capabilities, has been a vehicle to bring Plan 9 technologies to other systems as part of heterogeneous computing grids.[11][12][13][14] Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ...


License

The full source code is freely available under Lucent Public License 1.02, and considered to be open source by the OSI and free software by the FSF (although incompatible with the GNU General Public License). It passes the Debian Free Software Guidelines. The Lucent Public License is an open-source license created by Lucent Technologies. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ...


Related work

Inferno

Inferno is a derivative product, originally started by the same group that created Plan 9, and now developed by a British company, Vita Nuova. Inferno shares many of the same design concepts as Plan 9, but uses a new application programming language, Limbo, and an accompanying virtual machine, Dis. Inferno is marketed as an open source embedded operating system. Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... For Dantes poem see La Vita Nuova article. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems. ...


Plan 9 from User Space

"Plan 9 from User Space" (or plan9port or p9p) is a port of most of the notable Plan 9 libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems. Plan 9 from User Space (aka plan9port) is a port of many Plan 9 libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems. ...


References

  1. ^ Raymond, Eric. The Art of UNIX Programming. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  2. ^ Screenshot.
  3. ^ a b Plan 9 from Bell Labs. Lucent Technologies (2006). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  4. ^ Staying up to date. Plan 9 community (2006). Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  5. ^ Pike, Rob (2003). UTF-8 History. Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  6. ^ From the inventors of UNIX system comes Plan 9 from Bell Labs. Lucent Technologies (1995). Retrieved on April 2, 2006.
  7. ^ McIlroy, Doug (1995). Preface to the Second (1995) Edition. Lucent Technologies. Retrieved on April 2, 2006.
  8. ^ a b Raymond, Eric S.. Plan 9: The Way the Future Was. Retrieved on March 28, 2006.
  9. ^ Interview with Dennis Ritchie, response #25. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  10. ^ Interview with Dennis Ritchie, response #23. Retrieved on 2006-09-10.
  11. ^ 9grid (Plan 9 wiki). Plan 9 wiki (2006). Retrieved on March 28, 2006.
  12. ^ "Press Release: Vita Nuova Supplies Inferno Grid to Evotec OAI (PDF). Vita Nuova Holdings Limted (2004). Retrieved on March 28, 2006.
  13. ^ "Press Release: Rutgers University Libraries Install Inferno Data Grid" (PDF). Vita Nuova Holdings Limited (2004). Retrieved on March 28, 2006.
  14. ^ "Press Release: The University of York Department of Biology install Vita Nuova's Inferno Data Grid" (PDF). Vita Nuova Holdings Limited (2004). Retrieved on March 28, 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

Standard Plan 9 utilities

Further information: List of Plan 9 applications
  • rc - the Plan 9 shell
  • sam - a text editor
  • acme - a user interface for programmers
  • plumber - interprocess messaging
  • mk - a tool for building software, analogous to the traditional Unix make utility
  • acid - debugger
  • rio - the new Plan 9 windowing system
  • 8½ - the old Plan 9 windowing system [1]
  • Fossil and Venti - the new archival file system and permanent data store

The rc shell is the command line interface for the Version 10 Unix and Plan 9 operating systems. ... Sam is a multi-file text editor originally designed at Bell Labs by Rob Pike (with the help of Ken Thompson and other Unix developers) in the early 1980s for the DMD 5620 windowing terminal running Unix. ... A screenshot of Acme Acme is a text editor and shell from the Plan 9 operating system, designed and implemented by Rob Pike. ... The plumber, in the Plan 9 operating system, is a mechanism for interprocess communication, somewhat similar to copy and paste. ... Mk is the build tool replacing make in Version 10 Unix, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, and Inferno. ... rio is Plan 9s window system. ... Fossil is the default file system in Plan 9 from Bell Labs. ... Venti is a network storage system that permanently stores data blocks. ...

Implementation artifacts

  • 9P (or Styx) - a filesystem protocol
  • rendezvous - a basic synchronization mechanism
  • Brazil - what became the Fourth Edition of Plan 9

9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... Rendezvous is a synchronization mechanism in the Plan 9 operating system. ...

Influenced

  • Plan 9 from User Space - a port of many Plan 9 libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems
  • Inferno - distributed operating system following up Plan 9
  • Plan B - research operating system based on Plan 9
  • 9wm - an X window manager that clones the Plan 9 interface
  • wmii - an X window manager that uses a file system-like interface based on 9P
  • Filesystem in Userspace - free GPL Unix kernel module (Linux kernel >= 2.6.14) for Plan 9 like filesystem

Plan 9 from User Space (aka plan9port) is a port of many Plan 9 libraries and applications to Unix-like operating systems. ... Inferno is an operating system for creating and supporting distributed services. ... A window manager is computer software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface. ... The correct title of this article is . ... 9P, or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol, is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system (site). ... Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) is a Free (GPL and LGPLed) Unix kernel module that allows non-privileged users to create their own file systems without the need to write any kernel code. ...

External links

Bell Labs

Brian Kernighan¹ (born 1942) is a computer scientist who worked at the Bell Labs and contributed to the design of the pioneering AWK and AMPL programming languages. ... Wikifs is a wiki file system for the Plan 9 operating system. ...

Lectures

Jimbo Wales speaking at FOSDEM 2005 Since 2001, the Free and Open source Software Developers European Meeting (commonly known as FOSDEM) is an annual 2-day event hosting talks, tutorials, and stalls for the free software community. ...

Other


  Results from FactBites:
 
Plan 9 from Bell Labs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2253 words)
Plan 9 replaced Unix at Bell Labs as the organization's primary platform for research and explores several changes to the original Unix model that improve the experience of using and programming the system, notably in distributed multi-user environments.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs was developed by members of the Computing Science Research Center at Bell Labs, the same group that developed UNIX, C, and C++.
Plan 9 extended the system beyond files to "names", that is, a unique path to any object whether it be a file, screen, user, or computer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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